Search results

1 – 10 of 768
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Shaza Aldairany, Rosmini Omar and Farzana Quoquab

Conflict environments are under researchers’ scope in many disciplines at micro and macro levels. This paper aims to steer towards finding out how literature addresses…

Abstract

Purpose

Conflict environments are under researchers’ scope in many disciplines at micro and macro levels. This paper aims to steer towards finding out how literature addresses entrepreneurship in conflict contexts. In addition, this paper tries to ascertain the theoretical bases and main themes and issues that have been studied in this area, to map the current knowledge in a clear frame as an attempt to highlight gaps and weaknesses in relevant literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Review entrepreneurship, conflict and post-conflict literature including the terminologies, theories, methodologies are the main themes. The primary sources of data are research articles that were published in scholarly journals and written in English. The paper includes, in the final list of reviewed articles, 57 articles.

Findings

The review reveals three main themes of the special definition of entrepreneurship in conflict areas. Many gaps remain, despite the growing interests. More involvement in collecting data directly from the area under conflict is required instead of the heavy dependency on secondary data. In addition, destructive business and conflict consequences have promising research issues to be discovered more in single places or collectively for broader comprehensiveness. These findings may assist researchers, policymakers and international bodies to approach the current literature and build farther on it.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to provide a mapping of literature that focuses on how entrepreneurship in conflict and post-conflict could differ or be similar to stable contexts. The findings advance motivation for future empirical studies to encompass issues and development of entrepreneurship orientation, taxonomies and impacts in conflict and post-conflict contexts.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Besnik Krasniqi and David Branch

The quality of institutions matters for firm growth. Yet, there is a research gap in controlling for moderating effect of size on institutions and firm growth in…

Abstract

Purpose

The quality of institutions matters for firm growth. Yet, there is a research gap in controlling for moderating effect of size on institutions and firm growth in transitional context and especially in post-conflict economies. Building on institutional theory, this research aims to explore the influence of different types of institutional variables (taxes, corruption, administrative, finance and other barriers) on the growth of firms in Kosovo, while controlling for the firm size moderating effect.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses linear regression analysis based on a survey with 451 owner-managers of growing small firms in the post-conflict economy of Kosovo.

Findings

Corruption and administrative burden are crucial factors that influence firm growth. Corruption is found to have a negative effect, and when moderated by the size of the firm, it becomes positive, suggesting that larger firms make use of informal institutions and create links with public officials to manage institutional deficiencies. This size interaction with administrative barrier variables becomes positive. Other control variables (export status, separation of ownership and control, membership in business association) suggest that managerial-level variables have a positive impact on firm growth. The human capital variable specifically indicates that companies compensate for a deficiency in formal education by providing additional training for employees and their managers.

Research limitations/implications

Future research based on qualitative research can contribute to a greater understanding of how larger firms use resources to overcome barriers, and to align their business strategies in the weak post-conflict environments.

Originality/value

This research extends current understanding of how institutional variables interact with firm size and impact firm growth. It also provides implications for policymakers and entrepreneurs/managers for improving the growth of SMEs, and for aligning firms with the institutional environment in post-conflict countries.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 February 2021

Mohammad Nisar Khattak, Noor Muhammad and David Robinson

This study determines the relationship between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their support providers during three phases: pre-conflict environment, during…

Abstract

Purpose

This study determines the relationship between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their support providers during three phases: pre-conflict environment, during conflict environment, and the post-conflict (uncertain) environment with the reference to institutional theory in the northwest region of Pakistan where there is ongoing unrest between the authorities and the insurgents.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a qualitative approach, a total of 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted, 19 with the owner-managers of small manufacturing firms and 4 from small business support providers in the region.

Findings

The authors theorise the changing role of support agencies as differing institutional gaps, while conflict is destructive for SMEs and support agencies; paradoxically the crisis results in stronger relationships between the support providers and SMEs which was weaker in the pre-conflict environment. Such stronger relationship enhanced the cognitive pillar of institutional theory where entrepreneurship is supported by various groups including government agencies and SMEs to alleviate unemployment in the region which is one of the potential reasons of terrorism in the country.

Practical implications

The study may have value for policymakers who need to know more about how small businesses and support providers develop a support network in difficult regions and give a comprehensive framework to other conflictual regions who face similar circumstances.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the previous literature in several ways. First, the study reveals the impact of conflict environment on small businesses and support providers where a little research has been undertaken. Second, the study shows the support mechanism in three different intervals pre-conflict, during the conflict and post-conflict and how the Talibanization in the region has a positive impact by strengthening the support structure among small businesses and support providers. Finally, the study contributes to the growing body of literature on entrepreneurship in conflict environments.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2011

Peter Arthur

There have recently been concerted efforts by many post‐conflict African countries to formulate and implement policies and measures that will reconstruct and develop their…

Abstract

There have recently been concerted efforts by many post‐conflict African countries to formulate and implement policies and measures that will reconstruct and develop their societies. Much of the discussions of realizing post‐conflict reconstruction and development have generally focused on disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) of ex‐combatants. What is however, missing is a discussion on capacity development and capacity building initiatives to help in reconstruction in the period after DDR. This paper therefore examines the importance of capacity development in post‐conflict African environment. It notes that while demobilising and disarming warring factions is important, the success of reconstruction efforts in a post‐conflict environment depends largely on the ability to build and develop capacity and skills that are pertinent to helping reconstruct and promote the development goals of the countries. It is argued that post‐conflict societies should have a coherent and co‐ordinate approach to rebuilding, reconstructing and developing the capacity of the state in order to achieve the state’s legitimacy and effectiveness. Such capacity development measures should involve the development of physical infrastructure; the building of the state’s institutional structures; the promotion of good political and economic governance; skills and education training for individuals; and measures to improve and deliver security and social services.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 7 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Qais Amarkhil and Emad Elwakil

Although there are many challenges and constraints for construction organization operation and performance in a post-conflict condition, there is insufficient construction…

Abstract

Purpose

Although there are many challenges and constraints for construction organization operation and performance in a post-conflict condition, there is insufficient construction project management literature. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify a framework to understand and determine critical constraints and opportunities in a post-conflict condition facing local construction firms in Afghanistan. The proposed framework is composed of three major steps: identify and determine key performance indicators; identify challenges impacting organization operation and performance in post-conflict condition; determine critical constraints and opportunities based on prioritized performance measures; and organizational strength and weakness factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The strength, weakness, opportunities and threat matrix analysis has been used to determine post-conflict condition constraints and opportunities. Then the analytical hierarchy process has been used to prioritize the measures and identify the constraints and opportunities facing construction companies in a post-conflict situation. The mix-research method is applied to this study to analyse qualitative variables and quantitative variables obtained from the experts’ opinions and 51 filled questioners.

Findings

The study shows that there are a total of 11 critical constraints and three essential opportunities for construction companies that industry practitioners and policymakers should take into account while formulating the organizational strategy.

Practical implications

The developed framework will benefit construction companies in improving their performance and operation in after-conflict conditions.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to provide a comprehensive conceptualization of the challenges and constraints for construction organization operation and performance in a post-conflict condition. It also offers a novel conceptual framework to understand and determine critical constraints and opportunities in a post-conflict condition facing local construction firms in Afghanistan.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction , vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 September 2021

Yogarajah Nanthagopan and Nigel L. Williams

The aim of this study is to examine the configuration of project resources in organizations operating in a post-conflict country environment using a Resource-Based View…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to examine the configuration of project resources in organizations operating in a post-conflict country environment using a Resource-Based View (RBV) perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection was undertaken using a quantitative survey study of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) involved in development projects in Sri Lanka, which obtained 445 responses. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and subsequent Confirmatory Factor Analysis were performed to identify and confirm the Project Management (PM) resource profile composition of these organizations.

Findings

The study identified resource profiles incorporated items at the team, organizational and collaborative social resource levels and did not differ significantly by organization type. This suggests that the current focus of PM RBV research that implicitly uses a competitive advantage derived framework may need to be adapted for contexts such as post-conflict environments.

Research limitations/implications

For organizations seeking to deliver projects in developing countries, the findings indicate that relational capacity in the form of a collaborative social resource may be required to adapt team and organizational resources to post-conflict environments.

Practical implications

The lessons learnt from NGOs can be of value to other organisations seeking to operate in post-conflict environments. The findings from this research reveal that organizations in Sri Lanka establish resource profiles that meet domestic and external requirements. For the management of these organizations, recognition of the inherent contradictions of this strategy can enable the optimization of resource profiles, improving organizational efficiencies.

Originality/value

The study has used insights from NGOs involved in international and local development projects to extend current knowledge of PM resources. While NGOs are distinctive, the critical PM resources identified here may be of value to private and public organizations seeking to develop project resource profiles adapted to emerging markets.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 14 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

James Earnest

Rehabilitation and reconstruction of social and economic infrastructure in a post-conflict environment are complex, long-debated issues in development cooperation. In…

Abstract

Purpose

Rehabilitation and reconstruction of social and economic infrastructure in a post-conflict environment are complex, long-debated issues in development cooperation. In addition to war creating large-scale human suffering, generating refugees, displacing populations, engendering psychological distress, obliterating infrastructure and transforming the economy, in post-conflict situations, deepening chaos and disorder can be found at the highest social, economic and political levels; serious developmental challenges remain insufficiently addressed. Repairing war-damaged infrastructure in order to reactivate the local economy is a challenge for all post-conflict countries. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was designed to examine planning and execution of post-conflict reconstruction (PCR). The use of a mixed-method research approach combining both quantitative and qualitative data collection was used to explore planning and implementation of PCR infrastructure projects in Kosovo. The data collection in the field was undertaken for a period of eight weeks, from July to September 2008. A total of 420 respondents were involved in the study process, as follows: key informants (four), pilot test (12), semi-structured interviews (36), project manager/engineers survey (231), chief of mission/country director survey (117), and focus group (20). To meet the needs of the society and recognise the required functional components of project management, the overall contexts of managing projects in a post-conflict environment have been discussed in the study.

Findings

Planning and implementing reconstruction projects in areas affected by conflict have proven to be far more challenging than expected and responses by practitioners, aid agencies, and government regarded as inadequate. The changing political, economic, and social factors in Kosovo after the war in 1999 have had a significant influence on the limited adoption of a project management methodology in development and reconstruction projects. The findings from the exploratory study were aimed at improving understanding of the planning, pre-designing, and implementation of infrastructure projects. The findings indicated a need to promote a better understanding of how projects are undertaken at all levels of the organisation, and to describe processes, procedures, and tools used for the actual application of projects. The findings of the study identified a poor quality of planning and implementation of reconstruction projects in an environment of complexity, change, and uncertainty. The study also raised some very significant findings for a broader approach to community involvement in project identification, planning, and implementation. Infrastructure projects implemented in Kosovo were used to develop a conceptual framework for designing projects and programmes more likely to yield positive outcomes for post-conflict society.

Originality/value

The study was done by the researcher in Kosovo.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2018

Ugochukwu K. Elinwa and Nothando Moyo

Conflicts are a form of man-made disaster changing the economy of nations, influencing energy concerns, food, shelter and demographic distributions. The breakdown of…

Abstract

Conflicts are a form of man-made disaster changing the economy of nations, influencing energy concerns, food, shelter and demographic distributions. The breakdown of global systems has become a huge concern that needs working mechanisms to develop resilient cities. The working mechanisms vary from one country to another, thus making the process a complex reality. Resilience is a word that was derived from the Latin word “resalire” which means “to spring back”. In this work, the housing environment was considered as a system constituting of several subsystems (Social, Environmental, Political, Economic subsystems). It argues that for resilience to occur within the post-conflict housing environment there is a need for an inclusive evaluation of users' preferences and expectations. With a focus on the social subsystem, it tried to determine the level of significance of gender, age, income and level of exposure on the perceived social character of a post-conflict housing environment and the satisfaction derived thereof. The study showed the importance of inclusivity as it influences perception and satisfaction. Using regression analysis, the study revealed that Perception and satisfaction within a post-conflict housing environment were influenced by age (73%), gender (74%), income and level of exposure (54%).

Details

Open House International, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Grant Shirley, Emma Wylie and Wardlow Friesen

There are a large number of destinations in which post-conflict tourism (PCT) might be a relevant development option. This chapter considers four destinations which have…

Abstract

There are a large number of destinations in which post-conflict tourism (PCT) might be a relevant development option. This chapter considers four destinations which have opted to use the PCT brand as part of their strategies to attract tourists. These destinations – Cambodia, Nicaragua, Rwanda and Bougainville (within the country of Papua New Guinea) – are on four different continents, had conflicts which ended in the last decade of the twentieth century and represent tourism industries at different stages of development. They were also chosen because they are at low or medium levels of development and have relatively small populations of less than 20 million people. The chapter considers the different ways in which PCT is or might be used not only to provide economic opportunities for local residents, but also as a means towards reconciliation, healing and recovery after conflicts which have resulted in many casualties and divided the people against each other. Each of the case study destinations have attempted to turn a negative aspect of their histories into an opportunity for development, with differing levels of success.

Details

The Tourism–Disaster–Conflict Nexus
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-100-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 March 2009

Michael L. Best and Dhanaraj Thakur

The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the telecommunications policy process in immediate post‐conflict countries and how that process differs from

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the telecommunications policy process in immediate post‐conflict countries and how that process differs from traditional settings.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors consider the case of Liberia, a country that recently emerged from a protracted civil war. The authors focus on the Liberian Telecommunications Act of 2007 and the processes through which this act came about by applying a modified research framework. This framework identifies several factors in the literature that are posited to influence the policymaking process in developing countries. The authors also include other factors based on previous studies in post‐conflict countries. The aim is to test the usefulness of this framework using the 2007 act. The authors apply it through the use of interviews with key actors in the government, industry, and international agencies. This was supplemented by secondary data from published reports and other sources.

Findings

From the framework the authors identify the main factors influencing the telecoms policy making process in Liberia such as a weak and nascent institutional environment, intra‐governmental competition, limited human and technical resources, the supportive (especially initially) role of the international actors such as the World Bank, and the dominance of elite groups in decision‐making. The authors then make suggestions on overcoming some of existing challenges to the sector.

Originality/value

This paper looks at the intersection of research in telecommunications policy, policy processes and post‐conflict countries, an area in which there is currently very little work. The results indicate that several dimensions of the framework are germane to the post‐conflict case and that some of these observations are also relevant to the future development of telecommunications in these countries.

Details

info, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

Keywords

1 – 10 of 768