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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1992

Maris G. Martinsons and Krisjanis Valdemars

After the rapid and dramatic demise of the Soviet Union in 1991, 15newly autonomous republics are restructuring their economies afterdecades of central Communist planning…

Abstract

After the rapid and dramatic demise of the Soviet Union in 1991, 15 newly autonomous republics are restructuring their economies after decades of central Communist planning. The three Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia had successful market‐oriented economies during more than two decades of independence between World Wars I and II and were comparatively strong performers within the USSR after being occupied in 1940. A case study of Latvia looks at the historic factors and political issues which are shaping the current reform process. A contrast of state‐run, collective and private enterprises is used to illustrate the rapid changes which now place Latvia at the forefront among post‐Soviet reformers. This analysis of the early progress and problems forms a foundation for considering the reform prospects across the former Soviet Union and leads to a suggestion that the results in Latvia will play a bell‐wether role.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Krzysztof Kozłowski

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the perspectives of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) Belt and Road strategy. The challenge in terms of studying the New Silk…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the perspectives of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) Belt and Road strategy. The challenge in terms of studying the New Silk Road concept comes from the fact of dramatic difference between the declared ambitions of the Chinese state and the elusive character of concrete Chinese involvement, in particular as far as the digital dimension of the strategy is concerned.

Design/methodology/approach

The goal will be achieved by comparing the Chinese expansion in the Post-Soviet Central Asia with nowadays declarations concerning the digital version of the New Silk Road. For China, the Post-Soviet Central Asia was the first frontier approached on the basis of genuinely own integration strategy: the New Silk Road Diplomacy, which later evolved into the New Silk Road concept. An overview of Chinese activity in the region tells a lot about its grand strategy of today.

Findings

To paraphrase T.S. Kuhn, what one sees depends on not only what one is looking at but also what one has learned to notice. The Post-Soviet Central Asia shows the way Beijing thinks about integration. PRC achieved the most by basing on the free rider effect: concentrating on economic expansion, while other Powers provided relative regional security and stability.

Originality/value

The comparison of the beginnings of the New Silk Diplomacy in the 1990s with the plans of the New Digital Road gives a unique angle to grasp the specific features of the Chinese approach to international integration.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1995

Maris G. Martinsons

As western businesses and governments participate in the overhaulof the former Soviet Union, the Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia andLithuania can play a potentially…

Abstract

As western businesses and governments participate in the overhaul of the former Soviet Union, the Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania can play a potentially important role in bridging economic and cultural differences. An analogy is drawn to Hong Kong, which has achieved remarkable success by leveraging a favourable location, good infrastructure and industrious human resources to forge a mutually beneficial relationship with its huge neighbour (and future sovereign), the People′s Republic of China. The Asian territory is proposed as a role model for the future development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. As market‐oriented democracies, the three small Baltic republics will provide a gateway into Russia and serve as bell‐wethers for larger scale transformation across the former Soviet Union.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 10 July 2019

Krzysztof Kozłowski

The New Silk Road Diplomacy in the Nineties, the Belt and Road Initiative today, and the Digital Silk Road of the future signal growing Chinese ambitions in international…

Abstract

The New Silk Road Diplomacy in the Nineties, the Belt and Road Initiative today, and the Digital Silk Road of the future signal growing Chinese ambitions in international relations. The bold plans and visions may turn into fundaments of future Chinese domination in World affairs. However, the ways they are to be achieved indicate, that the Chinese policy-making did not adapt yet to new reality of being a leader rather than a free-rider taking advantage of other Powers’ international involvement. The goal of the chapter is to point to the limitations of PRC ambitions. Qualitatively new international reality requires qualitatively new approaches. China, if it does not realize that, despite being one of the biggest surprises in terms of dynamics of development in twentieth century, may become one of the biggest disappointments in twenty-first century. The World seems to accept the fact of growing PRC role in international dimensions. The question is, is China ready for this change not only in words but also in practice.

Details

The New Silk Road Leads through the Arab Peninsula: Mastering Global Business and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-680-4

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Agipa Monobayeva and Cosmo Howard

Since the collapse of the USSR, former Soviet republics have embarked on public service modernization, in most instances drawing on internationally dominant new public…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the collapse of the USSR, former Soviet republics have embarked on public service modernization, in most instances drawing on internationally dominant new public management (NPM) principles. Are post-Soviet republics ready for these administrative prescriptions? The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses Kazakhstan’s experience with the implementation of NPM through a qualitative case study of the country’s adoption of the European Bologna higher education reforms.

Findings

While implementation of the NPM-inspired Bologna program has produced significant achievements, there are also gaps and shortcomings. These are due to a remnant Soviet administrative practices including strong control by educational ministries, as well as incompatible organizational cultures and a tendency toward superficial formalism in the implementation process.

Research limitations/implications

NPM tends to be introduced in a top-down fashion as a taken-for-granted component of state transformation, without sufficient attention to the capacities, cultures and systems required for effective and accountable performance-driven administrative reform.

Originality/value

Kazakhstan’s experience provides crucial insights into the governance structures, professional cultures and managerial capacities required for successful implementation of NPM in post-Soviet states.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Iryna Andras

The aim of the study is to determine the key development stages of small entrepreneurship in Belarus depending on the impact of reformative activity of authorities on…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study is to determine the key development stages of small entrepreneurship in Belarus depending on the impact of reformative activity of authorities on socio-innovative activity of entrepreneurs. Also we seek to determine the projective behavioral strategies of entrepreneurs in the context of contradictory socio-economic processes in Belarus.

Design/methodology/approach

Historico-sociological approach to the development of small entrepreneurship in Belarus is based on the analysis of books, articles, official documents and official statistics available mostly in the Russian and Belarusian languages. Expert survey is used as the most effective method of survey to predict further development of small entrepreneurship. Within the framework of the activity-structure concept, (T. Zaslavskaya) combination of both approaches allows presenting quantitative and qualitative changes in business structures in order to coordinate socio-economic progress.

Findings

In Belarusian transition economy the reformative activity of the authorities is absolutely dependent on politico-administrative influence. That is why the behavioral strategies of entrepreneurs are formed as reaction-adaptive behavior under mounting pressure of state policy.

Research limitations/implications

The results are primarily applicable for post-Soviet republics and countries with transition economy.

Practical implications

This paper implies that in post-Soviet economies like Belarus socio-economic integration of entrepreneurs is overly dependent on politico-administrative activity of the authorities.

Originality/value

This study includes two approaches: historico-sociological and expert survey as a forecasting method. This sociological approach gives the opportunity to characterise the continuity in behavioral strategies of entrepreneurs.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Richard Common

The overall purpose of this paper is to explore the limits of HRM in public sector organisations, within the context of international public management. The cultural basis…

Abstract

Purpose

The overall purpose of this paper is to explore the limits of HRM in public sector organisations, within the context of international public management. The cultural basis of HRM, derived chiefly from North America and Western Europe continues to underpin public sector HR reforms, aided and abetted by the international institutions. The paper seeks to begin with an overview of the impact of wider public sector reform on HR practice by briefly exploring the limitations of orthodox HRM in a public service setting. However, the main argument of the paper aims to follow the conceptual position that an understanding of the institutional and cultural contexts is required before attempting HRM‐type reforms.

Design/methodology/approach

The author visited the Republic of Georgia in 2008 to work with the Public Service Commission on HRM reforms in central government. Thus, the paper presents the illustrative case of Georgia, which is both a transitional state and susceptible to Western ideas regarding public service reform. The case of Georgia is derived from observation, documentary analysis and correspondence from the Georgian Civil Service.

Findings

The paper found that, despite the acceptability of HRM and the desire by public officials to promote HRM‐based reforms, deep politicisation of the administrative system provided considerable implementation problems.

Research limitations/implications

These took the form of lack of academic literature on Georgia, lack of resources to conduct further in‐depth interviews with key officials and difficulty of applying HR to the public sector in post‐Communist/transitory countries

Practical implications

The findings suggest that alternative approaches to HRM reform will be required in similar institutional contexts to that of the Republic of Georgia.

Originality/value

The paper challenges the popular notion of international convergence around “universally applicable” models of HRM in countries such as the Republic of Georgia, where the post‐Soviet legacy provides significant resistance to any reform momentum, HRM‐based or otherwise.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2020

Brian Lanahan

Higher education in the Republic of Georgia has experienced a massive isomorphic transformation since the Rose Revolution of 2003 and continues to transform with…

Abstract

Purpose

Higher education in the Republic of Georgia has experienced a massive isomorphic transformation since the Rose Revolution of 2003 and continues to transform with aspirations toward Euro-Atlantic integration, compliance with the Bologna Process and as a reflection of the Europeanization of its higher education sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This literature review documents and analyzes literature published between 1991 and 2019 on the development of higher education in the Republic of Georgia from 2003 to 2019.

Findings

The findings reflect the evolving political landscape and aspiration for Euro-Atlantic integration against the backdrop of one of the most impoverished education systems in the world, as measured by percentage of gross domestic product spending. More explicitly, what findings have been reported in the international literature on Georgian higher education from 2003 to 2019?

Research limitations/implications

The choice to review only English publications was deliberate and done after consultation with a leading Georgian scholar, who noted that the Georgian language publishing market is small and of varied quality; leading Georgian scholars most often seek to publish in English journals and books, and all technical and policy reports produced by the Minister of Education, NGOs and large international organizations (e.g. World Bank) are available in English.

Originality/value

This literature review documents and analyzes literature on the development of higher education in the Republic of Georgia from 2003 to 2019 as a reflection of the evolving political landscape and aspiration for Euro-Atlantic integration against the backdrop of one of the most impoverished education systems in the world, as measured by percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spending. This unique political and economic history makes higher education in Georgia worthy of review.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

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Book part
Publication date: 4 March 2015

Jakhongir Kakhkharov and Alexandr Akimov

Remittances in the former Soviet Union have increased rapidly over the past decade. In some countries of the former Soviet Union, remittances have reached staggering…

Abstract

Remittances in the former Soviet Union have increased rapidly over the past decade. In some countries of the former Soviet Union, remittances have reached staggering levels. For example, in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan remittances now account for over 10% of GDP, with Tajikistan leading the pack with annual remittances of approximately 40% of GDP. Remittances in this group of economies now exceed foreign direct investment and foreign assistance. Because this rapid rise in remittances is a relatively recent trend and obtaining reliable data is difficult, this area of research has been underexplored.

The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of existing remittance measurement methodologies. Moreover, we propose practical methods to adjust the Central Bank of Russia data to derive more accurate remittances estimates in selected countries of the former Soviet Union. These selected economies are major recipients of remittances among transition economies and account for as much as 10% of remittances worldwide. There have been attempts to provide this type of estimation in individual countries; however, there have been no studies, to our knowledge, that propose a general methodology for the region.

Details

Neo-Transitional Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-681-2

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2012

Vladimir Rukavishnikov

Purpose – The chapter deals with the lessons of conflict-resolutions and considers certain basic and widely debatable issues such as: international law's changes, a clash…

Abstract

Purpose – The chapter deals with the lessons of conflict-resolutions and considers certain basic and widely debatable issues such as: international law's changes, a clash of national interests and the impact of the global media on the world public opinion in the case of armed interventions, and so on, with a focus on Russia's perception of main international conflicts.

Methodology/approach – The discussion about the Russian perception of prolonged, frozen, and new conflicts is illustrated by several case-studies: the conflict around the Serbian province of Kosovo, the Georgia-Russia war of 2008, and the 2010 upheaval in Kyrgyzstan. The analysis is qualitative.

Findings – The results highlight the Russian perception of the conflicts under consideration and point to the necessity for the work that needs to be done in the field of international law to get hold of the issue of possibly intervening in prolonged, frozen, and new conflicts.

Research limitations/implications – Implications for researchers include the need for a broader inspection of how the global media shape opinions. Next, practitioners may find the analysis of the Russian case relevant for their work.

Originality/value of paper – A case study with broader implications.

Details

New Wars, New Militaries, New Soldiers: Conflicts, the Armed Forces and the Soldierly Subject
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-638-6

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