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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Muhammad Jufri Marzuki and Graeme Newell

US commercial property is an important investment opportunity for institutional investors. The purpose of this paper is to assess the significance, risk-adjusted…

Abstract

Purpose

US commercial property is an important investment opportunity for institutional investors. The purpose of this paper is to assess the significance, risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of US commercial property (both direct property and REITs) in a mixed-asset portfolio over 1994-2016. The 2009-2016 post-GFC recovery of US commercial property is specifically highlighted.

Design/methodology/approach

Using quarterly total returns, the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of US commercial property over 1994-2016 are assessed. Efficient frontier and asset allocation diagrams are used to assess the role of US commercial property in a mixed-asset portfolio. Sub-period analysis over 2009-2016 is used to assess the post-GFC recovery of US commercial property.

Findings

US commercial property delivered mixed results over 1994-2016; direct property gave the best risk-adjusted performance, while US-REITs performance was hampered by high volatility. Since the GFC, both forms of US commercial property have delivered stronger risk-adjusted returns with improved diversification benefits, especially in the context of an inter-property investment strategy. However, US-REITs did not improve their diversification benefits with the stock market over this period. This sees US commercial property as an important component in the US mixed-asset portfolio in the post-GFC environment, with a much stronger role exhibited by US direct property in the post-GFC mixed-asset portfolio.

Practical implications

US commercial property emerged from the GFC as a stronger and more robust property investment opportunity, with both the direct property and US-REITs fully recovered to their pre-GFC performance level in 2012. The results highlight the major role of US commercial property in a US mixed-asset portfolio in the post-GFC context. The superior risk-adjusted performance of US commercial property sees both direct and listed US commercial property contributing significantly to the mixed-asset portfolio throughout the entire risk-return spectrum, particularly direct property. Given the increased capital flows into the US property market since the GFC, this is particularly important as many investors, both local and international, use direct and listed property investment opportunities as conduits for their significant US commercial property exposure.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research analysis that specifically assessed the post-GFC performance and role of US commercial property in a mixed-asset portfolio. This research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical property investment decision making by institutional investors regarding the strategic role of US commercial property in a mixed-asset portfolio in a post-GFC context.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Graeme Newell, Anh Khoi Pham and Joseph Ooi

REITs have taken on increased significance in Asia in recent years, with Singapore REITs (S-REITs) becoming an important property investment vehicle since 2002. The…

Abstract

Purpose

REITs have taken on increased significance in Asia in recent years, with Singapore REITs (S-REITs) becoming an important property investment vehicle since 2002. The purpose of this paper is to assess the significance, risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of S-REITs in a mixed-asset portfolio context in Singapore over 2003-2013. The post-GFC recovery of S-REITs is also assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using monthly total returns, the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of S-REITs over 2003-2013 is assessed, with efficient frontiers and asset allocation diagrams used to assess the role of S-REITs in a mixed-asset portfolio. Sub-period analyses are conducted to assess the post-GFC recovery of S-REITs.

Findings

S-REITs delivered strong risk-adjusted returns, being the best-performed asset class, but with little portfolio diversification benefit over 2003-2013. Whilst taking on reduced risk, but with less portfolio diversification benefits in recent years, S-REITs are seen to be robust relative to the other major Singapore asset classes; contributing significantly across the risk spectrum; particularly in the post-GFC period, where S-REITs have been the best-performed asset class in Singapore.

Practical implications

The results highlight the important strategic role of S-REITs in a Singapore mixed-asset portfolio. The strong risk-adjusted performance has highlighted the robustness of S-REITs, with S-REITs contributing to the mixed-asset portfolio across the portfolio risk spectrum; particularly in the post-GFC period. This robustness highlights the ongoing strategic role of S-REITs in a Singapore mixed-asset portfolio, as well as the ongoing development of S-REITs as an important pan-Asia hub for REITs.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research analysis of the risk-adjusted performance of S-REITs and the role of S-REITs in a portfolio. Given the increased significance of REITs in Asia, this research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical property investment decision-making regarding the role of S-REITs in a mixed-asset portfolio and S-REIT performance in a post-GFC context.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2021

Apriani Dorkas Rambu Atahau and Tom Cronje

The Indonesian banks play crucial roles in the economy, especially because of less developed bond and stock markets. It has undergone drastic changes in bank-ownership…

Abstract

Purpose

The Indonesian banks play crucial roles in the economy, especially because of less developed bond and stock markets. It has undergone drastic changes in bank-ownership composition over time. This paper aims to analyze the impact of bank-specific characteristics on the performance of different bank-ownership types in Indonesia to determine whether their profitability drivers differ.

Design/methodology/approach

Fixed-effect panel data regression is applied to 1,649 bank-year observations (97 banks throughout 2003–2019). It encompasses the pre- and post-global financial crisis (GFC) period.

Findings

The findings show that age, liquidity, equity and credit risk are significant determinants of bank performance. The significance of these effects differs for each bank-ownership type and show changes between the pre-GFC and post-GFC periods.

Research limitations/implications

Notwithstanding the merit of this paper, the results are not without limitations. This paper only focuses on one country. Furthermore, the prominence of banks relative to bond and stock markets with consideration of the GDP of countries may result in different findings

Practical implications

These findings provide the owners and managers of banks with information that can be applied to compare and assess own bank drivers and performance to enhance their own efficiency. The findings also inform bank authorities and regulators about differences in performance drivers that could be considered in changes to policies aimed at improving the performance of different bank-ownership types.

Originality/value

This paper is a pioneer study that focuses on the drivers of bank performance for different ownership types during the pre- and post-GFC periods in a country where the financial market is overall small and bank credits dominate capital supply.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2013

Graeme Newell, Alastair Adair and Thi Kim Nguyen

REITs have taken on increased significance in Europe in recent years, with French REITs (Societe d'Investissement Immobilier Cotee (SIICs)) becoming an important property…

Abstract

Purpose

REITs have taken on increased significance in Europe in recent years, with French REITs (Societe d'Investissement Immobilier Cotee (SIICs)) becoming an important property investment vehicle since 2003. The purpose of this paper is to assess the significance, risk‐adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of SIICs in a mixed‐asset portfolio context in France over 2003‐2012. The impact of the global financial crisis (GFC) on SIICs and their post‐GFC recovery are also assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using monthly total returns, the risk‐adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of SIICs over 2003‐2012 are assessed, with efficient frontiers and asset allocation diagrams used to assess the role of SIICs in a mixed‐asset portfolio. Sub‐period analyses are conducted to assess the impact of the GFC on SIIC performance, as well as their post‐GFC recovery.

Findings

SIICs delivered superior risk‐adjusted returns compared to stocks over 2003‐2012, but with limited portfolio diversification benefits with stocks and more portfolio diversification benefits with bonds. In the post‐GFC period, SIICs have delivered enhanced risk‐adjusted returns, but with no recovery in their portfolio diversification benefits with stocks. SIICs are seen to contribute significantly to the mixed‐asset portfolio across the risk spectrum in the post‐GFC period.

Practical implications

SIICs are a significant REIT market at the French, European and global REIT levels. The results highlight the role of SIICs in a French mixed‐asset portfolio. The strong risk‐adjusted performance has highlighted the robustness of SIICs; particularly compared to French stocks, and the contribution of SIICs in a French mixed‐asset portfolio across the portfolio risk spectrum. This contribution by SIICs has been further reinforced in the post‐GFC period.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research analysis of the risk‐adjusted performance of SIICs and the role of SIICs in a mixed‐asset portfolio. Given the increased significance of REITs in Europe, this research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical property investment decision‐making regarding the role of SIICs in a mixed‐asset portfolio; particularly in the post‐GFC period.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Graeme Newell and Muhammad Jufri Bin Marzuki

The Alternative Investment Market (AIM) is an important UK growth-focused stock market. The purpose of this paper is to assess the significance, risk-adjusted performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The Alternative Investment Market (AIM) is an important UK growth-focused stock market. The purpose of this paper is to assess the significance, risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of property companies on the AIM stock market over 2005-2015. The post-Global Financial Crisis (GFC) recovery of property companies on AIM is highlighted, as well as their performance compared with property companies on the London Stock Exchange (LSE) main board.

Design/methodology/approach

Using monthly total returns, the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of property companies on the AIM stock market over 2005-2015 are assessed and compared with a range of other asset classes. Sub-period analysis is used to assess the post-GFC recovery of the property companies on AIM.

Findings

Property companies on AIM delivered poor risk-adjusted returns over 2005-2015, with limited portfolio diversification benefits with the overall AIM stock market. However, since the GFC, property companies on AIM have delivered strong risk-adjusted returns, with improved portfolio diversification benefits with the overall AIM stock market. This post-GFC performance is shown to be more than a small cap effect, reflecting the property portfolios in these AIM property companies. Despite this strong post-GFC performance, the AIM property companies under-performed property companies on the LSE main board on a risk-adjusted basis.

Practical implications

AIM provides an important platform for property companies seeking start-up and growth opportunities in a less-regulated funding environment. This has been reinforced by strong risk-adjusted performance in a post-GFC context. However, the stronger risk-adjusted performance of LSE listed property companies and their superior scale, resources and higher quality property portfolios present challenges for increased investor support for the AIM property companies going forward.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research analysis of the risk-adjusted performance and diversification benefits of property companies on the AIM stock market. This research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical property investment decision-making regarding the strategic role of property companies on the AIM stock market in a portfolio.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Muhammad Jufri Marzuki and Graeme Newell

Communication infrastructure assets present a compelling investment opportunity for investors interested to tap into the technology-driven and innovation-led…

Abstract

Purpose

Communication infrastructure assets present a compelling investment opportunity for investors interested to tap into the technology-driven and innovation-led infrastructure segments, given the need for intensified capital deployment to prepare for the future substantial flow in volume and velocity of information. These communication infrastructure assets exist either in the segments of satellite or telecommunication infrastructure. This paper intends to empirically assess the performance attributes of listed satellite and telecommunication infrastructure over January 2000–June 2019. Sub-period performance dynamics of listed satellite and telecommunication infrastructure in the pre-GFC (January 2000–June 2007) and the post-GFC (July 2009–June 2019) investment horizons are provided.

Design/methodology/approach

Nineteen-year monthly total returns over 2000–2019 were used to analyse the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification potential of both listed satellite and telecommunication infrastructure. The mean-variance portfolio optimisation framework using the full period and post-GFC ex-post returns, risk and correlation coefficient of listed satellite and telecommunication infrastructure and other financial assets was developed to determine the added-value benefits of listed satellite and telecommunication infrastructure in an optimised investment framework.

Findings

Listed satellite and telecommunication infrastructure delivered mixed investment performance. They were highly volatile and there was a significant discount in total return performance against the other asset classes in the full and pre-GFC periods. However, listed telecommunication infrastructure delivered stronger performance in the post-GFC period across all performance measures. Listed satellite and telecommunication infrastructure offered strong diversification benefits for investors across all investment horizons. Further, the inclusion of listed telecommunication infrastructure in both the full period and post-GFC mixed-asset investment framework was also empirically justified.

Practical implications

Communication infrastructure assets such as satellite and telecommunication infrastructure are the key infrastructure assets to ensure the seamless operation of and interaction with modern technology going forward. Whilst being a small proportion of the overall infrastructure asset class universe, the $2.1 trillion progressively expanding listed communication infrastructure sector is having an important role to stimulate investor capital deployments in high quality and future-proof communication infrastructure assets. Listed satellite and telecommunication infrastructure assets are an opportunistic investment given their future growth potential and are seen as a suitable fit for investors with a secular investment profile.

Originality/value

Despite the infrastructure asset class being the focus of growing attention and empirical analysis, no previous studies have empirically investigated the listed satellite and telecommunication infrastructure sectors. This is the first published empirical research analysis that aims at articulating the investment attributes of listed satellite and telecommunication infrastructure as a route for exposure in technology-related infrastructure assets. This research validates and informs practical property investment decision-making for investors seeking exposure in the increasingly important communication infrastructure assets sector.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Irina Alexeyeva and Tobias Svanström

The paper aims to investigate audit and non-audit fees during the global financial crisis (GFC) in an environment that is relatively sparsely regulated with regard to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate audit and non-audit fees during the global financial crisis (GFC) in an environment that is relatively sparsely regulated with regard to the provision of non-audit services.

Design/methodology/approach

Audit and non-audit fees were studied during pre-GFC (2006-2007), GFC (2008-2009) and post-GFC (2010-2011) periods.

Findings

During the GFC, Swedish companies benefited from an increase in sales and total assets, although return on assets decreased. In this setting, the auditors charged higher audit fees compared with the pre-GFC period, despite the absence of increased audit reporting lags. A significant increase in audit fees continued during the post-crisis periods with auditors paying more attention to companies’ leverage and whether they report losses. At the same time, the companies spent less on non-audit services.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to companies from Sweden, which was less affected by the GFC.

Practical implications

GFC auditors are able to charge higher audit fees to public companies including those that are well-performing during financial crises, and they are also able to increase the audit fees in the post-crisis period. This implies that auditors put in extra audit effort to compensate for higher risk, or that they are good at negotiating prices with their clients. However, non-audit fees decreased during the same period, implying that the demand for these services drops under financial instability.

Originality/value

The study highlights auditors’ behavior in the liberal economic environment and it studies both audit fees and non-audit fees before GFC, during GFC and after the GFC. The GFC appears to have provided audit firms the opportunity to extract higher audit fees. Our findings are of interest to managers, auditors and regulators.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 30 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Graeme Newell and Muhammad Jufri Bin Marzuki

UK-Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) are an important property investment vehicle, being the fourth largest REIT market globally. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

UK-Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) are an important property investment vehicle, being the fourth largest REIT market globally. The purpose of this paper is to assess the significance, risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of UK-REITs in a mixed-asset portfolio over 2007−2014. The post-global financial crisis (GFC) recovery of UK-REITs is highlighted.

Design/methodology/approach

Using total monthly returns, the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of UK-REITs over 2007–2014 are assessed. Efficient frontier and asset allocation diagrams are used to assess the role of UK-REITs in a mixed-asset portfolio. Sub-period analysis is used to assess the post-GFC recovery of UK-REITs.

Findings

UK-REITs delivered poor risk-adjusted returns compared to UK stocks over 2007–2014 with limited portfolio diversification benefits. However, since the GFC, UK-REITs have delivered strong risk-adjusted returns, but with continued limited portfolio diversification benefits with UK stocks. Importantly, this sees UK-REITs as strongly contributing to the UK mixed-asset portfolio across the portfolio risk spectrum in the post-GFC environment.

Practical implications

UK-REITs are a significant market at a European and global REIT level. The results highlight the major role of UK-REITs in a UK mixed-asset portfolio in the post-GFC context. The strong risk-adjusted performance of UK-REITs compared to UK stocks sees UK-REITs contributing to the mixed-asset portfolio across the portfolio risk spectrum. This is particularly important, as many investors (e.g. small pension funds, defined contribution [DC] funds) use UK-REITs to obtain their property exposure in a liquid format, as well as the increased importance of blended property portfolios of listed property and direct property.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research analysis of the risk-adjusted performance of UK-REITs and the role of UK-REITs in a mixed-asset portfolio. This research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical property investment decision-making regarding the strategic role of UK-REITs in a portfolio.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Graeme Newell and Muhammad Jufri Marzuki

German real estate investment trusts (REITs) are a small but important property investment vehicle in the European REIT landscape, offering German commercial property…

Abstract

Purpose

German real estate investment trusts (REITs) are a small but important property investment vehicle in the European REIT landscape, offering German commercial property investment exposure in a liquid format, compared to the more property development-focused German listed property companies and the popular German open-ended property funds. The purpose of this paper is to assess the emergence of the German REIT market and the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of German REITs in a mixed-asset portfolio over 2007-2015. The post-global financial crisis (GFC) recovery of German REITs is highlighted. Enabling strategies for the ongoing development of the German REIT market are also identified.

Design/methodology/approach

Using monthly total returns, the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of German REITs over 2007-2015 are assessed. Efficient frontier and asset allocation diagrams are used to assess the role of German REITs (and German property companies) in a mixed-asset portfolio. Sub-period analysis is used to assess the post-GFC recovery of German REITs.

Findings

German REITs delivered lesser risk-adjusted returns compared to German stocks over 2007-2015, with limited portfolio diversification benefits. However, since the GFC, German REITs have delivered strong risk-adjusted returns, but with continued limited portfolio diversification benefits with German stocks. German REITs also out-performed German property companies. Importantly, this sees German REITs as strongly contributing to the German mixed-asset portfolio across the portfolio risk spectrum in the post-GFC environment.

Practical implications

German REITs are a small but important market at a local, European and global REIT level. The results highlight the major role of German REITs in a German mixed-asset portfolio in the post-GFC context. The strong risk-adjusted performance of German REITs compared to German stocks sees German REITs contributing to the mixed-asset portfolio across the portfolio risk spectrum. This is particularly important, as many investors (e.g. small pension funds) use German REITs (and German listed property companies) to obtain their German property exposure in a liquid format, as well as the increased importance of blended property portfolios of listed property and direct property.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research analysis of the risk-adjusted performance of German REITs, and the role of German REITs as a listed property vehicle in a mixed-asset portfolio. This research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical property investment decision making regarding the strategic role of German REITs in a portfolio.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Peterson Owusu Junior, George Tweneboah, Kola Ijasan and Nagaratnam Jeyasreedharan

This paper aims to contribute to knowledge by investigating the return behaviour of seven global real estate investment trusts (REITs) with respect to the appropriate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to knowledge by investigating the return behaviour of seven global real estate investment trusts (REITs) with respect to the appropriate distributional fit that captures tail and shape characteristics. The study adds to the knowledge of distributional properties of seven global REITs by using the generalised lambda distribution (GLD), which captures fairly well the higher moments of the returns.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an empirical study with GLD through three rival methods of fitting tail and shape properties of seven REIT return data from January 2008 to November 2017. A post-Global Financial Crisis (GFC) (from July 2009) period fits from the same methods are juxtaposed for comparison.

Findings

The maximum likelihood estimates outperform the methods of moment matching and quantile matching in terms of goodness-of-fit in line with extant literature; for the post-GFC period as against the full-sample period. All three methods fit better in full-sample period than post-GFC period for all seven countries for the Region 4 support dynamics. Further, USA and Singapore possess the strongest and stronger infinite supports for both time regimes.

Research limitations/implications

The REITs markets, however, developed, are of wide varied sizes. This makes comparison less than ideal. This is mitigated by a univariate analysis rather than multivariate one.

Practical implications

This paper is a reminder of the inadequacy of the normal distribution, as well as the mean, variance, skewness and kurtosis measures, in describing distributions of asset returns. Investors and policymakers may look at the location and scale of GLD for decision-making about REITs.

Originality/value

The novelty of this work lies with the data used and the detailed analysis and for the post-GFC sample.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research , vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

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