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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Fiona W.L. Yip, Diane Zelman and Adrian Low

Research suggests that children in Hong Kong are at an elevated risk of emotional problems. Authoritarian parenting, a common parenting style in Hong Kong, is a critical…

Abstract

Purpose

Research suggests that children in Hong Kong are at an elevated risk of emotional problems. Authoritarian parenting, a common parenting style in Hong Kong, is a critical factor associated with childhood mental health problems. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the 6As Positive Parenting Program (6As) in modifying parenting attitudes, reduction of parenting stress and increasing self-efficacy in positive parenting, among a sample of 82 Hong Kong parents. 6As focuses on prevention by instilling positive parenting beliefs and principles, thereby reducing reliance on authoritarian and related parenting styles.

Design/methodology/approach

The program was evaluated using a controlled pre-post-treatment design. Outcome measures were the Chinese Child-rearing Beliefs Questionnaire, Parental Stress Scale, Parenting Self-efficacy Scale and participant feedback. ANOVA and correlation were utilized to detect treatment effects and relationships between the degree of change among measures and subscales.

Findings

Relative to the control group, the 6As Positive Parenting Program significantly changed parentsparenting attitudes, reduced parenting stress and increased self-efficacy in positive parenting. In sum, 97.6 percent of the participants agreed that the program is a good fit for the Hong Kong culture.

Research limitations/implications

A larger sample would have been desirable for this study. One factor that limited analyzable data was that some of the participating organizations enrolled participants into the program who did not meet research inclusion criteria. Furthermore, the size of groups varied from 5 to 16 participants, which may have produced different group dynamics that added variability to outcomes. Future 6As parenting program research should attempt to standardize group size or to directly compare the effectiveness of smaller vs larger groups. Furthermore, as noted earlier, the research was conducted during the primary school application period, which may have heightened the parenting stress for parents of younger children.

Practical implications

The results suggest that an enhanced belief in authoritative, autonomy and training strategies could reduce parental stress and shift parents’ attitude toward a more positive approach in child-rearing.

Social implications

There is considerable need for a holistically designed parenting training that is culturally credible and sensitive.

Originality/value

Findings suggest that positive parenting can enhance the parent–child relationship and reduce parental stress. The results support governmental, non-governmental organizational and community focus on positive practices for parenting training in Hong Kong.

Details

Public Administration and Policy, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1727-2645

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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Neale R. Chumbler, Smitha Ganashen, Colleen O’Brien Cherry, Dawn Garrett Wright and Jennifer J. Bute

The primary aim of this chapter is to explore stigmatization, stress, and coping among adolescent mothers and to identify positive coping mechanisms that not only resist…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary aim of this chapter is to explore stigmatization, stress, and coping among adolescent mothers and to identify positive coping mechanisms that not only resist stigmatization but also generate positive affect.

Methodology/approach

Fifty-two pregnant and parenting adolescents in an urban county in the Midwestern United States were recruited to participate. A journaling tool was developed and used to allow participants to express their thoughts and concerns in a real-time, reflexive manner. Data were coded at different “nodes” or themes. Concepts, such as stigma, stress, strength, and empowerment were operationalized into key words and “themes” based on previous published literature. Key phrases were used to code the journaling data.

Findings

Adolescent mothers used positive reappraisal of life circumstances to create a positive self-image and resist the stress of stigma and parenting. Overcoming stereotypes and success in parenting were reappraised as “strength,” which allowed the young women to feel empowered in their caregiving role.

Research implications/limitations

The chapter also contributes to the sociological literature on positive coping responses to stigma and stress. Indeed, very few studies have employed the sociological imagination of pregnant and parenting adolescents by describing not only their lives but also seeking their understanding and explaining their lives sociologically. This chapter also has direct implications for several health care providers, including nurses and social workers. For example, nurses and social workers are a vital part of the healthcare team for pregnant and parenting adolescents, and they often serve as the link between the adolescent, her family and significant others, and healthcare and social service agencies.

Originality/value

This chapter described the mechanisms that adolescent mothers use to cope with stress with a focus on how caregiving generates positive affect through the voices of these young mothers themselves. This chapter contributed to the sociological literature on stress and coping. In particular, our findings were also in line with the work of sociologist Antonovsky’s Sense of Coherence concept. SOC is a global measure that indicates the availability of, and willingness to use, adaptive coping resources as a key variable in maintaining health.

Details

Special Social Groups, Social Factors and Disparities in Health and Health Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-467-9

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Thomas H. Thompson

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive initial evaluation of the changing issuer objective and partial price adjustment hypotheses as applied to carve‐out…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive initial evaluation of the changing issuer objective and partial price adjustment hypotheses as applied to carve‐out parent initial and three‐year returns for the period 1988‐2006.

Design/methodology/approach

Using five primary variables: the percentage of the subsidiary retained by the parent, the ratio of offering size to parent market capitalization, filing range adjustments, the percentage of the offering used to retire subsidiary debt or to pay dividends, and the CBOE volatility index to predict initial and three‐year returns, the paper shows that ex ante variables can predict carve‐out parent initial and three‐year returns.

Findings

The paper shows that public information known prior to the offer date influences 7.52 percent of the variation in announcement, 5.57‐38.31 percent of the variation in ex‐date and 6 percent of the variation in three‐year market‐adjusted equity carve‐out parent returns.

Originality/value

This study makes several contributions to the literature. Although prior studies focus on ex post determinants of equity carve‐out returns, this study is the first to explore ex ante predictors of equity carve‐out parent returns. The implications of these results are that publicly available information known prior to the carve‐out offering date can influence market‐adjusted initial and three‐year parent carve‐out returns and can explain 6‐17 percent of the variation.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 37 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Vesarach Aumeboonsuke

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between family wealth, positive outlook, and support from significant others, including parents and friends, on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between family wealth, positive outlook, and support from significant others, including parents and friends, on self-efficacy and happiness.

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of family wealth, social support, and positive outlook on self-efficacy and one’s own happiness is analyzed through the partial least squared method.

Findings

There are five essential points that can be drawn from the statistical results. First, parents’ support tends to be more important than friends’ support for individuals’ happiness. Second, individuals that receive more support from parents tend to develop a higher level of self-efficacy. Third, individuals that are in a less wealthy family tend to develop a higher level of self-efficacy. Fourth, parents’ support plays a more important role in developing a higher level of self-efficacy for individuals that are in a less wealthy family than for individuals that are in a wealthier family. Finally, the positive link between happiness and self-efficacy was stronger for individuals in a wealthier family than for individuals in a less wealthy family.

Research limitations/implications

In particular, although individuals in a wealthier family tend to exhibit a lower level of self-efficacy, and happiness alone had no significant impact on self-efficacy, happiness significantly promoted self-efficacy more for individuals in a wealthier family than for individuals in a less wealthy family.

Social implications

In conclusion, the results from this research provide essential recommendations for individuals regarding the approach to happiness and self-efficacy. The results indicated how significant the role of parents’ support is in one’s happiness and that support from parents is more important for one’s self-efficacy and happiness than support from friends. Furthermore, individuals should be aware that money is not the ultimate answer for happiness and self-efficacy. Individuals in less wealthy families were able to enjoy a higher level of self-efficacy given that they were receiving sufficient support from their parents.

Originality/value

This study found that although individuals in a wealthier family tend to exhibit a lower level of self-efficacy, and happiness alone has no significant impact on self-efficacy, happiness significantly promote self-efficacy more for individuals in a wealthier family than for individuals in a less wealthy family. However, in the less-wealthier family, parents play more significant role and can generate high level of self-efficacy for their children.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

John Kjøbli, Ragnhild Bjørknes and Elisabeth Askeland

This study aims to examine the predictive validity of an adherence measure to Brief Parent Training (BPT) delivered in real‐world settings. BPT promotes effective parenting

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the predictive validity of an adherence measure to Brief Parent Training (BPT) delivered in real‐world settings. BPT promotes effective parenting practices in families with children who either are at an early stage of problem behaviour development or have developed conduct problems.

Design/methodology/approach

In a sample of 108 families who received BPT, whether adherence predicted parenting practices and child conduct problems after intervention completion was examined.

Findings

The results showed that high ratings of adherence predicted low levels of inconsistent discipline and high levels of appropriate discipline and positive parenting. The combined effect of inconsistent discipline and positive parenting mediated the relationship between adherence and child conduct problems. When the indirect effects were separated, inconsistent discipline functioned as a mediator, whereas positive parenting did not.

Originality/value

Findings indicate that it is possible to develop a sound and feasible parent‐reported measure of adherence to BPT.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2020

Sian Jones, Leanne Ali, Mohona Bhuyan, Laura Dalnoki, Alicia Kaliff, William Muir, Kiia Uusitalo and Clare Uytman

This study aimed to look at parents' perceptions of a number of different toy prototypes that represented physical impairments and predictors of these perceptions.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to look at parents' perceptions of a number of different toy prototypes that represented physical impairments and predictors of these perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

A correlational survey design was used. Parents of children aged 4–10 years who identified their child as having a disability (n = 160) and not as having a disability (n = 166) took part. They rated a number of prototypes for likelihood that their child would enjoy playing with them and completed measures of their responses toward children with disabilities and of their own and their child's direct contact with people with disabilities.

Findings

It was found that, among parents of children who did not declare that their child had a disability, the more open the parents were toward disability, the more contact the children had with other children with disabilities and the more likely they were to consider that their child would like to play with a toy prototype representing a physical impairment. This pattern of results was not found among parents who identified their child as having a disability, where instead positive friendship intentions of parents mediated this association.

Research limitations/implications

These findings have implications for theories informing the positive benefits of disability representation.

Practical implications

These findings indicate different paths through which parents might be moved to purchase toys that represent physical impairments for their children.

Social implications

These findings suggest that representative toys might be associated with an open dialogue around the topic of disability.

Originality/value

This is the first study of the responses of parents to toys that represent physical impairments known to the authors.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2007

Philippa McTaggart and Matthew Sanders

The present study examined the role of socio‐demographic and family risk factors as mediators or moderators of the success of parents undertaking a universal group parent

Abstract

The present study examined the role of socio‐demographic and family risk factors as mediators or moderators of the success of parents undertaking a universal group parent training programme for young children. The results showed that parents' capacity to change dysfunctional parenting practices was not moderated by the child's gender, family income, family type, or pre‐intervention level of parental stress, but was partially mediated by changes in parental satisfaction and efficacy. Irrespective of their socio‐demographic background, parents who completed the Triple‐P Positive Parenting Programme were equally likely to succeed in changing their parenting practices. These findings suggest the robustness of intervention effects across a diverse range of parents.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Carmen Orte, Lluís Ballester, Martí X. March, Josep L. Oliver, Belén Pascual and Maria Antònia Gomila

This research assesses the predictive capacity of key factors in the development of family competences: parent-children relationship, family involvement, family resilience…

Abstract

Purpose

This research assesses the predictive capacity of key factors in the development of family competences: parent-children relationship, family involvement, family resilience and positive parenting. It also aims to establish which are the most discriminating factors between the groups showing the most and the least prosocial behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involves a longitudinal study of one child from 181 families; 155 families in the experimental group and 26 in the control group. Both boys and girls are included and their ages range from 8 to 14 years. The instruments employed are all validated for use with a Spanish population and include Karol Kumpfer’s questionnaires on family competence and the BASC questionnaire.

Findings

All of the factors analysed, with the exception of family involvement, proved to be predictive for prosocial behaviour, and the most discriminating among these were: parent-children relationship, family resilience and positive parenting.

Originality/value

One key issue in family prevention programmes is the development of prosocial behaviour. In this sense, the research developed here aims at highlighting protective factors as key to developing a prosocial behaviour.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2010

Carolyn Webster‐Stratton and M Reid

Families referred to child welfare for maltreatment and neglect are frequently mandated to attend parenting programmes. Evidence‐based parenting programmes (EBPs) are…

Abstract

Families referred to child welfare for maltreatment and neglect are frequently mandated to attend parenting programmes. Evidence‐based parenting programmes (EBPs) are under‐utilised or not delivered with fidelity for this population. The Incredible Years (IY) parenting programme is an EPB that has been proven to reduce harsh parenting, increase positive discipline and nurturing parenting, reduce conduct problems and improve children's social competence. There is also promising preliminary evidence that IY is an effective intervention for families involved in child welfare and for foster parents. This article describes how the updated IY parenting basic programme is delivered with fidelity to this population.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part
Publication date: 27 December 2013

Sara E. Green, Rosalyn Benjamin Darling and Loren Wilbers

This chapter reviews qualitative research on parenting children with disabilities published over the last 50 years to explore whether shifts in academic discourse and…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter reviews qualitative research on parenting children with disabilities published over the last 50 years to explore whether shifts in academic discourse and changes in professional training have affected research on parenting and/or the experiences of parents who are the subject of such research.

Methodology/approach

An extensive literature search was conducted, and 78 peer-reviewed, qualitative studies on the experience of parenting a child with a disability were included in the sample. Themes were extracted from the reviewed literature and compared across decades.

Findings

The findings of the present review suggest that some aspects of the parenting experience have changed very little. In particular, parents continue to experience negative reactions such as stress and anomie, especially early in their children’s lives, and socially imposed barriers such as unhelpful professionals, and a lack of needed services continue to create problems and inspire an entrepreneurial response. In addition, stigmatizing encounters with others continue to be a common occurrence. In contrast to earlier decades, studies conducted in more recent years have begun to use the social model of disability as an analytic frame and also increasingly report that parents are questioning and challenging the concept of “normal” itself.

Social/practical implications

Additional improvements are needed in professional education and services to reduce the negative reactions experienced by parents of children with disabilities.

Originality/value of chapter

The findings of this meta-analysis can serve as a guide to future research on parenting children with disabilities.

Details

Disability and Intersecting Statuses
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-157-1

Keywords

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