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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Giovanna Galizzi and Benedetta Siboni

The European university context reveals a high degree of gender inequality. In Italy, the overall female employment rate is significantly lower than in the rest of Europe;…

Abstract

Purpose

The European university context reveals a high degree of gender inequality. In Italy, the overall female employment rate is significantly lower than in the rest of Europe; nevertheless, gender equality in universities is consistent with the European average. In 2006, the Italian Government required public organisations (thus state universities) to formulate positive action plans (PAPs) and disclose the positive actions planned for the following three years to promote gender equality. However, the law does not provide any guideline for the contents of the PAPs. The purpose of this paper is to analyse gender equality disclosure in PAPs to investigate whether and how Italian State Universities (ISUs) are taking a role in promoting gender equality.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses content analysis to investigate contents of gender disclosure in 28 PAPs. The authors developed a coding instrument based on the Guidelines for Gender Equality Programmes in Science.

Findings

The paper found that most PAPs are focused on creating a favourable environment for women inside the organisation, while little attention has been paid to creating gender awareness in research and teaching activities, as well as in supporting women’s leadership. The paper concludes that ISUs are failing as key players in the cultural change of the society toward gender equality.

Originality/value

First, the paper contributes to the accounting literature by providing an analysis of accounting for gender by universities. Second, it adds to the debate on positive actions for gender equality in the university sector.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1989

Paul Iles

I begin by examining some ways in which organisations have attempted to improve their recruitment and selection procedures to minimise bias and unfair discrimination, and…

Abstract

I begin by examining some ways in which organisations have attempted to improve their recruitment and selection procedures to minimise bias and unfair discrimination, and focus on the assessment centre as a potentially useful technique in this respect, especially for managerial selection. I go on to examine the assessment centre in more detail, including its origins, construction and uses, before discussing the strong evidence for its validity as a selection and assessment procedure. I then describe some recent British innovations in assessment centre design and practice, especially in its use for management and organisation development purposes, before discussing some of my own recent research, in collaboration with Ivan Robertson and Usha Rout, on participants' attitudes towards the use of assessment centres for selection and development purposes, including gender differences in attitudes.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Désirée Füllemann, Annemarie Fridrich, Gregor James Jenny, Rebecca Brauchli, Alice Inauen and Georg Friedrich Bauer

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether intervention participants’ process appraisals relate to change in well-being and lean outcomes of entire teams. For…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether intervention participants’ process appraisals relate to change in well-being and lean outcomes of entire teams. For this purpose, the study focussed on two main characteristics of a lean implementation process – workshop quality and outcome expectancy – and their interaction with the participation rate, and examined their association with leaner work processes and affective well-being in nursing teams.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a lean implementation project within 29 nursing wards of a university hospital. Employee surveys covering lean work processes and affective well-being at work were conducted before the implementation of four-day lean workshops in each nursing ward and six months after. The participating employee representatives evaluated the workshop quality and outcome expectancy of the workshops.

Findings

Multilevel analyses indicated that workshop quality did not relate to leaner work processes, but was associated with enhanced affective well-being after six months. By contrast, outcome expectancy was associated with leaner work processes, but did not relate to well-being. No moderation effects with participation rate were found.

Practical implications

The study shows the importance of monitoring process indicators in the early stages of implementation and optimising workshop contents and formats accordingly to ensure positive outcomes for entire teams.

Originality/value

The present study considers intervention participants’ process appraisals of workshop quality and outcome expectancy as good indicators of future change in lean work processes and the well-being of entire teams.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1988

Paul Iles and Randhir Auluck

Most approaches to the management of equal opportunity in the “race” field in the UK have emphasised policy development and communication, gender and ethnic monitoring…

Abstract

Most approaches to the management of equal opportunity in the “race” field in the UK have emphasised policy development and communication, gender and ethnic monitoring, and attention to developing recruitment and selection practices that ensure a more representative workforce. Race training, especially racism awareness training, has often been given a key role. Organisation development (OD) approaches have not tended to be influential, despite the origins of OD in addressing practical problems of race relations. Drawing on empirical work with assessment procedures, in particular the use of developmental assessment centres, and on work on improving collaboration between nurses and social workers so as to enable women of Asian origin to enjoy greater access to hospital social work services, it is argued that such OD approaches as teambuilding, survey feedback and targeted career development are crucial to the management of equal opportunity, and to the management of cultural change.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 9 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

Margery Povall

Composed earlier this century, the distributionof men′s and women′s jobs in the 1980sdemonstrates a concentration of women inlow‐paid, low‐opportunity jobs despite…

Abstract

Composed earlier this century, the distribution of men′s and women′s jobs in the 1980s demonstrates a concentration of women in low‐paid, low‐opportunity jobs despite women having longer working lives and being better educated. Barriers to women′s progress, both attitudinal and structural are examined, with examples from banking and other industries. The role of legislation in stimulating questioning of women′s under‐representation in management positions is acknowledged, and the reasons for starting positive action programmes are explored. An explanation is given of these programmes, which are similar to the American affirmative action programmes. How positive action can break down barriers is discussed in relation to the European banks studied. It is concluded that without positive action the position of women at work will deteriorate, but that employers will increasingly become involved in the programmes, as will unions and consultants.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 5 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Evelien van Rij and Willem K. Korthals Altes

– This paper aims to review the rescaling of integrated planning policies for the built environment by the transposition of European directives on air quality in The Netherlands.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the rescaling of integrated planning policies for the built environment by the transposition of European directives on air quality in The Netherlands.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a case study examining European and Dutch policies, legislation, case law and reports by various Dutch Courts of Auditors and assessment agencies.

Findings

The paper reveals how a combination of measures that prohibit practices and measures constituting new ways of working has facilitated environmental protection and integrated planning. The case shows that transposition matters. At first, the aim of transposing European environmental directives into an integrated national legal system resulted in an erosion of integrated planning as courts nullified new development decisions. In later instances, it resulted in the National Cooperation Programme on Air Quality (NSL), an integrated system, allowing the weighing and monitoring of all policies that affect air quality.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study of Dutch air quality regulation may contribute to other studies into the rescaling of environmental governance in relation to interactions between central norm-setting and integrated local policies.

Practical implications

The case study shows a real working institutional system that relies on an interactive web tool that facilitates integrated planning decisions which respect environmental limit values. The problems faced and opportunities the system afforded are also discussed.

Originality/value

This paper increases understanding of the process of the transposition of European directives in relation to integrated policies for the built environment, with a specific emphasis on ambient air quality.

Details

International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, vol. 6 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1450

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1968

NEVER since the Industrial Revolution have there been so many radical changes in the manner of producing goods as we are witnessing today. Manufacturing is new in its…

Abstract

NEVER since the Industrial Revolution have there been so many radical changes in the manner of producing goods as we are witnessing today. Manufacturing is new in its concepts, in technical and mechanical techniques and largely new in materials, methods and machines.

Details

Work Study, vol. 17 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Magdalena Woynarowska-Soldan

The purpose of this paper is to present the concept, methods of implementation, results and experiences from the first stage of the three-year project on school staff…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the concept, methods of implementation, results and experiences from the first stage of the three-year project on school staff health promotion carried out within the framework of the health-promoting school (HPS) network in Poland.

Design/methodology/approach

The project was implemented in 2012 in 22 primary and lower secondary schools, with a group of 780 teachers and 276 non-teaching staff. To be eligible for their school to be included, head teachers and at least 60 per cent of school staff members had to volunteer to commit to the project. An action research approach was used. The project is implemented on the basis of an agreement between the Medical University of Warsaw and the Centre of Education Development.

Findings

Over the first eighteen months of implementing the project, the schools selected priority problems to solve, constructed an action plan for the first year and evaluated their outcomes. Only 7 schools reported that they had achieved their goals. The difficulties experienced by schools were associated with inadequate planning skills, insufficient support from some head teachers, and low involvement of staff members in the project activities. However, openness to change and new learning, and a readiness to participation further in the project was observed across 17 from 22 schools.

Originality/value

This pilot project was the first attempt to introduce health promotion among school staff into the HPS network in Poland and provides valuable lessons on implementation.

Details

Health Education, vol. 115 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Romilda Mazzotta, Maria Teresa Nardo, Patrizia Pastore and Giovanna Vingelli

The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the gender composition of the board of directors affects the sensitivity to gender issues in defining university strategies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the gender composition of the board of directors affects the sensitivity to gender issues in defining university strategies and therefore strategic plans.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted an ordinary least square regression to test the relationship between gender sensitivity approach and board composition in Italian state universities (ISUs). The authors measured the gender sensitivity approach of each university by an index (gender sensitivity approach index) determined based on content analysis. Gender board composition is, instead, analyzed by heterogeneity (homogeneity) index (Herfindahl–Hirschman Index) of the board.

Findings

The finding suggests that, if the board has a certain level of heterogeneity, then university strategic plan (USP) is a more gender-sensitive approach.

Research limitations/implications

The study analyses only the 2018 USPs of ISUs and considers the presence of women within the board, and not their actual role and their position in the university hierarchy.

Practical implications

The practical implication of this study is that if universities want to guarantee gender equality, they should open their boards more widely to women.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work that analyzes the relationships between board composition and sensitivity to gender issues within the USPs. The paper therefore contributes to the literature on governance in the public sector, particularly in universities. Moreover, it stimulates the accounting debate on gender issue and highlights that gender issues cannot be taken up by decision-making bodies that are not heterogeneous enough.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1984

Margery Povall

There are three recurring themes in the media that present three very different images of women—woman as the top executive, (as yet another woman becomes “the first to…”);…

Abstract

There are three recurring themes in the media that present three very different images of women—woman as the top executive, (as yet another woman becomes “the first to…”); woman as the mother who is contributing to unemployment and juvenile delinquency by taking “men's” jobs and woman as the unemployed victim of technological change.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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