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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Michael E. Dobbs

The purpose of this paper is to provide practitioners and students a practical yet comprehensive set of templates for applying Michael Porter's five forces framework for…

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134110

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide practitioners and students a practical yet comprehensive set of templates for applying Michael Porter's five forces framework for industry analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on experiences with practicing managers, small business owners, industry analysts, academics, and students, a set of industry analysis templates that systematically guides an analyst through a comprehensive assessment of the five forces is presented with the following: copies of the templates themselves, descriptions of their structure and use, an example of a completed template (spectator sports industry), and a discussion of possible modifications and extensions.

Findings

The industry analysis templates described in this paper retain the comprehensiveness of Porter's framework but in a format much more student/manager-oriented using graphics, visual cues, a uniform structure, and straightforward descriptions of concepts. Template users show evidence of deeper strategic insights and have a sophisticated tool for future analysis.

Practical implications

Managers, analysts, students, and others wanting robust industry analysis are provided with a comprehensive, structured, and practical set of templates to use in assessing an industry using the five forces framework.

Originality/value

Leading strategic management texts and other sources provide no comprehensive, systematic, and robust format for conducting a five forces analysis of an industry. The set of industry analysis templates described in this paper provides a visually compelling, user-friendly format that can assist those analyzing industries gain important strategic insights not only into industry drivers, but also important competitive advantages for individual firms.

Details

Competitiveness Review, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Francis M. Mathooko and Martin Ogutu

The purpose of this paper is to establish the extent to which Porter’s five competitive forces (PFCF) framework, among other factors drive the choice of response…

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12375

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish the extent to which Porter’s five competitive forces (PFCF) framework, among other factors drive the choice of response strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya.

Design/methodology/approach

The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public universities in Kenya by administering a structured questionnaire to the top management team. Additional primary data were collected through observations and interviews. Secondary data were also collected in order to corroborate the data collected from the primary sources.

Findings

PFCF framework influenced the choice of response strategies adopted by the public universities “to a great extent”, the most influence being the threat from new entrants. The influence of the choice of response strategies by PFCF framework was independent of the age and category of the universities. Pressure from stakeholders, changes in government policies and regulations, reforms in higher education, unethical response strategies by some universities and university location also influenced the choice of response strategies.

Research limitations/implications

The study collected data from the top management team only; however, other stakeholders could have given additional information not reported here. Further, the research only considered public universities and not all higher education institutions (HEIs) in Kenya, and was cross-sectional, hence generalization and application of the results over a long time, respectively, may be limited.

Practical implications

The value of this study lies in HEIs achieving a competitive advantage and shaping strategic policy direction in the face of changing environment and global commodification of higher education.

Originality/value

Current public universities in Kenya have adopted a business-like approach in their operations in view of changing environment and have adopted coping strategies. Therefore, understanding the factors that influence the choice of response strategies is important for improvement of quality, efficiency and effectiveness as well as in policy formulation and serve as a guide to strategic management.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2016

Marian Mahat and Leo Goedegebuure

Key forces shaping higher education drive institutions to make strategic choices to locate themselves in niches where they can make use of their resources effectively and…

Abstract

Key forces shaping higher education drive institutions to make strategic choices to locate themselves in niches where they can make use of their resources effectively and efficiently. However, the concepts of strategy and strategic positioning in higher education are contested issues due to the nature and complexity of the sector and the university. As an industry facing increasing pressure toward marketization and competition, this study calls for an analysis of higher education, as an industry, in a more business-oriented framework. This chapter makes a contribution to scholarly research in higher education by applying Porter’s five forces framework to medical education. In doing so, it provides a foundational perspective on the competitive landscape, its environment, its organizations, and the groups and individuals that make up the higher and medical education sector.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-895-0

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Norman T. Sheehan and Nicolai J. Foss

Porter's activity‐based view of the firm is a comprehensive strategic framework which analyzes firm‐level competitive advantage. Although Porter's activity‐based view is…

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5301

Abstract

Purpose

Porter's activity‐based view of the firm is a comprehensive strategic framework which analyzes firm‐level competitive advantage. Although Porter's activity‐based view is widely cited by academics, taught to students, and applied by practitioners, little is known about its intellectual roots. Given that a framework's intellectual antecedents not only determine its current content, but also its future development, this paper aims to examine the intellectual roots of Porter's activity‐based view and the value chain.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines Porter's writings in an effort to document his influences while developing the activity‐based view and value chain. Porter's and other scholars' explanations are found to be lacking, so the paper ventures further down paths first suggested by Porter and others.

Findings

Whereas Porter's five forces framework built on the existing industrial organization paradigm, the activity‐based view is not derived from any existing paradigms. While consultants of the 1970s impacted Porter's development of the value chain and the activity‐based view, its deeper roots lay in operations research, particularly activity analysis; and the work of Arch Shaw, who was the first to teach a business policy course at Harvard Business School. Porter's contribution is to bring the diverse threads together into a coherent whole which managers can apply to analyze and improve their competitive positions.

Practical implications

Following Porter, the authors argue that activities are a key link between resource holdings and strategic positions. Therefore, it is only when the activity‐based and resource‐based views are integrated that they provide a comprehensive explanation of firm value creation.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to critically examine the intellectual antecedents of the activity‐based view.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Marian Mahat

Medical education is an evidence-driven professional field that operates in an increasingly regulated environment as compared to other fields within universities. The…

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4594

Abstract

Purpose

Medical education is an evidence-driven professional field that operates in an increasingly regulated environment as compared to other fields within universities. The purpose of this paper is to establish the extent to which Porter’s five competitive forces framework (Porter, 2008) can drive the management of medical schools in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on data from semi-structured interviews with over 20 staff from 6 case study Australian medical schools, this paper explores Australian medical education, by looking at the current policy context, structure and interactions between organizations within the system.

Findings

The findings provide evidence that environmental forces affect the nature of competition in medical education, and that competitive advantage can be gained by medical schools from a sustained analysis of the industry in which they operate in. Consequently, it is possible to apply a pre-dominantly profit-oriented framework to higher education.

Research limitations/implications

As an industry facing increasing pressure toward marketization and competition, the findings provide sufficient evidence that an analysis of higher education as an industry is possible.

Practical implications

The findings provide evidence that strategic leadership and management in higher education should encompass greater levels of delegation and decision making at all levels. Effective leadership should focus on creating an inspiring vision of the future through a sustained analysis of the industry in which they operate.

Originality/value

The study has made a key contribution through an industry analysis of Australian medical education, which provide important implications for leadership and management in higher education. The study is of significant value to researchers as well as senior management in higher education.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

G.D. Karagiannopoulos, N. Georgopoulos and K. Nikolopoulos

To investigate the impact of the internet in “traditional” market rules.

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73729

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the impact of the internet in “traditional” market rules.

Design/methodology/approach

An opinion piece based on Michael Porter's arguments for the new economy.

Finding

Michael Porter's arguments for the new economy provide a useful starting point in the analysis of the environment. His arguments are based on exaggerated phenomena. Factors that determine a sector's profitability could be enriched with the innovation that prevails in the particular sector.

Originality/value

An attempt to criticize Porter's thoughts regarding internet and industry structure and to enrich the Porter's five forces model with the “power of innovation”.

Details

info, vol. 7 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

N. Mohan Das Gandhi, V. Selladurai and P. Santhi

Modelling of sustainable development is essential, as environmental protection is regarded as a top global priority in the twenty‐first century. The basic objective of…

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8182

Abstract

Purpose

Modelling of sustainable development is essential, as environmental protection is regarded as a top global priority in the twenty‐first century. The basic objective of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework, named the Four Forces model for diagnosing the process of sustainable development.

Design/methodology/approach

Michael Porter's Five Forces model serves as a starting‐point to derive the Four Forces model. The Four Forces model, which is developed based on Back Casting technique, shows the transformation process from current unsustainable development to future sustainable development through environmental degradation, greening force and greening process. These five major components are related based on cause and effect.

Findings

The paper reveals that a clear understanding of the transformation process and their integration is necessary for successful implementation of sustainable development projects, as the transformation is a continuous process. The Four Forces model is a generic and contribute towards a richer understanding of sustainable development process.

Research limitations/implications

The suggested conceptual model provides a holistic view of sustainable development and does not attempt to provide a detailed, step‐by‐step approach for implementing sustainable development in industries. This paper helps to initiate future studies in this area.

Originality/value

In line with Michael Porter's three generic competitive strategies, this study analysis various greening strategies and greening tools and also recommends the Green Productivity as a better tool for implementing sustainable development in industries. The model can be used as a framework for further development of a practical sustainable development system in industries.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2014

Daniel Schwenger, Thomas Straub and Stefano Borzillo

This paper aims to empirically investigate competition within the non-governmental organization (NGO) sector, and presents some strategic approaches to managing it…

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5050

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to empirically investigate competition within the non-governmental organization (NGO) sector, and presents some strategic approaches to managing it. Porter’s five forces (1980) model was used as a theoretical framework to understand and quantify competition in the NGO sector, as well as to explore the differences between NGOs’ budget sizes. Traditional strategic management often fails to meet NGOs’ needs. While economization is prevalent within the NGO sector, little is known about how NGOs address competition.

Design/methodology/approach

An online global survey was conducted between November 2010 and May 2011. Data were collected from 1,211 NGOs that either function as consultants or work in association with the United Nations (UN). The key informants were leaders and executive managers of NGOs. The respondents’ fields of work varied from international advocacy and development (38 per cent), education and research (14 per cent), community and neighborhood (8 per cent), health (8 per cent), environment (8 per cent) and social services (7 per cent) to civil liberty (6 per cent), labor (6 per cent), culture (3 per cent), philanthropy (2 per cent) and religion (1 per cent).

Findings

The findings suggest that the NGO sector is becoming increasingly competitive. However, the data suggest that the lower and upper budget classes have different priorities and perceptions. Small NGOs (with budgets <USD250,000 and especially <USD10,000) compete more aggressively for funding, as they have less bargaining power over donors and large foundations, and face stronger competition from social entrepreneurship. This results in income reductions. Large NGOs (with budgets >USD250,000 USD and especially >USD1 million) experience increased pressure for accountability.

Research limitations/implications

This research is aimed at a wide range of NGOs. The findings are based on an empirical and open survey that was held among NGOs in association with the UN. Future research should survey NGOs that are not associated with the UN to generalize the results. This may lead to contradictory or more varied results.

Practical implications

The findings can help NGOs adapt their strategy to cope more effectively with increasing competition in the sector. Large NGOs seem to prioritize fundraising measures and their positioning (uniqueness) through specialized knowledge. Small NGOs, on the other hand, seem to consider sharing resources, co-operation with other NGOs and co-operation with the private sector slightly more important. To enhance their competitive position, small NGOs are advised to improve their potential by concentrating on developing specific skills that are hard to imitate and to improve their fundraising measures. Finally, large NGOs could benefit from pooling their resources and collaborating with other NGOs and private organizations.

Originality/value

NGOs have to pursue their missions under increasing competitive pressure. This paper comprehensively assesses competition, analyzes the various facets thereof and tests these aspects’ relevance to NGOs. It furthermore proposes strategies that are more appropriate for NGOs of different sizes to cope with this competition.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Euripidis Loukis, Ioakim Sapounas and Konstantinos Aivalis

This paper aims to investigate the effect of two external factors – the “generalized” competition an organization faces, and the strategy it follows in response to its…

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3269

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of two external factors – the “generalized” competition an organization faces, and the strategy it follows in response to its external environment – on the business value generated by its ICT investment.

Design/methodology/approach

For achieving these research objectives econometric models of output are constructed, using firm‐level data from Greek companies, which have been collected through a survey through a structured questionnaire. These econometric models are based on the microeconomic production theory (Cobb Douglas production function). For operationalizing the “generalized competition” an organization faces are used the five dimensions of the generalized competition of M. Porter'sfive forces framework”.

Findings

Concerning the above generalized competition dimensions it is concluded that higher level of bargaining power of suppliers results in higher ICT business value generation. Also, concerning strategy it is concluded that in organizations following a strategy of frequent introduction of new innovative products and services is generated higher ICT business value.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the effect of external environment related factors on the business value generated by ICT investment. The conclusions constitute of first evidence that there are external conditions that result in higher business value from ICT investment by necessitating a more efficient and effective use of ICT.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Manjeet Kharub and Rajiv Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to measure and analyze the competitive advantage of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) based upon the Porter’s diamond framework. The…

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10006

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure and analyze the competitive advantage of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) based upon the Porter’s diamond framework. The major objective is to contribute toward better understanding of various determinants of the diamond model in context within Indian MSMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

Extent review of the literature has been done to identify various critical factors contributing to developing a competitive advantage. Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency tests were performed to verify scales validity and reliability of measuring instrument (questionnaire). In research design, a case study approach has been used, in which MSMEs operating in the pharmaceutical, electrical and electronics, automobile, food and textile sectors were considered.

Findings

Study findings indicate that the pharmaceutical sector is more competitive followed by food (112.491) as revealed by the high value of surface area i.e. 150.931. The competitiveness among MSME sectors is mostly affected by demand conditions followed by firm strategy, structure and rivalry. Moreover, the score of diamond axes indicates significant difference with respect to determinants. For instance, in the textile sector, the determinants such as factor conditions and related and supporting industries scored low, for example, 4.710 and 4.280, respectively, which indicates it needs to be strengthened as this sector stands at last position with minimum surface area, for example, 67.398.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to the time and resource constraints, this study was conducted in MSMEs situated in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India, and thus generalizations of results are rather limited.

Practical implications

This study is one of the original being undertaken by authors which helps to underline the importance of various determinants which may help the MSME units to improve competitiveness by implementing effective competitive strategies. The study could be extended to other regions of the country.

Originality/value

This study is a result of extended research on competitiveness and provides an instrument to measure firm ability to be competitive. CEO’s, managers and policy makers from industries as well as government will be able to use this to evaluate their competitive positioning and identify key problem areas which required improvements.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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