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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2005

Mohamed Hammami, Youssef Chahir and Liming Chen

Along with the ever growingWeb is the proliferation of objectionable content, such as sex, violence, racism, etc. We need efficient tools for classifying and filtering

Abstract

Along with the ever growingWeb is the proliferation of objectionable content, such as sex, violence, racism, etc. We need efficient tools for classifying and filtering undesirable web content. In this paper, we investigate this problem through WebGuard, our automatic machine learning based pornographic website classification and filtering system. Facing the Internet more and more visual and multimedia as exemplified by pornographic websites, we focus here our attention on the use of skin color related visual content based analysis along with textual and structural content based analysis for improving pornographic website filtering. While the most commercial filtering products on the marketplace are mainly based on textual content‐based analysis such as indicative keywords detection or manually collected black list checking, the originality of our work resides on the addition of structural and visual content‐based analysis to the classical textual content‐based analysis along with several major‐data mining techniques for learning and classifying. Experimented on a testbed of 400 websites including 200 adult sites and 200 non pornographic ones, WebGuard, our Web filtering engine scored a 96.1% classification accuracy rate when only textual and structural content based analysis are used, and 97.4% classification accuracy rate when skin color related visual content based analysis is driven in addition. Further experiments on a black list of 12 311 adult websites manually collected and classified by the French Ministry of Education showed that WebGuard scored 87.82% classification accuracy rate when using only textual and structural content‐based analysis, and 95.62% classification accuracy rate when the visual content‐based analysis is driven in addition. The basic framework of WebGuard can apply to other categorization problems of websites which combine, as most of them do today, textual and visual content.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2019

Majid Yar

The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the newly created regulatory and policing regime for age-restricting access to pornography in the UK.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the newly created regulatory and policing regime for age-restricting access to pornography in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

It examines the pivotal legislation, policy and strategy documents, consultation submissions and interventions from a range of stakeholders such as children’s charities, content providers and privacy advocates.

Findings

Even before its implementation, the regulatory regime betrays serious flaws and shortcomings in its framing and configuration. These difficulties include its inability to significantly curtail minors’ access to online pornography and risks of privacy violations and associated harms to legitimate users’ interests.

Research limitations/implications

Remedial measures are available so as to address some of the problems identified. However, it is argued that ultimately the attempt to prohibit minors from accessing such content is set to fail, and that alternative approaches – such as better equipping children through education to cope with explicit materials online – need to be given greater prominence.

Originality/value

This paper provides the first criminological policy analysis of this latest attempt to regulate and police online behaviour, and offers an important critical response to such efforts.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Tomoko Kajiyama and Isao Echizen

The purpose of this paper is to propose an effective educational system to help students assess Web site risk by providing an environment in which students can better…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an effective educational system to help students assess Web site risk by providing an environment in which students can better understand a Web site’s features and determine the risks of accessing the Web site for themselves.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have enhanced a prototype visualization system for helping students assess Web site features and use them to identify risky Web sites. The system was implemented with our graphical search interface for multi-attribute metadata called “Concentric Ring View” and was tested using 13,386 actual and dummy Web sites and 11 Web site attributes.

Findings

The testing revealed several distinguishing attributes of risky Web sites, including being related to “play”, having monotone colors, having many images, having many links and having many pages with much text in smaller font size. A usability test with 12 teenaged female students demonstrated that they could learn to identify some features of risky Web sites.

Originality/value

As students cannot live in a safe cyberspace environment forever, they should be taught how to identify risky Web sites. We proposed an educational system to help students assess Web site features and identify high-risk Web site and verified the effectiveness of this system.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Patrick Keilty and Gregory Leazer

The purpose of this paper is to present two models of human cognition. The first narrow model concentrates on the mind as an information-processing apparatus, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present two models of human cognition. The first narrow model concentrates on the mind as an information-processing apparatus, and interactions with information as altering thought structures and filling gaps in knowledge. A second model incorporates elements of unconsciousness, embodiment and affect. The selection of one model over the other, often done tacitly, has consequences for subsequent models of information seeking and use.

Design/methodology/approach

A close reading of embodied engagements with pornography guided by existential phenomenology.

Findings

The paper develops a phenomenology of information seeking, centered primarily around the work of Merleau-Ponty, to justify a more expansive concept of cognition. The authors demonstrate the roles of affect and embodiment in document assessment and use, with a prolonged example in the realm of browsing pornography.

Originality/value

Models of information seeking and use need to account for diverse kinds of human-document interaction, to include documents such as music, film and comics that engage the emotions or are perceived through a broader band of sensory experience to include visual and auditory components. The authors consider how those human-document engagements form virtual communities based on the similarity of their members’ affective and embodied responses, which in turn inform the arrangements, through algorithms, of the relations of documents to each other. Less instrumental forms of information seeking and use – ones that incorporate elements of embodiment and affect – are characterized as esthetic experiences, following the definition of the esthetic provided by Dewey. Ultimately the authors consider, given the ubiquity of information seeking and its rhythm in everyday life, whether we can meaningfully characterize information seeking as a distinct human process.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 74 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Rachel Spacey, Louise Cooke, Adrienne Muir and Claire Creaser

The purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge, research and thinking about the difficulties facing public libraries offering internet access to their users in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge, research and thinking about the difficulties facing public libraries offering internet access to their users in ensuring legally compliant and non-offensive use of this facility whilst still adhering to the professional value of freedom of access to information.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of recently published sources (1997-2013) relating to the technical and organisational measures used to manage public internet access primarily in public libraries in the UK with some limited international examples were reviewed and analysed. This work was undertaken as the underpinning research for an AHRC-funded project, MAIPLE (Managing Access to the internet in Public Libraries).

Findings

The provision of public internet access is a well-established component of the role of public libraries, but is seen as a potential problem due to the possibility of misuse, and it appears that simplistic technical solutions have disappointed. Legislation increases the need for more effective solutions that can provide a balance between the need for legal compliance, a welcoming environment for users, and the protection of key freedoms. A range of measures are being adopted worldwide in response to this dilemma.

Originality/value

Research exploring internet access in public libraries and its management in the UK is numerically small and much of it dates back to the start of the twenty-first century. This review presents a comprehensive analysis of the available literature and is of relevance to practitioners and academics in the fields of public librarianship.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 70 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Yana Breindl

The paper iaims to investigate the evolution of discourses, claims and actor positions during the German and French examination of legislation aimed at introducing

Abstract

Purpose

The paper iaims to investigate the evolution of discourses, claims and actor positions during the German and French examination of legislation aimed at introducing state-mandated website blocking measures of sexual child images (often referred to as “child pornography”).

Design/methodology/approach

The focus lies on the opportunities and difficulties for opponents of internet blocking measures to form discourse coalitions that challenge the frames articulated and normalised by power elites. While critics of mandatory internet blocking were ignored at the outset of the debate, their frames have eventually been adopted and debated by proponents of internet blocking in Germany.

Findings

Activists successfully criticised the effectiveness of introducing internet blocking measures, which led to the final abandonment of the bill. In France, the debate remained largely confined to online media, where critics voiced their opposition but did not succeed in influencing the broader policy agenda, which was primarily concerned with security issues. Both cases offer important insights for the study of internet filtering and blocking from a comparative perspective.

Originality/value

Both cases offer important insights for the study of internet filtering and blocking from a comparative perspective.

Details

info, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2016

Rachel Wexelbaum

The author of this chapter will explain how libraries define safe space through policies, procedures, and professional codes of ethics. The chapter will generate a history…

Abstract

Purpose

The author of this chapter will explain how libraries define safe space through policies, procedures, and professional codes of ethics. The chapter will generate a history of the concept of libraries as safe space, will explain how libraries attempt to create safe spaces in physical and online environments, and will show how library practices both help and harm patrons in need of safe space.

Methodology/approach

This chapter provides a review of the literature that illustrates how libraries provide safe space – or not – for their patrons. The author will deconstruct the ALA Code of Ethics and Bill of Rights to demonstrate how libraries remain heteronormative institutions that do not recognize the existence of diverse patrons or employees, and how this phenomenon manifests in libraries.

Findings

Libraries, either through their physical construction or through policies and procedures, have become spaces for illegal activities and discrimination. Populations who would be most likely to use libraries often report barriers to access.

Practical implications

Libraries should revisit their policies and procedures, as well as assess their physical and online spaces, to determine whether or not they truly provide safe space for their patrons. While libraries can become safer spaces, they should clearly communicate what types of safety they actually provide.

Originality/value

This chapter offers a critique of libraries as safe spaces, which will challenge popular opinions of libraries, and compel the profession to improve.

Details

The Future of Library Space
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-270-5

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Craig Valli

This paper is an outline of findings from a research project investigating the non‐business use of the World Wide Web in organisations. The study uncovered high…

Abstract

This paper is an outline of findings from a research project investigating the non‐business use of the World Wide Web in organisations. The study uncovered high non‐business usage in the selected organisations. Pornography and other traditionally identified risks were found to be largely non‐issues. MP3 and other streaming media and potential copyright infringement were found to be problematic. All organisations had end‐users displaying behaviours indicating significant, deliberate misuse that often used a variety of covert techniques to hide their actions.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Adrienne Muir, Rachel Spacey, Louise Cooke and Claire Creaser

This paper aims to consider selected results from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC)-funded “Managing Access to the internet in Public Libraries” (MAIPLE…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to consider selected results from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC)-funded “Managing Access to the internet in Public Libraries” (MAIPLE) project, from 2012-2014. MAIPLE has explored the ways in which public library services manage use of the internet connections that they provide for the public. This included the how public library services balance their legal obligations and the needs of their communities in a public space and the ethical dilemmas that arise.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers used a mixed-method approach involving a review of the literature, legal analysis, a questionnaire survey and case studies in five public library authorities.

Findings

UK public library services use a range of methods to regulate internet access. The research also confirms previous findings that filtering software is an ubiquitous tool for controlling access to and protecting library users from “inappropriate”, illegal and harmful internet content. There is a general, if sometimes reluctant, acceptance of filtering software as a practical tool by library staff, which seems to contrast with professional codes of ethics and attitudes in other countries. The research indicates that public library internet access will be a valued service for some time to come, but that some aspects of how public library services regulate internet access is currently managed can have socially undesirable consequences, including blocking legitimate sites and preventing users from accessing government services. Education could play a greater part in helping the general population to exercise judgement in selection of materials to view and use. This does not preclude implementing stricter controls to protect children, whilst allowing public libraries to continue providing a social good to those who are unable to otherwise participate in the digital age.

Research limitations/implications

The response to the survey was 39 per cent meaning that findings may not apply across the whole of the UK. The findings of this study are compared with and supplemented by other quantitative sources, but a strength of this study is the depth of understanding afforded by the use of case studies.

Originality/value

This paper provides both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of how internet access is managed in UK public libraries, including how library services fulfil their legal obligations and the ethical implications of how they balance their role in facilitating access to information with their perceived role as a safe and trusted environment for all members of their communities. The findings add to the international discussion on this issue and stimulate debate and policy making in the UK.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Oghenemaro Anuyah, Ashlee Milton, Michael Green and Maria Soledad Pera

The purpose of this paper is to examine strengths and limitations that search engines (SEs) exhibit when responding to web search queries associated with the grade school…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine strengths and limitations that search engines (SEs) exhibit when responding to web search queries associated with the grade school curriculum

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employed a simulation-based experimental approach to conduct an in-depth empirical examination of SEs and used web search queries that capture information needs in different search scenarios.

Findings

Outcomes from this study highlight that child-oriented SEs are more effective than traditional ones when filtering inappropriate resources, but often fail to retrieve educational materials. All SEs examined offered resources at reading levels higher than that of the target audience and often prioritized resources with popular top-level domain (e.g. “.com”).

Practical implications

Findings have implications for human intervention, search literacy in schools, and the enhancement of existing SEs. Results shed light on the impact on children’s education that result from introducing misconception about SEs when these tools either retrieve no results or offer irrelevant resources, in response to web search queries pertinent to the grade school curriculum.

Originality/value

The authors examined child-oriented and popular SEs retrieval of resources aligning with task objectives and user capabilities–resources that match user reading skills, do not contain hate-speech and sexually-explicit content, are non-opinionated, and are curriculum-relevant. Findings identified limitations of existing SEs (both directly or indirectly supporting young users) and demonstrate the need to improve SE filtering and ranking algorithms.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 72 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

1 – 10 of 53