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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2009

Jason L. Powell and Ian G. Cook

The aims of this paper are to summarise the rapid expansion in the proportion of the elderly across the globe and to highlight the main factors causing this. Specific…

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this paper are to summarise the rapid expansion in the proportion of the elderly across the globe and to highlight the main factors causing this. Specific areas of the globe will be focused on in more detail before the authors discuss some of the key challenges and consequences of global ageing for global society.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a literature review of major trends and implications of population ageing across the globe.

Findings

As a consequence of the global demographics of ageing, societies are being confronted with profound issues relating to illness and health care, access to housing and economic resources including pension provision. We have witnessed an unprecedented stretching of the human life span. This ageing of the global population is without parallel in human history. If these demographic trends continue to escalate, by 2050 the number of older people globally will exceed the number of young for the first time since formal records began, raising questions of the power of the nation state in the context of global ageing and of the changing nature of the global society that is emerging.

Originality/value

This is an original paper that aims at reviewing the major population trends across the Americas, Asia, Europe and Africa. The implications of demographic change are grounded in context of global changes that highlight social, economic and political implications of global ageing.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 29 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2015

Orla Collins and Joe Bogue

The purpose of this paper is to gather stakeholder tacit knowledge to design new product concepts with optimal product attributes for new health promoting food products…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gather stakeholder tacit knowledge to design new product concepts with optimal product attributes for new health promoting food products for the ageing population.

Design/methodology/approach

This research employed a qualitative research method. A total of 16 in-depth interviews were carried out to identify key product design attributes. These attributes were used to design health promoting foods for the ageing population.

Findings

Age-related conditions affect and alter the design of health promoting foods targeted at the ageing population. Providing the ageing consumer segment with access to health promoting foods facilitates positive ageing intervention. The integration of affordability and convenience elements into ageing food design attributes is important for product acceptance. The multi-level demands and heterogeneity of ageing consumers result in the need for a variety of nutritionally tailored food formats. A dairy-based beverage was considered to be the optimal product concept for the ageing population.

Research limitations/implications

The inclusion of stakeholders from the food industry could result in levels of food industry bias. The sample size of stakeholders was limited to 16 participants. One interview guide was used throughout all interviews to ensure consistency levels. A more flexible instrument may have captured more specific stakeholder information.

Practical implications

During the early stages of the new product development process, a market-oriented research methodology can help to optimise product design in terms of product attributes that drive consumer acceptance.

Originality/value

This paper provides important insights into the significance of stakeholder tacit knowledge generation throughout the need identification stage of the NPD process. Specifically this paper provides stakeholder tacit knowledge on the optimal design of health promoting foods for the ageing population. This knowledge has the ability to provide market-oriented information on health promoting food concepts which can be valuable for food manufacturers to maximise NPD performance, create value and develop competitive advantage within their marketplace. Finally, design templates of health promoting foods for the ageing population are of high strategic importance to food manufacturers, governments, health professionals and medical professionals.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2017

Catherine Earl, Philip Taylor, Chris Roberts, Patrick Huynh and Simon Davis

Population ageing, coupled with economic uncertainty and a shifting workforce structure, has directed the attention of public and organizational policy makers toward the…

Abstract

Population ageing, coupled with economic uncertainty and a shifting workforce structure, has directed the attention of public and organizational policy makers toward the potential contribution of older workers and skilled migrants in meeting labor supply shortages in ageing populations. This chapter presents labor supply and demand scenarios for 10 OECD countries and examines trends in the labor force participation of older workers against the backdrop of changes to the nature of work in an era of globalization, casualization, and, increasingly, automation. Brief analysis of each country’s situation and policy responses indicates that China, Japan, and Korea stand out as being at particular risk of being unable to maintain growth without undertaking drastic action, although their areas of focus need to differ. A limitation of the study is that GDP projections used in labor demand analysis were based on historical rates and represented past potential and a long-run average of historic economic output. Future research might also undertake comparative analysis of case studies addressing different potential solutions to workforce ageing. A key implication of the study is that there is a need to take a blended approach to public policy regarding older workers in a changing labor market. Where migration has historically been a source of labor supplementation, this may become a less viable avenue over the near future. Future shortfalls in labor imply that economies will increasingly need to diversify their sources of workers in order to maintain economic growth. For public policy makers the challenge will be to overcome public antipathy to migration and longer working lives.

Details

Age Diversity in the Workplace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-073-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Frank Shaw

It is said that the ageing population in developed countries will cause state pension systems to collapse, cripple national health services and place unacceptable burdens…

Abstract

It is said that the ageing population in developed countries will cause state pension systems to collapse, cripple national health services and place unacceptable burdens on the state in terms of social benefits. This article challenges several prevalent myths about population ageing and repudiates the idea that ageing is a major economic and social burden. While it is indisputable that all advanced industrialised societies are ageing, this social fact has become a kind of mantra for opponents of the welfare state and for a collection of alarmists.

Details

Foresight, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

William A. Jackson

Population ageing has been seen as creating economic problems,which are often described as a worsening intergenerational conflict forresources. A rising demographic…

Abstract

Population ageing has been seen as creating economic problems, which are often described as a worsening intergenerational conflict for resources. A rising demographic dependency ratio is said to increase the “burden” on the working population, by forcing sacrifices in their consumption. Such apparently intuitive ideas are based on the assumption of a binding aggregate resource constraint, as would occur if resources were fully utilized. From a post‐Keynesian perspective, however, unemployment and excess capacity are normal to the functioning of capitalist economies, and resources are not in general fully utilized. Argues that the Keynesian process of national income determination precludes any immediate relationship between population ageing and the “burden” imposed on income recipients. Below full employment, a rising dependency ratio is not guaranteed to reduce the expenditure share of income recipients or raise their tax rates. An exclusive emphasis on intergenerational conflict can give a misleading impression of the consequences of population ageing.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Paul Alhassan Issahaku and Sheila Neysmith

The purpose of this paper is to discuss trends in demographic ageing in West Africa and asks the question of what policy challenges are posed by the increasing presence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss trends in demographic ageing in West Africa and asks the question of what policy challenges are posed by the increasing presence of older persons in the subregion. We explore the unique dimensions of population ageing in the subregion, including its rural‐urban and gendered distributions, the occupational history of older persons, among others with the view to identifying the health, housing, and income security implications of ageing. The paper discovers and reviews what policy initiatives are being pursued in respect of older persons and suggests ways for their improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on the existing literature on ageing and policy in both published and grey sources, including national and international policy documents. The discussion looks at policy responses in Ghana as a case example for the West African context. Policy information pertaining to Ghana is interpreted in light of the first author's personal familiarity with the context as a national of that country. The age of adults in this context is hard to determine due to low birth registration. In this paper older persons are defined as those 60 plus in chronological years, the age of retirement in Ghana.

Findings

It is established that older persons are concentrated in the rural areas of West Africa and a higher proportion of this demographic group is female. Further, the majority of older persons in West Africa has low formal literacy, is in the informal economy, and has no income security in old age. Yet, older persons continue to play the significant role of grandparenting. This examination of Ghana's policy on ageing revealed inadequacies which need to be addressed. A key recommendation is a policy of universal non‐means‐tested old age security to provide basic income for persons aged 60 years and above.

Originality/value

A recommended policy of universal non‐means‐tested old age security to provide basic income for persons aged 60 years and above in Ghana is the original contribution of this paper.

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Hamish Robertson

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential value of applying spatial science and technology to the issue of care integration across what are the often…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential value of applying spatial science and technology to the issue of care integration across what are the often fragmented domains of health and social care provision. The issue of focus for this purpose is population ageing because it challenges existing information and practice silos. Better integration, the author proposes, needs to adopt a geographic approach to deal with the challenges that population ageing present to health and social care as they currently function in many countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach utilised here explores the role that could be played by enhancing spatial perspectives in care integration. Spatial and temporal strategies need to be coordinated to produce systems of integrated care that are needed to meet the needs of growing numbers of older people.

Findings

The author’s premise is that, with some rare exceptions, geographies of care are needed to address important shifts in demography such as population ageing and their epidemiological consequences. The rising intersection between the ageing and disability concepts illustrates how the fluid nature of health and social care client groups will challenge existing systems and their presuppositions. Health and medical geography offer a theoretical and practical response to some of these emerging problems.

Research limitations/implications

This is a brief conceptual piece in favour of integrating geographic concepts and methods in the context of changing demography and the social, economic and service implications of such changes. It is limited in scope and a more detailed explanation would be required for a proof of concept.

Practical implications

Practically we know that all human services vary across space as do both healthcare and related social services and supports. Issues of quality and safety are numerous in these policy domains generally, with aged care evidencing a growing number of problems and challenges. Being able to inquire on significant challenges in health and social care through a spatial lens has the potential to provide another, highly practical, kind of evidence in this field of work. This lens is, the author contends, very poorly integrated into either health or social care at present. However, doing so would have a variety of useful outcomes for monitoring and intervening on real problems in care integration. An example could be “frequent flyers” in emergency departments as has been done in Camden, New Jersey through patient mapping.

Social implications

The author’s position in this paper is that the challenges we face in providing integrated care to ageing and increasingly disabled (including both physical and cognitive impairments) populations will only grow in the face of variable governmental responses and increasingly complex funding and service provider arrangements. Without a geographical perspective and the concepts and tools of spatial science the author does not see an adequate response emerging. The shift to community-based care for many groups, including the aged, means that location will become more important rather than less so. This is a societal concern of major proportions and the very concept of integrated care requires of us a geographical perspective.

Originality/value

This is a short but, the author believes, conceptually rich piece with a variety of potential practical implications for health and social care service provision. Issues of equity, quality, safety and even basic access can only grow as population ageing progresses and various forms of chronic disease and disability continue to grow. Knowing where the most affected people and their social and service connections are located will support better integration. And better integration may resolve some of the financial and related resource problems that are already evident but which can only continue to increase. In this context, the author suggests that the integrated care of the future needs to be geographically informed to be effective.

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

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Book part
Publication date: 7 November 2017

Florian Kohlbacher, Izabela Warwas and Hendrik Mollenhauer

This chapter discusses the concept of productive ageing in Japan and Poland. Productive ageing is defined as any activity by older people which produces goods or services…

Abstract

This chapter discusses the concept of productive ageing in Japan and Poland. Productive ageing is defined as any activity by older people which produces goods or services, whether paid or not. Productive ageing is slightly more narrowly defined than active ageing in so far it is focused on economic activity whereas active ageing covers a broader array of social activities. The chapter discusses activities of governments and employers in these three economies in promoting economic activities. The relative success of the Japanese economy in sustaining relative high levels of older employment is the result of active government interventions both in terms of adjusting pension policies to support working pensioners and intervening in employer practices. In Poland, government has struggled to raise older workers’ participation rates by raising pension ages and promoting older employment. In both countries, governments are recognising the economic impact of ageing demographics on the respective societies, but have had different levels of active involvement in intervening in employer practices. Finally, this chapter initiates a broader discussion of the situation in the discussed area not only in Poland, but in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

Details

Managing the Ageing Workforce in the East and the West
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-639-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Leona Reif, Nusch Herman and Genevieve Graves

By applying a futures approach to ageing of the population, Queensland has the opportunity to plan for changing aspirations of all of society – working to achieve…

Abstract

By applying a futures approach to ageing of the population, Queensland has the opportunity to plan for changing aspirations of all of society – working to achieve identified preferred outcomes for society, rather than planning for problems or just for a specific target group. Queensland 2020: A State for All Ages is a project that aims to encourage whole‐of‐government and community debate on the structural ageing of the population and the interconnected needs of all generations. It focuses on government planning frameworks and aims to generate a transformational shift in how government, business and community organisations view the ageing of the population. To focus community debate and inform government planning, the project identified four key areas and commissioned academic stimulus papers to address these issues from an intergenerational perspective. These four areas were a futures focus; an ageing perspective; a youth perspective; and a human service planning perspective.

Details

Foresight, vol. 5 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Mikiko Oliver

The purpose of this paper is to determine how population ageing is related to economic growth as measured by real GDP per capita in Japan. This study is to address the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine how population ageing is related to economic growth as measured by real GDP per capita in Japan. This study is to address the following questions: first, how is population composition by age group related to economic change? Second, how is the dependency ratio related to economic change? And finally, what are the predictions for economic growth in the future? This study answers these questions in relation to Japan.

Design/methodology/approach

Regression methods were applied to single-country data for the period 1975-2011.

Findings

This study finds that an increase in the 70-74 population age group is associated with a decrease in economic growth, while an increase in the 75 and over population age group is associated with an increase in economic growth in Japan.

Research limitations/implications

The relationships that were found in this study do not imply causation from demographic change to economic change.

Practical implications

One potential way of promoting sustainable economic growth under conditions of population ageing is to devise a comprehensive policy that focuses on demographic factors.

Originality/value

This study analyses population ageing and economic growth in Japan using single-country data by applying regression methods.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 35 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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