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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2004

Gillian Windle, Rhiannon Edwards and Vanessa Burholt

Researchers have a wide range of tools for health assessments to choose from, some of which can be lengthy and time consuming. The purpose of this paper is to examine a…

Abstract

Researchers have a wide range of tools for health assessments to choose from, some of which can be lengthy and time consuming. The purpose of this paper is to examine a potentially shorter alternative, the EQ‐5D instrument, with a community dwelling population sample of older people. Data was obtained using trained interviewers from a randomly sampled crosssectional survey of community dwelling older people. 423 people aged 70‐99 were interviewed. Information was obtained relating to activities of daily living, the EQ‐5D, the EQ‐VAS, the SF‐36, use of health and social care services and the presence or absence of a limiting illness, disability or infirmity. In terms of construct validity, the EQ‐5D was able to distinguish between hypoThesised differences in the sample that could be expected to reflect differences in health‐related quality of life. The EQ‐5D items correlated well with conceptually similar items. Completion rates for the EQ‐5D items were good, ranging from 98.3‐98.8%. Completion rates for the EQ‐VAS were 98.1%. The results suggest that the EQ‐ 5D may provide a valid measure of health‐related quality of life in a cross‐sectional population sample of older adults, although the emphasis of the scale is very much on physical health and functioning. The results for the depression/anxiety item suggest that additional information may be needed if mental health is of concern.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Gül Seçkin, Susan Hughes, Cassie Hudson, David Laljer and Dale Yeatts

Purpose: The aim of the study is to consider the use of the Internet as a potential facilitator of positive health-related perceptions. Specifically, we propose that

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of the study is to consider the use of the Internet as a potential facilitator of positive health-related perceptions. Specifically, we propose that online health information seeking fosters positive perceptions of health. Using path modeling, we theorized several mechanisms through which information seeking could be conducive to positive health perceptions, which we conceptualized into the following four dimensions: (1) sense of empowerment in managing health, (2) self-reported ability to take better care of health, (3) sense of improved health-related quality of life, and (4) self-reported improvement of health.

Methodology: Our sample consisted of respondents who have used the Internet as a resource for health information (n = 710), drawn from the largest national probability-based online research panel. Our comparison subsample consisted of older respondents (age ≥ 60; n = 194). We used Internet-specific measures and employed structural equation models (SEM) to estimate the direct, indirect, and total effects of health-related use of the Internet on subjective health perceptions. Based on our review of the literature, competent health communication with healthcare providers and sense of empowerment in managing personal health were modeled as mediator variables. We assessed whether the proposed mediational relationships, if significant, differed across our indicators of positive health perceptions and whether any differential associations were observed among older adults. We run parallel models for each indicator of positive health perception.

Findings: Provider-patient communication informed by the Internet resources were perceived to impart a greater sense of empowerment to manage health among our respondents, which in turn, was associated with perceived contributions to better self-reported ability to provide self-care, increased health-related quality of life, and improvement in self-reported health. The SEM results revealed a good fit with our full sample and subsample.

Research Implications: Conceptualization of the multidimensional aspects of online health information seeking with separate multi-indicator analyses of the outcome variable is important to further our understanding of how technology may impact the pathways involved in influencing health perceptions and as a result health outcomes.

Details

eHealth: Current Evidence, Promises, Perils and Future Directions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-322-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Ali Kazemi Karyani, Satar Rezaei, Behzad Karami Matin and Saeed Amini

Poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is one of the important issues in the health sector. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence and…

Abstract

Purpose

Poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is one of the important issues in the health sector. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence and socio-economic inequality in poor HRQoL in Tehran city, Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 562 adults were included in this cross-sectional study. The cluster sampling method was used for data collection from May to June, 2016 in Tehran city, Iran. Data on HRQoL, using EuroQol 5-dimensions questionnaire, and data on socio-economic and demographic variables were gathered. Convenience regression method was performed to measure the concentration index (CI). Decomposition analysis was performed to determine the contribution of variables on socio-economic inequality in poor HRQoL. All analyses were performed by Stata v.14.

Findings

The prevalence of poor HRQoL was 28.3 percent. The value of CI for “poor HRQoL” was −0.299 (95% confidence interval: −0.402 to −0.195). Socio-economic status (SES) was the largest contributor to socio-economic inequality in poor HRQoL (69.44 percent of inequality was explained by SES). Age, obesity and race had a positive contribution to socio-economic inequality in poor HRQoL among the participants. Nonetheless, sex and smoking intensity had a negative contribution to inequality in poor HRQoL.

Originality/value

There is little evidence about the prevalence of poor HRQoL in insured people. This study provided new evidence in this area through the investigation of socio-economic inequality in poor HRQoL and its determinants among people with health insurance in Iran using decomposition analysis.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Sara LeGrand, Teresa L. Scheid and Kathryn Whetten

This chapter examines the associations between gender, social support, and health outcomes for individuals living with HIV disease. We include social integration and…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines the associations between gender, social support, and health outcomes for individuals living with HIV disease. We include social integration and social isolation as structural measures of social support as well as perceived social support and social conflict as functional measures of social support. We include both mental health and physical health outcomes, which are too often studied in isolation of each other.

Methodology/approach

Data are from the Coping with HIV/AIDS in the Southeast (CHASE) study; this study reports on baseline data from 611 participants collected from 2001 to 2002. We first examined differences by gender and race, and then used blocked linear regression to determine the additive effects of the social support variables on both mental and physical health outcomes while controlling for potential confounders.

Findings

There were notable differences in the significance and strength of social support variables in health outcome models for men and women. Unlike men, social conflict was the strongest predictor of greater psychological distress and poorer physical health-related quality of life among women.

Research limitations/implications

While the results from this study contribute to a greater understanding of gender differences in the relationships between social support and health outcomes, the data used for this study are limited to those living with HIV/AIDS in the Southeast.

Originality/value

Our findings suggest that social conflict may be more detrimental for the health of women than men.

Details

Special Social Groups, Social Factors and Disparities in Health and Health Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-467-9

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2013

Johanna Buchcik, Joachim Westenhoefer and Colin R. Martin

Definition-problems concerning the terms “migrant” and “Health-Related Quality of Life” (HRQoL) have a negative impact on the operationalization and measurement of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Definition-problems concerning the terms “migrant” and “Health-Related Quality of Life” (HRQoL) have a negative impact on the operationalization and measurement of the multidimensional and subjective construct of HRQoL. The aims of this systematic literature review are to address the following questions: How can the instruments used within the research field “migration and HRQoL” be described or categorized? Which dimensions (psychological, physical and social) and associated sub-dimensions have been used concerning measuring HRQoL when measures are applied to migrants?

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review was conducted. Three databases (Medline, Embase and Cinahl) were systematically searched for the investigation on HRQoL of migrants. Articles written in English, German and Polish, published since 2003 and meeting other inclusion criteria, were included in the final analysis.

Findings

In the first stage a total of 4,062 studies were identified. However, very few studies were found to focus on HRQoL among migrants. Finally, 28 studies were included in the analysis. The results confirm that the terms “migrant” and “Quality of Life” and “Health-Related Quality of Life” are neither congruently used nor defined, respectively, within these studies, which consequently impacts deleteriously on the application and measurement of the concept in these groups. The majority of the studies reported to measure HRQoL with a well-known and validated HRQoL instrument. The physical dimensions (symptoms/pain/vitality, energy/vitality/sleep and the objective/subjective health status) are predominantly represented in the reviewed literature. The psychological dimension mostly includes sub-dimensions such as psychological stress and depressive symptoms; the social dimension was predominantly considered as the sub-dimension social relationships/networking.

Originality/value

This paper highlights profound issues in the accurate assessment of HRQoL in migrants. This may have a significant impact on delivery of appropriate evidenced-based care for migrants in need of healthcare intervention.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Peter Hobson, Lesley Leeds and Jolyon Meara

The methods of coping and their relationship to disease severity, cognitive function, depression and health‐related quality of life (HRQoL) were examined in 79 Parkinson's…

Abstract

The methods of coping and their relationship to disease severity, cognitive function, depression and health‐related quality of life (HRQoL) were examined in 79 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and their carers. The coping methods of the PD patients were not associated with disease severity, cognitive function, or depression. In general the majority of correlations were weak. However, patients who used avoidance and cognitive coping methods reported improved HRQoL. Impaired cognitive function, poorer HRQoL and increased disease severity were associated with depression in patients. In carers, avoidance coping was associated with depression and cognitive impairment in the patient being cared for. These findings demonstrate the complex relationship in PD between impairment, quality of life, depression, cognitive function and the coping styles adopted by patients and carers. The study also highlights the difficulties in measuring these interactions with quantitative outcome measures.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

M.S. Sajid, A. Tonsi and M.K. Baig

The purpose of this article is to discuss the value of health‐related quality of life (HR‐QOL) measurement and describe its development with a few examples.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to discuss the value of health‐related quality of life (HR‐QOL) measurement and describe its development with a few examples.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is a literature review of various articles published in the last 25 years on health‐related quality of life.

Findings

HR‐QOL tools are health status instruments, which are utilized to assess the changes in the health status of patients. These surveys are of increasingly importance as healthcare providers are challenged to justify treatment approaches and rationale for any intervention. Objective criteria can be used to determine whether there is clinical evidence of disease. However, the impact of disease on the individual's life is not included in such a clinical assessment. The use of validated and reliable health instruments is directed at measuring this impact in a reproducible and valid fashion. In patient‐centred research, “experimental” conditions are constantly changing because human beings with values, feelings, perspectives and social relationships are being treated. It is especially important to use valid measurement tools when assessing these impacts.

Originality/value

This article is written from the authors' own experience and knowledge and adds those benefits to the literature already available.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Book part
Publication date: 15 September 2014

Scott V. Savage, Samantha Kwan and Kelly Bergstrand

This study illustrates that differences across health-related websites, as well as different Internet usage patterns, have significant implications for how individuals…

Abstract

Purpose

This study illustrates that differences across health-related websites, as well as different Internet usage patterns, have significant implications for how individuals view and interact with their health care providers.

Methodology/approach

We rely on a qualitative study of three health-related websites and an ordinary least squares regression analysis of survey data to explore how websites with different organizational motives frame health-related issues and how variations in Internet usage patterns affect patients’ perceptions of the patient-doctor interaction.

Findings

Results reveal differences across three health-related websites and show that both the number and the type of websites patients visit affect their perceptions of physicians’ responses. Specifically, visiting multiple websites decreased perceptions of how well doctors listened to or answered patients’ questions, whereas using nonprofit or government health-related websites increased evaluations of how well doctors listened to and answered questions.

Research limitations/implications

This study suggests that practitioners and scholars should look more closely at how patients use the Internet to understand how it affects doctor-patient interactions. Future research could expand the analysis of website framing or use methods such as in-depth interviewing to more fully understand on-the-ground processes and mechanisms.

Originality/value of chapter

This study highlights the importance of fleshing out nuances about what it means to be an Internet-informed patient given that varying patterns of Internet use may affect how patients perceive their physicians.

Details

Technology, Communication, Disparities and Government Options in Health and Health Care Services
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-645-3

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Rocco Palumbo, Carmela Annarumma, Paola Adinolfi and Marco Musella

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the changing patterns of users’ behavior in the health care service system. Although patient engagement and health services…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the changing patterns of users’ behavior in the health care service system. Although patient engagement and health services’ co-production are understood as essential ingredients in the recipe for sustainable health systems, some determinants to patient involvement are still widely neglected by both policy makers and health care professionals. Among others, inadequate health literacy performs as a significant barrier to patient empowerment.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey aimed at objectively measuring health literacy-related skills was administered to a random sample of 600 Italian patients. The Italian version of the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) was used to assess the ability of the respondents to deal with written health information. Moreover, the respondents were asked to self-report their ability to navigate the health system. It was presumed that inadequate health literacy as measured by the NVS is related with impaired self-reported functional, interactive, and critical health-related competencies, paving the way for the inability and the unwillingness of patients to be involved in the health care provision.

Findings

About half of the sample showed inadequate health literacy. However, poor NVS scores were only slightly associated with limited self-reported functional, interactive, and critical health-related competencies. In general, patients with inadequate health-related skills were not likely to be engaged in the provision of health services. Elderly, people suffering from financial deprivation and less educated individuals were found to be at special risk of living with limited health literacy.

Practical implications

Limited health literacy is a common and relevant issue among people dealing with the health care service system. The impaired ability to collect, process, and use health information produces barriers to patient engagement and prevents the evolution of patients’ behavior toward health care co-production.

Originality/value

Health literacy is a widely overlooked issue in the Italian national health system. This paper contributes in shedding light on the determinants and effects of health literacy of Italian hospital patients. Besides, some insights on the validity of the methodological tools typically used to assess health-related skills are provided.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2019

Wolfgang A. Markham

The purpose of this paper is to extend a theory of health promoting schools (Markham and Aveyard, 2003) that draws heavily upon Nussbaum’s Aristotelian interpretation of

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend a theory of health promoting schools (Markham and Aveyard, 2003) that draws heavily upon Nussbaum’s Aristotelian interpretation of good human functioning (Nussbaum, 1990). This theory of health promoting schools proposed that health is grounded in the meeting of identified fundamental human needs and the realisation of identified essential human capacities (Markham and Aveyard, 2003).

Design/methodology/approach

The extension of this theory is achieved through the application of influential social theories with practical tenets to Nussbaum’s insights (Nussbaum, 1990). This extension includes additional essential human capacities, a description and definition of how good human functioning may be recognised, potential limitations of the capabilities approaches and a discussion of major factors inhibiting good human functioning.

Findings

The potential contribution of the outlined framework to discussions of health and health promotion is highlighted in two ways. First, this paper considers how the outlined framework may contribute to discussions of quality of life, morbidity/premature mortality and health-related behaviours. Second, this paper briefly considers how the outlined framework may contribute to discussions of public health policy, and the planning, delivery and evaluation of health promotion initiatives. Basic exemplar pre- and post-questionnaires for a hypothetical health promoting community development programme are offered.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to contribute to discussions of the application of Nussbaum’s Aristotelean interpretation of good human functioning to both public health and health promotion.

Details

Health Education, vol. 119 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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