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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

J.F. Wang, W.Y. Wang and S.B. Chen

The control of weld penetration in gas tungsten‐arc welding (GTAW) is required for fully automated systems to overcome variations in the welding process. The surface…

Abstract

Purpose

The control of weld penetration in gas tungsten‐arc welding (GTAW) is required for fully automated systems to overcome variations in the welding process. The surface depression of weld pool, or weld pool height, has a close relationship with width of the backside bead in the full‐penetrated weld. The purpose of this paper is to inspect the pool height.

Design/methodology/approach

A fast linear approach, based on shape from shading (SFS) algorithm, was employed to reconstruct a 3D shape of welding pool from a 2D image, which was obtained from a real welding pool. Then the pool height can be extracted. Furthermore, three methods were introduced to improve the above algorithm.

Findings

The reconstructed pool height was in good agreement with the real height of weld pool from experiments.

Research limitations/implications

The algorithm requires a uniform reflection on the pool surface.

Practical implications

This method is applicable to inspect weld pool height in GTAW. It is a basis for future work on control of weld penetration.

Originality/value

A faster SFS algorithm has been introduced to extract weld pool height in real‐time. Moreover, the algorithm was improved to fit for extracting the surface shape of weld pool.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Philip H. Perkins

The experience of the writer is that defects in swimming pools, particularly the small private pool, often originate from the way in which the contract was entered into;…

Abstract

The experience of the writer is that defects in swimming pools, particularly the small private pool, often originate from the way in which the contract was entered into; that is, by a wrong approach to the problem of ‘getting the pool built’. Therefore some comments on pre‐contract procedure are given before a detailed discussion of the more common defects which are likely to be found in the types of pool covered by this paper. These are:

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2011

Tho D. Nguyen and Trang T.M. Nguyen

Based on the resource‐based view of the firm, this study aims to examine antecedents and outcomes of firm‐specific marketing capital pool invested by marketers in a…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the resource‐based view of the firm, this study aims to examine antecedents and outcomes of firm‐specific marketing capital pool invested by marketers in a transition market, Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 528 marketers in Ho Chi Minh City was surveyed to test the theoretical model. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data.

Findings

It was found that firm‐specific marketing capital pool had positive impacts on both job attractiveness and job satisfaction. The impacts of human marketing capital and relational marketing capital pools on firm‐specific marketing capital were significant. Finally, the relationship between job attractiveness and job satisfaction, and the relationship between human marketing capital pool and relational marketing capital pool were also significant.

Research limitations/implications

A key limitation of this study is the examination of only two antecedents of firm‐specific marketing capital pool: human and relational marketing capital pools.

Practical implications

The results of this study suggest that firms should establish people management policies and practices that motivate marketers to invest more in firm‐specific marketing capital to enhance job attractiveness and job satisfaction of marketers. Also, in order to improve firm‐specific marketing capital, recruiting marketers with high levels of human and relational marketing capital pools is a priority.

Originality/value

The study investigates the role of human resources at the marketing professional level in job attractiveness and job satisfaction in a transition market.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Guoxin Xie, Ziyi Cui, Lina Si and Dan Guo

This paper aims to introduce a series of experimental results which are the extension of our previous novel observations (Xie et al., Soft Matter, 2011), which could be…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce a series of experimental results which are the extension of our previous novel observations (Xie et al., Soft Matter, 2011), which could be helpful for revealing the lubrication failure mechanism in bearings when they are exposed to an electrical environment.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental apparatus where a ball was in contact with a glass disk coated with a semi-reflective chromium layer. A small volume of oil droplet was put into the microgap of the ball-disk contact. Then, a potential was applied onto the oil micropool formed by the droplet surrounding the contact region.

Findings

It has been found that destabilization of the low-conducting oil micropool around the contact region could be induced after applying a potential. Thin oil films could be drained out of the oil pool and spread on the tribopair surfaces, resulting in the depletion of the oil pool. When the applied potential was increased, the occurrence of spreading would be easier and its development would be more obvious. In contrast, the electrospreading behavior would be suppressed when the oil viscosity, contact load and oil pool size were increased. Thermocapillary force due to thermal effect as a result of the current flow near the oil pool border has been proposed as the main driving force for the spreading behavior. The influences of the operating parameters have been ascribed to the change of the electric current near the oil pool border as well as the corresponding variations in the temperature rise and the surface tension of the oil pool.

Originality/value

This is the first study to directly observe that the lubricant oil micropool around the contact region could deplete after applying a potential, potentially resulting in oil starvation in the contact region.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2014

Scott Carter

This chapter argues that the Marxian theory of exploitation underlies the concepts of surplus and deficit industries that appear in Sraffa’s (1960) Production of

Abstract

This chapter argues that the Marxian theory of exploitation underlies the concepts of surplus and deficit industries that appear in Sraffa’s (1960) Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities. This is seen from archival research of the unpublished papers of Piero Sraffa housed at the Wren Library, Trinity College, University of Cambridge. There it is shown that the origin of these concepts lies in the Marxian theory of exploitation that Sraffa developed regarding the notion of the ‘pool of profits’ the Italian economist utilized over a 14-year period from 1942 to 1956. The chapter engages in an extensive textual study of the archival evidence and then presents a simple analytical model of these relations.

Details

Research in Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-007-0

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Book part
Publication date: 21 August 2012

Ryan Lampe and Petra Moser

Purpose – This chapter examines the licensing behavior of patent pools when they are unconstrained by antitrust rules.Design/methodology/approach – Patent pools allow…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter examines the licensing behavior of patent pools when they are unconstrained by antitrust rules.

Design/methodology/approach – Patent pools allow competing firms to combine their patents and license them as a package to outside firms. Regulators today favor pools that license their patents freely to outside firms, making it difficult to observe the unconstrained licensing strategies of patent pools. This chapter takes advantage of a unique period of regulatory tolerance during the New Deal to investigate the unconstrained licensing decisions of pools. Archival evidence suggests that – in the absence of regulation – pools may not choose to license their technologies.

Findings/originality/value – Eleven of twenty pools that formed between 1930 and 1938 did not issue any licenses to outside firms. Three pools granted one, two, and three licenses, respectively, to resolve litigation. Six pools issued between 9 and 185 licenses. Archival evidence suggests that the pools studied in this chapter used licensing as a means to limit competition with substitute technologies.

Details

History and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-024-6

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2004

John L. Peterman

A study of the price discounts granted by Morton Salt Company and other producers of table salt in the U.S. on their sales of table salt to grocery wholesalers and…

Abstract

A study of the price discounts granted by Morton Salt Company and other producers of table salt in the U.S. on their sales of table salt to grocery wholesalers and retailers. The discounts were found to be illegal under the Robinson-Patman Act by the Federal Trade Commission and the Supreme Court. The Commission and the Court believed that the discounts were unjustified price concessions granted to “large” buyers, consistent with the concerns of the Robinson-Patman Act. However, the evidence indicates that the most common discount – the “carload discount” – was received by virtually all buyers, regardless of the buyer’s size; the other discounts – “annual volume” discounts – though received primarily by “large” buyers, were likely cost based. The history of the discounts and likely reasons why they were granted are explored in detail.

Details

Antitrust Law and Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-115-6

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Book part
Publication date: 27 July 2021

David W. Brannon and Ralf Burbach

Purpose: We generally ascribe hospitality industry talent shortages to organisations competing for dwindling talent rather than their inability to sustain industry talent…

Abstract

Purpose: We generally ascribe hospitality industry talent shortages to organisations competing for dwindling talent rather than their inability to sustain industry talent pools. This chapter suggests that developing sustainable talent management and development (STMD) initiatives can address the talent attraction and retention issues the industry is facing. Following Ostrom’s (2002) design principles, we advocate for sustainable common pool resource networks as a solution for developing durable STMD initiatives to address talent shortages within the hospitality industry.

Methodology: A conceptual chapter synthesising disparate theories in a new context.

Findings: Despite hospitality organisations’ continued investment in talent management, talent shortages remain systematically embedded within the industry. These are the result of a perennial competition among hospitality firms for talent, when, instead, these firms should engage in collective efforts to sustain industry talent pools. The adoption of a more sustainable approach by incorporating Ostrom’s (2002) design principles to establish long-lasting common talent pool resource in the form of industry rather than firm-level talent pools may halt the decline in available talent.

Research Limitation/Implications: While hospitality organisations have a vested interest in sustainably managing talent, limited attention has been paid to creating sustainable industry talent pools. We propose several design principles for developing durable STMD initiatives, which require empirical testing.

Practical/Social Implications: We address talent shortages for hospitality organisations by offering the blueprint for developing sustainable industry talent pools for a collection of firms, which, on their own, would lack the experience and resources to securing a steady supply of talent. In addition, industry talent pools also have the potential to improve the general working conditions for employees in this industry pool.

Originality/Value of Chapter: This chapter addresses hospitality industry talent shortages by proposing the creation of sustainable regional industry talent pools rather than focussing on firm-level talent management practices.

Details

Talent Management Innovations in the International Hospitality Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-307-9

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Florian Klein and Hato Schmeiser

The purpose of this paper is to determine optimal pooling strategies from the perspective of an insurer's shareholders underlying a default probability driven premium…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine optimal pooling strategies from the perspective of an insurer's shareholders underlying a default probability driven premium loading and convex price-demand functions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use an option pricing framework for normally distributed claims to analyze the net present value for different pooling strategies and contrast multiple risk pools structured as a single legal entity with the case of multiple legal entities. To achieve the net present value maximizing default probability, the insurer adjusts the underlying equity capital.

Findings

The authors show with the theoretical considerations and numerical examples that multiple risk pools with multiple legal entities are optimal if the equity capital must be decreased. An equity capital increase implies that multiple risk pools in a single legal entity are generally optimal. Moreover, a single risk pool for multiple risk classes improves in relation to multiple risk pools with multiple legal entities whenever the standard deviation of the underlying claims increases.

Originality/value

The authors extend previous research on risk pooling by introducing a default probability driven premium loading and a relation between the premium level and demand through a convex price-demand function.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2020

Thomas Jason Boulton and Marcus V. Braga-Alves

Prior research posits that traders with short-lived information favor lit exchanges over dark pools due to execution certainty. This paper aims to focus on the relation…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research posits that traders with short-lived information favor lit exchanges over dark pools due to execution certainty. This paper aims to focus on the relation between informed trading based on firm fundamentals and dark pool volume because the preferred venue for traders with longer-lived information is less certain.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine the effect of short interest, a proxy for informed traders with long-lived information, on dark pool volume using fixed effects, first difference and instrumental variable approaches. They examine the effect of dark pools on the profitability of long-lived information using market- and characteristic-adjusted returns.

Findings

The proportion of trading volume executed in dark pools is positively correlated with short interest. This result is stronger for stocks that suffer from greater uncertainty and stocks targeted by transient institutional investors. Short sellers profit substantially from their information as subsequent returns are lower for heavily shorted stocks with greater dark pool volume.

Research limitations/implications

In 2014, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority began making trading data available for dark pools. Before that, only limited information was publicly available. The authors use that data to shed more light on dark pools activity.

Practical implications

The evidence presented in the paper helps inform the current discussion about the role and regulation of dark pools.

Originality/value

This is the first study to show that informed traders with long-lived information favor dark pools due to their opacity and the possibility of price improvement.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 46 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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