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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2022

Yoonseok Lee and Donggyu Sul

This chapter develops robust panel estimation in the form of trimmed mean group estimation for potentially heterogenous panel regression models. It trims outlying…

Abstract

This chapter develops robust panel estimation in the form of trimmed mean group estimation for potentially heterogenous panel regression models. It trims outlying individuals of which the sample variances of regressors are either extremely small or large. The limiting distribution of the trimmed estimator can be obtained in a similar way to the standard mean group (MG) estimator, provided the random coefficients are conditionally homoskedastic. The authors consider two trimming methods. The first one is based on the order statistic of the sample variance of each regressor. The second one is based on the Mahalanobis depth of the sample variances of regressors. The authors apply them to the MG estimation of the two-way fixed effects model with potentially heterogeneous slope parameters and to the common correlated effects regression, and the authors derive limiting distribution of each estimator. As an empirical illustration, the authors consider the effect of police on property crime rates using the US state-level panel data.

Details

Essays in Honor of M. Hashem Pesaran: Panel Modeling, Micro Applications, and Econometric Methodology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-065-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 June 2016

Alexander Chudik, Kamiar Mohaddes, M. Hashem Pesaran and Mehdi Raissi

This paper develops a cross-sectionally augmented distributed lag (CS-DL) approach to the estimation of long-run effects in large dynamic heterogeneous panel data models…

Abstract

This paper develops a cross-sectionally augmented distributed lag (CS-DL) approach to the estimation of long-run effects in large dynamic heterogeneous panel data models with cross-sectionally dependent errors. The asymptotic distribution of the CS-DL estimator is derived under coefficient heterogeneity in the case where the time dimension (T ) and the cross-section dimension (N ) are both large. The CS-DL approach is compared with more standard panel data estimators that are based on autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) specifications. It is shown that unlike the ARDL-type estimator, the CS-DL estimator is robust to misspecification of dynamics and error serial correlation. The theoretical results are illustrated with small sample evidence obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulations, which suggest that the performance of the CS-DL approach is often superior to the alternative panel ARDL estimates, particularly when T is not too large and lies in the range of 30–50.

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2022

Seemab Ahmad, Dilawar Khan and Ihtisham ul Haq

The widening income gap between rich and poor has gained worldwide recognition in recent decades. This income gap between rich and poor is defined as the extent of income…

Abstract

Purpose

The widening income gap between rich and poor has gained worldwide recognition in recent decades. This income gap between rich and poor is defined as the extent of income unevenly distributed in a host country. This study provides an empirical view of the association between information and communication technology and the widening of the income gap.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used panel data from 2005 to 2019. To detect unit root issues, Levin and Lin (LL) and Im, Pesaran and Shin (IPS) tests were first employed. The pooled mean group and mean group estimators were employed to investigate the short and long -term impact of information and communication technology and other control factors on reducing the gap between rich and poor in South Asia.

Findings

The results showed that the Pooled mean group's findings are more efficient and consistent as compared to mean group estimators. The results of the paper showed that the greater penetration of information and communication technologies in the economy negatively and significantly affects income inequality. Moreover, the information and communication technology, foreign remittances and foreign direct investment (FDI) significantly reduce the gap between rich and poor in the long run.

Practical implications

At last, the findings of the study serve as an excellent roadmap for policymakers seeking to address the issue of growing income inequality in the South Asian regions and worldwide.

Originality/value

Based on the findings of this study, South Asia can reduce the gap between rich and poor by investing more in the information and communication technology sector.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-10-2021-0638

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 49 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Surendra Singh Rajpurohit and Rajesh Sharma

This paper not only aims to validate the environment Kuznets curve concerning five Asian economies but also attempts to analyze the impact of some additional factors like…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper not only aims to validate the environment Kuznets curve concerning five Asian economies but also attempts to analyze the impact of some additional factors like financial development, energy consumption and foreign direct investment (FDI) on carbon emissions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies pooled mean group approach on the variables of a panel of five Asian economies namely India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Malaysia for a period of 35 years from 1980 to 2014.

Findings

This study finds that while moderate economic growth as well as moderate financial development increase carbon emissions, accelerated or exponential economic growth as well as exponential financial development eventually reduce the level of carbon emissions. Energy consumption was found to have a direct and significant relationship with carbon emissions. FDI inflows when analyzed on a stand-alone basis were observed to have an inverse relationship with carbon emissions, while FDI inflows when clubbed with financial development were observed to have a direct relationship with carbon emissions.

Practical implications

The findings of this study, which validate the environmental Kuznets curve, suggest striving for higher economic growth, even if it causes increased carbon emissions to begin with, as the effects on carbon emissions would eventually get reversed when the economic growth accelerates at a higher rate. This study also suggests the appropriate routing of FDI through a mature and developed financial sector to leverage its impact on the environment in a positive way.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge of the authors of this paper, there has not been any research carried out so far, which has analyzed the impact of the combination of variables selected for this study concerning the five Asian economies covered in this paper.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Priya Gupta and Parul Bhatia

For more than four decades, persistent economic activities and a focused growth strategy resulted in significant infrastructural and other favorable economic and…

Abstract

Purpose

For more than four decades, persistent economic activities and a focused growth strategy resulted in significant infrastructural and other favorable economic and institutional changes in the world's developing nations. High-quality growth is not just a function of sound economic policies but also implementing a broad range of social policies. The BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) nations have proven their testimony on both these factors. Following their path are some other emerging economies like N-11 (or Next Eleven propounded by Goldman Sachs (2005) Report), which this present study tries to examine as successors of BRICS.

Design/methodology/approach

Along with panel data regression modelling, the study has applied econometric procedures robust to heterogeneities across various nations and have been able to produce more reliable results that can be generalized for other similar groups of countries. 11 independent variables (both economic and institutional) have been used to meet the study's objective for a period of 34 years (1985–2018).

Findings

The findings of the study reveal that the governments of both the group of countries must work toward their macro-economic stability factors (external debt stocks), technological capabilities (mobile and fixed broadband subscriptions), human capital (health expenditure) and political conditions (mainly the rule of law) to enhance their sustainable economic growth.

Research limitations/implications

This study enhances knowledge of the determinants of economic growth in emerging countries. Firms from BRICS and N-11 may better understand the factors influencing their internationalization process (both economic and institutional). The study is significant not just for the researchers but also for the policymakers of the BRICS and N-11 to understand in which areas their country is leading or lagging. The study is useful even for the policymakers of other emerging countries of the world who might take lessons from these nations (especially BRICS) and follow their success path. This study helps the governments of other groups of emerging countries such as PIN (Pakistan, Indonesia and Nigeria); MINT (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey); CIVETS (Colombia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey and South Africa), etc. which can follow the path of BRICS economies in growth and formulate policies to increase their economic growth accordingly. At the enterprise level, it helps MNCs understand BRICS and N-11 markets and formulating entry and growth strategies in these most emerging countries of the world.

Originality/value

The present study is unique. It tries to investigate the projections of the Goldman Sachs report after 15 years of its release. It tries to determine the factors responsible for the economic development in the N-11 countries with advanced econometric techniques. Majorly, the focus is to comparatively analyze the growth trajectory for BRICS and N-11 nations and suggest whether N-11 has the potential to become successors of BRICS. A concentrated effort to examine the most significant drivers (both economic and institutional), which may lead to economic progression, has been made in this study.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 17 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2019

Wang Li Wong, Chin Lee and Seow Shin Koong

This paper is motivated by a concern about the ability of the average Malaysian income to catch up with the rapidly increasing house prices in Peninsular Malaysia…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper is motivated by a concern about the ability of the average Malaysian income to catch up with the rapidly increasing house prices in Peninsular Malaysia. Financial innovation in financial system now regards houses as a financial asset and speculation vehicle. Therefore, a house purchase is made to acquire not merely a necessity but also a financial asset which can generate future returns. Given the problems in the housing market, this paper aims to examine the determinants of house prices in Malaysia, including those such as income, population, foreign inflow and speculation.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts panel data analyses, namely, the fixed effect model (FEM) and the pooled mean group (PMG), and uses data at state level in quarterly frequency, spanning from 2005Q1 to 2013Q4.

Findings

Based on the results of FEM, these determinants influence house prices significantly. Moreover, the PMG results suggest that there is convergence in the model, which are indicated by the significant and negative sign of the error correction term. In conclusion, the rapidly increasing house price is not caused by speculation activities in the housing market. More precisely, Malaysian income is capable of catching up with the increasing house prices.

Practical implications

As income remains to be one of the major drivers in influencing Malaysian house price, Malaysian Government shall continue the policies of supply low cost houses to the low-income groups and My First Home Scheme (SRP) by offering less stringent rules in applying house loan for the first-time house buyers.

Originality/value

This study used the actual data of foreign housing purchase obtained from Malaysia Valuation and Property Services Department to represent foreign inflow; therefore, the results will reflect the impact of foreign inflow in a better manner.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2018

Yusnidah Ibrahim and Jimoh Olajide Raji

This paper aims to examine the influence of key macroeconomic factors on the inward and outward acquisition activities of six ASEAN (ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the influence of key macroeconomic factors on the inward and outward acquisition activities of six ASEAN (ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, over the 1996-2015 period.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses alternative panel data methods, including pooled mean group, mean group and dynamic fixed-effect estimators.

Findings

The results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP), interest rate, exchange rate, money supply and inflation rate are the most important macroeconomic factors explaining the trends of cross-border mergers and acquisition outflows of the ASEAN-6 countries. Specifically, GDP, money supply and inflation rate have significant positive relationships with acquisition outflows, while interest rate and exchange rate exert significant negative influence. On the other hand, the authors find four significant macroeconomic factors explaining the trends of the inward acquisitions. Essentially, GDP, money supply and inflation rate have significant positive impacts on inward acquisitions, while the impact of exchange rate is negatively significant.

Research limitations/implications

Unavailability of data limits this study to pool six sample countries from ASEAN, instead of ten representative member countries.

Practical implications

The results of this study can signal to firms or investors, involving in cross-border mergers and acquisitions, where to direct foreign resources flows. Moreover, having the knowledge about the relative levels of market size and other macroeconomic factors in both home and host countries can be of great importance for investment decision. Therefore, policymakers of ASEAN countries should make appropriate macroeconomic policies that can stimulate inward and outward acquisitions.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this paper is that it is the first to present the analysis of macroeconomic influences on the trends of inward and outward merger and acquisition activities in six ASEAN countries.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Chandan Sharma

This study aims to examine the relationship between exchange rate risk and export at commodity level for the Indian case.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between exchange rate risk and export at commodity level for the Indian case.

Design/methodology/approach

The monthly panel data used for analysis are at a disaggregated level, which cover around 100 products, encompassing all merchandize sectors for the period spanning from 2012:12 to 2017:11. To measure the exchange rate volatility, the authors use real as well as nominal exchange rate concepts and predict the volatility of exchange rate using the autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic-based model. They use pooled mean group, mean group and common correlated effects mean group estimator that is suitable for the objectives and data frequency.

Findings

The empirical analysis indicates both short- and long-term negative effects of exchange rate variations on exporting. Specifically, in the long run, real exchange rate as well as nominal exchange rate volatility has significant effects on export performance, yet, the effects of uncertainty of nominal exchange rate is much severe and intense. In the short run, it is the nominal exchange rate uncertainty that hurts exports from India. Nevertheless, the short-run effect is much lesser than the long-run, supporting the argument that the short-term exchange rate risk can be hedged, at least partially, through financial instruments; however, uncertainty of the long-term horizon cannot be hedged easily and cost-effectively.

Practical implications

Reducing uncertainty and attaining stability in exchange rate and price level should be an important policy objective in developing countries such as India to achieve higher export growth, both in the short and long run.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, this paper tests the relationship using micro-level data and uses advanced econometric techniques that are likely to provide more precise information regarding the association between exchange rate volatility and trade flows.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2018

Oyakhilome Wallace Ibhagui

The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse how different exchange rate regimes affect the links between monetary fundamentals and exchange rates in Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse how different exchange rate regimes affect the links between monetary fundamentals and exchange rates in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Pedroni method for panel cointegration, mean group and pooled mean group and the panel vector autoregressive technique, this study empirically investigates whether monetary fundamentals impact exchange rates similarly in both regimes. Thus, the author acquires needed and credible empirical data.

Findings

The result suggests that the impact is dissimilar. In the floating regime, an increase in relative money supply and relative real output depreciates and appreciates the nominal exchange rate in the long run whereas in the non-floating regime, the evidence is mixed. Thus, exchange rates bear a theoretically consistent relationship with monetary fundamentals across SSA countries with floating regimes but fails under non-floating regimes. This provides evidence that regime choice is important if the relationship between monetary fundamentals and exchange rates in SSA are to be theoretically consistent.

Originality/value

This study empirically incorporates the dissimilarities in exchange rate regimes in a panel framework and study the links between exchange rates and monetary fundamentals. The focus on how exchange rate regimes might alter the equilibrium relationships between exchange rates and monetary fundamentals in SSA is a pioneering experiment.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Ebere Ume Kalu, Augustine Chuck Arize, Sylvester Okechukwu Ilo, Ifeoma Ihegboro and Chiamaka Goodness Eze

This study investigated the interactive impact of global and domestic stock market variables on the depth of the financial system in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the interactive impact of global and domestic stock market variables on the depth of the financial system in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries from 1990 to 2018.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the mean group and pooled mean group estimators for the dynamic heterogeneous panel.

Findings

The results provide strong statistical evidence that the depth of the financial system in SSA countries is influenced by a combination of local and international stock market indicators. While the local variables exert a positive influence, the global indicator tends to negatively affect the depth of the system, particularly the monetization ratio.

Practical implications

While the tendency of portfolio adjustments and reversal can be inferred, the study stresses the need for a more globalized approach to financial policy formulation and implementation even as the trend of global financializaton gets more robust and more profound.

Originality/value

This study is unique in that, unlike prior ones, it has extended the debate on the role of the stock market in financial deepening from a domestic to an international dimension. Financial policy making can be aided by the authors' findings through looking at the financial deepening-stock market linkage from both domestic and globalized perspectives.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 34000