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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

Richard W. Lacey

Intensive methods of farming and food processing are particularlylikely to result in food inadequate in n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids,and also in folic acid. These fatty

Abstract

Intensive methods of farming and food processing are particularly likely to result in food inadequate in n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and also in folic acid. These fatty acids are required for numerous metabolic functions including protection against heart attacks. Folic acid is essential for a baby′s developing nervous system.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 94 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Afnan Mahmood Freije and Maysoon Nedham Awadh

The purpose of this paper is to determine the fatty acid composition of the edible snail Turbo coronatus from the Bahrain sea.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the fatty acid composition of the edible snail Turbo coronatus from the Bahrain sea.

Design/methodology/approach

Total lipid content was extracted and methyl esters of fatty acids (FAMEs) were prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography.

Findings

Gas‐liquid chromatography shows that saturated fatty acids (SFA) are the major forms of fatty acids, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The most abundant PUFA are linolenic acid (18:3n‐3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n‐3), linoleic acid (18:2n‐6), and arachidonic acid (ARA 20:4n‐6), the MUFA 16:1 (n‐7), and the SFA 16:0, 14:0, 18:0 and 20:0. The sum of EPA and DHA is 8.04 per cent. The n‐3/n‐6 fatty acids ratio approximately (2:1) is within the range of marine molluscs. The principle differences in the fatty acid composition of Turbo coronatus than most marine molluscs is their low DHA (0.23±0.01 per cent), low PUFA (40.92 per cent), and high SFA contents (49.25 per cent). The principle differences in the fatty acid composition of Turbo coronatus from most marine molluscs is their low DHA (0.23±0.01 per cent), low PUFA (40.92 per cent), and high SFA contents (49.25 per cent).

Research limitations/implications

The Turbo coronatus samples were collected from Shaikh Ebrahim Island; however, further studies regarding the fatty acid composition of Turbo coronatus from other locations are required.

Practical implications

The results suggest that Turbo coronatus feeds on bacteria‐enriched detritic matter as well as phytoplankton and algae. The low concentration of PUFA in relation to SFA in Turbo coronatus can be attributed to warm water, high salinity, and food availability.

Originality/value

The paper provides valuable information about the fatty acid contents in Turbo coronatus, and its feeding habits, and nutritional values.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1994

T.A.B. Sanders

Reviews the latest thinking regarding fat and health in the light of the1993 FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on “The Role of Oils and Fats in HumanNutrition”. Outlines the…

Abstract

Reviews the latest thinking regarding fat and health in the light of the 1993 FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on “The Role of Oils and Fats in Human Nutrition”. Outlines the role of fat in meeting energy requirements; in the absorption and provision of fat‐soluble vitamins; in enhancing food palatability; and in the provision of essential fatty acids. Looks at the association of types of fat with coronary heart disease and cancer, and outlines the recommendations of the FAO/WHO Consultation report. Concludes that fat is a desirable and essential nutrient and that the need for fat changes according to life cycle and lifestyle.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 94 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Sherazede Bouderbala and Malika Bouchenak

– The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of olive or salmon oil on the hepatic storage and transport of fatty acids by very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of olive or salmon oil on the hepatic storage and transport of fatty acids by very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 24 male Wistar rats (80 ± 5 g) were fed a 0.5 per cent cholesterol-enriched diet with either 20 per cent casein (C) or chickpea (CP) proteins with 10 per cent olive (O) or salmon (S) oil for 28 days.

Findings

In VLDL-triacyglycerols fatty acids, oleic acid content was higher in CPS as compared to that in CS or CPO and lower in CS and CPO than that in CO; linoleic acid content was higher in all groups; arachidonic acid content was higher in CS and CPO as compared to that in CO. In the liver, TG fatty acids content was lower in CPO or CPS as compared to that in CO or CS; oleic and arachidonic acid contents were lower in CPS than that in CPO; linoleic acid content was lower in CS, CPS and CPO than that in CO, CPO and CO. In liver, phospholipid fatty acid, oleic and arachidonic acid contents were lower in CPS than that in CS; oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acid contents were lower in CPO compared to that in CO. In liver, cholesteryl esters fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids contents were higher in CPS as compared to that in CS; oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acid contents were lower in CS as compared to that in CO; linoleic and arachidonic acid contents were lower in CPS than that in CPO.

Originality/value

A cholesterol-enriched diet containing casein or chickpea proteins combined with olive or salmon oil affects the hepatic storage and transport of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids by VLDL.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Elton Bonafe, Ana de Aguiar, Marcela Boroski, Johny Monteiro, Nilson Souza, Makoto Matsushita and Jesuí Visentainer

The increase in seafood trade in recent years motivates more detailed studies of different species, as well as evaluation of the nutritional quality of their lipid…

Abstract

Purpose

The increase in seafood trade in recent years motivates more detailed studies of different species, as well as evaluation of the nutritional quality of their lipid content. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the fatty acid composition, especially the concentrations and fractionation of omega‐3 essential fatty acid in classes of mussels (male and female), oysters, squid, and octopus captured on the south coast of Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared by methylation of total lipids and were separated by gas chromatography. Quantification of LNA, AA, EPA, and DHA was done against tricosanoic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. Total lipids were fractionated into neutral lipids and polar lipids by classical column chromatography.

Findings

The results of this study were as follows: the female mussel had the highest lipid content (3.52 per cent), followed by the male mussel (2.70 per cent), squid (1.05 per cent), octopus (0.79 per cent), and oyster (0.62 per cent). The samples that had the highest percentages of EPA and DHA in their lipid fraction were the female mussel and squid, respectively. The species belonging to the Bivalvia class (mussels and oysters) showed a predominance of PL, while those belonging to the cephalopods class (octopus and squid), showed a predominance of NL. The n‐6/n‐3 and polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acids ratios of all samples analyzed were in accordance with the recommendations. The female mussel had the highest concentration of EPA+DHA omega‐3 fatty acids, corresponding to 1,064.63 mg EPA+DHA 100 g−1 of the sample. So, the consumption of mussels caught off the southern coast of Brazil provides the omega‐3 essential fatty acids.

Originality/value

This paper provides important data concerning lipid quality of seafood caught off on the south coast of Brazil.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Tainara Costa and Neuza Jorge

The purpose of this paper is to characterize oils extracted from Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythis pisonis, Dipteryx lacunifera, Carya illinoensis and Juglans regia

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterize oils extracted from Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythis pisonis, Dipteryx lacunifera, Carya illinoensis and Juglans regia, regarding their characterization and fatty acid profile.

Design/methodology/approach

The oils were extracted from oilseeds by cold pressing and physico‐chemical characterization was performed by using standard methods for oils and fats. The oxidative stability and fatty acid profile also were determined.

Findings

According to the results, the physico‐chemical properties of oils from nuts and walnuts were comparable to those of good quality conventional oils. The oil seeds are a good source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic and linoleic acids.

Research limitations/implications

Implies the identification of fatty acid profile and physico‐chemical properties of oils extracted from nuts and walnuts, and to prevent certain types of diseases.

Originality/value

The paper identifies a new source of essential fatty acids extracted from oilseeds.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Patrick Ogwok, Robert Muyinda, Henriettah Nakisozi and Michael Bamuwamye

The aim of this paper is to investigate fat content and fatty acid profile of cultivated (Pleurotus ostreatus) and wild edible mushrooms (Amanita spp and Termitomyces microcarpus).

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate fat content and fatty acid profile of cultivated (Pleurotus ostreatus) and wild edible mushrooms (Amanita spp and Termitomyces microcarpus).

Design/methodology/approach

Pleurotus ostreatus was grown in soil and on cotton seed husks in mushroom growing rooms at Busitema University, Uganda. T. microcarpus and Amanita spp were collected from the wild. Freshly harvested mushrooms were dried at 60°C for 48 h in a hot air oven. Oil was extracted using a Clevenger apparatus. Fatty acid analysis was done using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

Findings

Fat content ranged between 0.24 and 5.23 per cent. Variation was noted between P. ostreatus grown in soil and on cotton seed husks (p = 0.0090). Similarly, Amanita spp and T. microcarpus had differing fat contents (p = 0.0098). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) predominated over saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Linoleic acid (LA) was the most abundant fatty acid (FA) (30.91 to 54.35 per cent). It varied between Amanita spp and T. microcarpus (p = 0.0001) but not between substrates (p = 0.1891). Ratios of PUFA/SFA, MUFA/SFA and PUFA/MUFA were within the desirable ranges. Omega-6 FA/ω-3 FA ratio was higher than that recommended for a healthy diet. However, the low amount of fat in mushrooms suppresses the negative effects of a high ω-6 FA/ω-3 FA ratio.

Originality/value

Information on FA profile of cultivated and wild edible mushrooms will provide a basis for commercial exploitation of the cultivated mushrooms. This work showed that P. ostreatus, Amanita spp and T. microcarpus are healthy foods with regard to the low fat content and high amounts of LA.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Iraj Khodadadi, Ali Heshmati and Manoochehr Karami

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most common causes of death worldwide. Diets rich in saturated and trans-fatty acids are nutritional risk factors that foster the…

Abstract

Purpose

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most common causes of death worldwide. Diets rich in saturated and trans-fatty acids are nutritional risk factors that foster the development of CVDs. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of dietary feta cheese and butter on serum lipid profile and fatty acid composition.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 24 Wistar rats (eight weeks old) were fed with balanced high fat diets (24 per cent fat) including canola (control group) and either cheese or butter (experimental groups) for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, body weights were determined, and the amount of food intake was calculated. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the experiment, and lipid profile including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride as well as serum fatty acid composition were determined.

Findings

Consumption of the butter-based diet resulted in a significant increase in serum triglycerides (p < 0.05), whereas no substantial changes were observed in rats that received a cheese-based diet. The butter-based diet significantly increased serum total cholesterol and LDL-C (p < 0.05), whereas remarkably reduced HDL-C level. In contrast, cheese-based diet resulted in a magnificent increase in HDL-C and a significant decrease in LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (p < 0.05). Serum saturated fatty acids increased and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased by the consumption of butter, whereas the intake of cheese caused relatively minor alterations in serum fatty acid composition.

Originality/value

Butter lowered HDL-C and increased LDL-C, whereas cheese strongly enhanced HDL-C. Therefore, it can be concluded that cheese is a beneficially healthier dairy product than butter.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Priyanka Rastogi, Beena Mathur, Shweta Rastogi, V.P. Gupta and Rajeev Gupta

Cooking can adversely affect chemical characteristics of edible oils. The purpose of this paper is to determine biochemical changes due to cooking in commonly used Indian…

Abstract

Purpose

Cooking can adversely affect chemical characteristics of edible oils. The purpose of this paper is to determine biochemical changes due to cooking in commonly used Indian fats and oils through an experimental study.

Design/methodology/approach

Changes in chemical properties of various edible oils [Indian ghee (clarified butter), hydrogenated oil, coconut oil, mustard‐rapeseed oil, groundnut oil, soyabean oil, cottonseed oil and sunflower oil] were studied. Oils were subjected to various cooking methods (shallow frying, sautéing, single deep frying and multiple deep fryings) using an inert substance. Peroxide content was estimated as index of fattyacid oxidation, free fatty acids, iodine value for determination of fattyacid unsaturation and trans‐fatty acids at baseline and after cooking using colorimetric and gas‐liquid chromatography methods. Three samples were analyzed for each process (n = 144). Significance of change was determined using t‐test.

Findings

There was a significant increase in peroxide content (mEq/L) of Indian ghee from 1.83±0.03 at baseline to 4.5–6.6 by different cooking methods, hydrogenated oil (0.45±0.07 to 1.7–8.5), coconut oil (1.01±0.01 to 3.2–9.2), mustard‐rapeseed oil (0.90±0.01 to 2.1–5.3), groundnut oil (0.96±0.01 to 1.9–3.7), soyabean oil (0.86±0.02 to 1.9–3.4), cottonseed oil (0.71±0.01 to 2.9–6.4) and sunflower oil (1.09±0.01 to 2.3–10.2) (p<0.05). Free fatty acid content (g/100 g) was in undetectable amounts in all the fats at baseline and increased in Indian ghee (0.16–0.22), hydrogenated oil (0.09–0.23), coconut oil (0.09–1.39), mustard‐rapeseed oil (0.07–0.19), groundnut oil (0.09–0.18), soyabean oil (0.06–0.12), cottonseed oil (0.09–0.22) and sunflower oil (0.08–0.13). Trans‐fatty acids increased from 0.1% at baseline to 14.5% after sautéing and shallow frying and 15.8–16.8% after deep frying in hydrogenated oils (p<0.01). The iodine value decreased, indicating a decrease in unsaturated fats, insignificantly. The largest amount of oxidation was observed by shallow frying and free‐fattyacid formation by multiple deep frying. Hydrogenated, coconut and sunflower oils were the most susceptible to oxidation and soyabean oil the most resistant. Single deep frying caused the least changes in chemical composition of various fats and oils. Indian cooking practices significantly increase the peroxides, free fatty acids and trans‐fatty acids in edible oils and fats. Single deep frying appears to be the least harmful method and soyabean oil the least susceptible to degradation.

Originality/value

The paper offers an experimental study to determine biochemical changes due to cooking in commonly used Indian fats and oils.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Yasamin Soleimanian, Mohammad A. Sahari and Mohsen Barzegar

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of low temperature fractional crystallization to increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of fish…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of low temperature fractional crystallization to increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of fish oil. Effects of temperature, stages of crystallization, rate of cooling, agitation and addition of primary nucleus on separation efficiency were evaluated. Low temperature crystallization of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was used to increase PUFA content of fish oil (initial PUFA content ∼30 g/100 g oil).

Design/methodology/approach

To optimize the fractionation process, the effect of fractionation temperature (7, 5, 0 and −5°C), crystallization procedures, cooling rate, agitation and addition of primary nucleus on PUFA content was evaluated.

Findings

The best relationship between PUFA concentration (45.8 g/100 g oil) and PUFA yield (51.5 per cent) was attained by performing two-stage crystallization of TAGs at the final temperatures of 5 and 0°C under slow cooling rate (3°C h−1 for first fractionation procedure and 0.7°C h−1 for second stage, until the final fractionation temperature, 0°C, was reached) and slow agitation (3 rpm) and in the presence of primary nucleus, which resulted in 50 per cent increase in PUFA content over the original fish oil.

Practical implications

Determination of iodine and saponification values, refractive index, solid fat content, melting point, cholesterol content of original oil and final fractionated product with the highest PUFA ratio showed that fractionation significantly alters physical and chemical properties of the fraction.

Originality/value

Comparison of iodine value, saponification value, refractive index, solid fat content, melting point and cholesterol content of original oil and the final fractionated product (with the highest PUFA ratio) showed that the fractionation process significantly alters mentioned properties of the initial oil.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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1 – 10 of 378