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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the off-office audit of natural resource assets on the prevention and control of water pollution against a background…
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the off-office audit of natural resource assets on the prevention and control of water pollution against a background of big data using a differences-in-differences model.
This study constructs a differences-in-differences model to evaluate the policy effects of off-office audit based on panel data from 11 cities in Anhui Province, China, from 2011 to 2017, and analyzes the dynamic effect of the audit and intermediary effect of industrial structure.
The implementation of the audit system can effectively reduce water pollution. Dynamic effect analysis showed that the audit policy can not only improve the quality of water resources but can also have a cumulative effect over time. That is, the prevention and control effect on water pollution is getting stronger and stronger. The results of the robustness test verified the effectiveness of water pollution prevention and control. However, the results of the influence mechanism analysis showed that the mediating effect of the industrial structure was not obvious in the short term.
These findings shed light on the effect of the off-office audit of natural resource assets on the prevention and control of water pollution, and provide a theoretical basis for the formulation of relevant environmental policies. Furthermore, these findings show that the implementation of the audit system can effectively reduce water pollution, which has practical significance for the sustainable development of China's economy against the background of big data.
This study quantitatively analyzes the policy effect of off-office auditing from the perspective of water resources based on a big data background, which differs from the existing research that mainly focuses on basic theoretical analysis.
Purpose – Emissions trading is often heralded as an efficient approach to environmental regulation. In the mid-90s Communities for a Better Environment (CBE), a Los…
Purpose – Emissions trading is often heralded as an efficient approach to environmental regulation. In the mid-90s Communities for a Better Environment (CBE), a Los Angeles-based advocacy organization, raised concerns that emissions trading in the South Coast Air Basin, the most polluted region in Southern California, would result in environmental injustice. The organizations concerns received mixed responses from regulators. Historical analysis is used to assess the clash between emissions trading and environmental justice (EJ).
Methodology/approach – Emissions trading and EJ arose side by side between the 1960s and the 1990s, yet they disagree on how to clean the air. Historical analysis of legal documents, presidential addresses, letters, working papers, reports, and the like offers a better understanding of the development of emissions trading and EJ, and their intersection in environmental policy.
Findings – Emissions trading was grafted onto Clean Air Act policies not inherently designed for their incorporation. As a result, emissions trading came into direct philosophical opposition with EJ as political pressures calling for both economically efficient antiregulatory-ism and environmental equity forced their intersection. Formally, regional and national government accepted EJ as part of law. However, in principle, emissions trading undermined this acceptance. As a result, CBE could not easily win or explicitly lose its battle against emissions trading.
Originality/value of paper – Previous work on the relationship between emissions trading and EJ tend to focus on legal analysis and normative implications of emissions trading. Putting emissions trading and environment justice into historical perspective helps to illuminate larger questions about EJ activism and policy. Also, as California, the United States, and Europe turn to emissions trading to combat not only air pollution but also climate change, important lessons can be learned from the histories and collision of emissions trading and EJ.
A quantitative approach for construction pollution control that is based on construction resource levelling is presented. The parameters of construction pollution index…
A quantitative approach for construction pollution control that is based on construction resource levelling is presented. The parameters of construction pollution index (CPI) and hazard magnitude (hi) are treated as a pseudo resource and integrated with a project’s construction schedule. When the level of pollution for site operations exceeds the permissible limit identified by a regulatory body, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) enhanced levelling technique is used to re‐schedule project activities so that the level of pollution can be re‐distributed and thus reduced. The GA enhanced resource levelling technique is demonstrated using 20 on‐site construction activities in a project. Experimental results indicate that the proposed GA enhanced resource levelling method performs better than the traditional resource levelling method used in MS Project©. The proposed method is an effective tool that can be used by project managers to reduce the level of pollution at a particular period of time; when other control methods fail.
Kazuaki Miyamoto, Surya Raj Acharya, Mohammed Abdul Aziz, Jean-Michel Cusset, Tien Fang Fwa, Haluk Gerçek, Ali S. Huzayyin, Bruce James, Hirokazu Kato, Hanh Dam Le, Sungwon Lee, Francisco J. Martinez, Dominique Mignot, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Janos Monigl, Antonio N. Musso, Fumihiko Nakamura, Jean-Pierre Nicolas, Omar Osman, Antonio Páez, Rodrigo Quijada, Wolfgang Schade, Yordphol Tanaboriboon, Micheal A. P. Taylor, Karl N. Vergel, Zhongzhen Yang and Rocco Zito
Environmental resources and human knowledge are the ultimate foundations on which human welfare is based. The impact of technical knowledge is well researched. Denison, for example, attributes no less than 47 per cent of the growth of real GNP in the USA over the period 1948–81 to technical change. The importance of the environmental resource base has been brought to the foreground by studies like Limits to Growth. Nowadays environmental policies are applied in most industrialised countries just to prevent further deterioration of the environment. In these countries it is not the physical environmental constraint that is felt, but perhaps the drag on economic growth exercised by the costs of environmental regulation. Whatever the nature of the environmental limit to economic growth may be, physical or juridical, it can be overcome by the use and extension of knowledge in order to reduce the amount of pollution and the costs of pollution control. Technical advance or innovation in pollution control is and will remain a very important factor affecting the success of the efforts that are made to improve environmental quality and to maintain growth of output. In this article we shall give a survey of the economic research in the area of innovation and pollution control. The main research themes will be indicated, “blank spots” pointed out and suggestions made about possible subjects for fruitful future research. In section I a short introduction is given to the general economic approach to technical change and innovation. In section II the existing economic literature on pollution control and innovation is reviewed. It will be argued that some of the most relevant research themes have not been taken up. These issues will be discussed in sections III and IV. Section V contains conclusions and recommendations for future research.
In many countries the existence of a comprehensive approach to environmental control through the auspices of a unified control agency is accepted. In the United States…
In many countries the existence of a comprehensive approach to environmental control through the auspices of a unified control agency is accepted. In the United States, for instance, the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has received substantial support. Allen Kneese remarked that “while anyone who has observed the Washington scene for any period of time has just cause to be skeptical of the efficiency of reorganisation, one can still recognise the convincing rationale of this one”. In the United Kingdom a rather ageing and as yet unacted‐upon report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution also proposed a “unified pollution inspectorate”, although some may consider that to be something of a misnomer for what may appear in reality to be an expanded Alkali Inspectorate. In a somewhat myopic way the Royal Commission saw HMPI (as it chose to call its unified pollution inspectorate) as an organisational change designed to bring State expertise on process technology to the aid of private and public firms who had potential and actual environmental problems. There is an almost implied value judgement that concentration of action “within the factory fence” must in some way be the optimal manner in which to deal with pollution. In contrast the approach of the EPA has appeared genuinely to encompass the aims of a truly unified control ideal, paying considerable attention to benefit evaluation, integrated environmental quality studies, control technology, control costs and their incidence.
A systems perspective of waste management allows an integrated approach not only to the five basic functional elements of waste management itself (generation, reduction, collection, recycling, disposal), but to the problems arising at the interfaces with the management of energy, nature conservation, environmental protection, economic factors like unemployment and productivity, etc. This monograph separately describes present practices and the problems to be solved in each of the functional areas of waste management and at the important interfaces. Strategies for more efficient control are then proposed from a systems perspective. Systematic and objective means of solving problems become possible leading to optimal management and a positive contribution to economic development, not least through resource conservation. India is the particular context within which waste generation and management are discussed. In considering waste disposal techniques, special attention is given to sewage and radioactive wastes.
The popular business press, government regulators, environmentalists and the public are calling on operations managers to shift away from their traditional emphasis on…
The popular business press, government regulators, environmentalists and the public are calling on operations managers to shift away from their traditional emphasis on pollution control toward pollution prevention when improving environmental performance. Yet, any managerial decision about the level and form of investment in these environmental technologies cannot be made in isolation, but instead must be implemented within the context of other manufacturing investments in process technologies and organizational systems. A survey of two Canadian industries – small machine tools and non‐fashion textiles – revealed evidence that environmental technologies have been regarded as ancillary investments; as investment in manufacturing increased, so did the proportion of that investment directed toward environmental technologies. Further, increased investment in advanced process technologies actually shifted investment away from pollution prevention. In contrast, increased investment in quality‐related organizational systems favored concurrent investment in recycling programs, along with pollution prevention and management systems. Thus, increased investment in quality management offered an important route to expand the implementation of pollution prevention.
In the USA and Europe, agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be among the chief impediments to achieving water quality standards. While the…
In the USA and Europe, agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be among the chief impediments to achieving water quality standards. While the implementation of technology-based water pollution control tools has resulted in evident point source pollution abatement, NPSs continue to threaten surface water and groundwater. The purpose of this paper is to draw from environmental policy literature to identify regulatory tools and management approaches that specifically target agricultural NPS pollution and the factors that drive or impede their implementation and enforcement. This paper utilizes the policy tool framework to help characterize the widespread policy problem, distinguishing its unique set of hurdles from other environmental problems.
Discussion of agricultural NPS pollution management approaches is based on a thorough review of relevant environmental policy and environmental economic literature as well as case studies from the USA and Europe. Analysis is based on the policy tool framework.
This study finds that controlling numerous diffuse sources of agricultural pollution requires an integrated approach that utilizes river basin management and a mix of policy instruments. Additionally, findings suggest that transitioning from voluntary mechanisms to more effective instruments based on measurable water quality performance relies predominantly on three factors: first, more robust quality monitoring data and models; second, local participation; and third, political will.
This research provides important information for regional and national policymakers in areas where there is increasing pollution and regulatory mandates. Identifying conditions of effective water quality policy is applicable and will be of direct use to agencies charged with pollution control.