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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

Dacher Keltner and Robert J. Robinson

There is a tendency for opposing partisans to ideological disputes to imagine that their opponents are extremist, biased, and in diametric opposition to themselves. The…

Abstract

There is a tendency for opposing partisans to ideological disputes to imagine that their opponents are extremist, biased, and in diametric opposition to themselves. The current investigation examined the role of these imagined ideological differences in face‐to‐face negotiations. Experiment 1 examined the problems that develop when negotiators attend to irrelevant ideological differences. Dyads who were made aware of political differences, even imagined ones (i.e., their political views were actually similar), required more time to allocate hypothetical funds and perceived their partner less favorably than did dyads who were unaware of their political differences. Experiments 2 and 3 tested the hypothesis that ideological opponents who acquire accurate information about their counterpart's beliefs (thus reducing the effects of imagined ideological differences) will have more successful negotiations. Opposing partisans to abortion (Experiment 2) and the death penalty (Experiment 3) reached more comprehensive, integrative agreements and perceived each other more favorably when they disclosed their own views to each other before negotiating. The relevance of these findings to other mediation techniques and real world conflicts was discussed.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2020

Wayne A. Hochwarter, Ilias Kapoutsis, Samantha L. Jordan, Abdul Karim Khan and Mayowa Babalola

Persistent change has placed considerable pressure on organizations to keep up or fade into obscurity. Firms that remain viable, or even thrive, are staffed with…

Abstract

Persistent change has placed considerable pressure on organizations to keep up or fade into obscurity. Firms that remain viable, or even thrive, are staffed with decision-makers who capably steer organizations toward opportunities and away from threats. Accordingly, leadership development has never been more critical. In this chapter, the authors propose that leader development is an inherently dyadic process initiated to communicate formal and informal expectations. The authors focus on the informal component, in the form of organizational politics, as an element of leadership that is critical to employee and company success. The authors advocate that superiors represent the most salient information source for leader development, especially as it relates to political dynamics embedded in work systems. The authors discuss research associated with our conceptualization of dyadic political leader development (DPLD). Specifically, the authors develop DPLD by exploring its conceptual underpinnings as they relate to sensemaking, identity, and social learning theories. Once established, the authors provide a refined discussion of the construct, illustrating its scholarly mechanisms that better explain leader development processes and outcomes. The authors then expand research in the areas of political skill, political will, political knowledge, and political phronesis by embedding our conceptualization of DPLD into a political leadership model. The authors conclude by discussing methodological issues and avenues of future research stemming from the development of DPLD.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-076-1

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2019

Hongli Wang and Qihai Huang

Interpersonal trust between supervisors and subordinates plays an important role in management. The impact of trust from management is through employees’ perception and…

Abstract

Purpose

Interpersonal trust between supervisors and subordinates plays an important role in management. The impact of trust from management is through employees’ perception and more specifically their perception of being trusted, termed feeling trusted or felt trust. Politics is associated with the level of trust of organizational members. So far, little is known how employees respond to feeling trusted with regard to political behaviour resulting in employee outcomes. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops a conceptual model to examine the double-edged sword effect of political behaviour on employee outcomes.

Findings

The authors designed a two-wave survey to test the model. The analysis of 286 supervisor–employee dyads found that feeling trusted is associated with supervisor-rated organization citizenship behaviour (OCB) and overload reported by employees. Furthermore, political behaviour partially mediates the relationship between feeling trusted and supervisor-rated OCB, which may be desired by both the supervisors and employees. It also mediates the relationship between feeling trusted and employee perceived overload, which is undesired by employees.

Originality/value

The current research aims to fill in the gap and answer this question: what is the role of political behaviour in the relationship between feeling trusted and employee outcomes? Guided by an “antecedents–behaviours–consequences” framework (Ferris et al., 1989), the paper develops a conceptual model to examine how feeling trusted directly and indirectly influences employee outcomes, with the latter being mediated by political behaviour.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 23 March 2017

Bank and judiciary appointments in the Philippines.

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DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB219741

ISSN: 2633-304X

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Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Andreas Andrikopoulos, Andreas Georgakopoulos, Anna Merika and Andreas Merikas

This paper aims to explore the effect of interlocking directorates on agency conflicts and corporate performance in the shipping industry.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the effect of interlocking directorates on agency conflicts and corporate performance in the shipping industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use social network analysis to discover central nodes in the network of personal and corporate connections in an international sample of 110 listed shipping companies.

Findings

Assessing network structure, the authors find that the network of corporate leaders is denser than the network of shipping companies. The network of shipping companies is populated with many isolated nodes; the network of shipping executives and directors is populated with many cohesive groups in which the longest distance between two corporate leaders is two companies. The authors find that interlocking corporate leadership can help resolve agency conflicts in the shipping industry, bearing a negative effect on the magnitude of agency costs. The extent of leadership overlaps is associated with board size, financial leverage and profitability. The relationship between profits and interlocks is bidirectional, implying that interlocking directorates bear a positive effect on asset returns.

Originality/value

The authors map the relational structures in the social networks of companies and company leaders in the shipping industry and discover the cross-sectional determinants of interlocks in the shipping industry. The finding about the effect of interlocks on profitability and agency costs bears policy implications for the design of corporate governance in the shipping industry.

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Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2014

Anne-Maria Holma

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial…

Abstract

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial network approach (see, e.g., Axelsson & Easton, 1992; Håkansson & Snehota, 1995a). The study describes how adaptations initiate, how they progress, and what the outcomes of these adaptations are. Furthermore, the framework takes into account how adaptations spread in triadic relationship settings. The empirical context is corporate travel management, which is a chain of activities where an industrial enterprise, and its preferred travel agency and service supplier partners combine their resources. The scientific philosophy, on which the knowledge creation is based, is realist ontology. Epistemologically, the study relies on constructionist processes and interpretation. Case studies with in-depth interviews are the main source of data.

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Deep Knowledge of B2B Relationships within and Across Borders
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-858-7

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Nai H. Lamb and Philip Roundy

Board interlocks are a phenomenon of widespread prevalence and one of the most vibrant topics in corporate governance research. However, despite sustained academic…

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Abstract

Purpose

Board interlocks are a phenomenon of widespread prevalence and one of the most vibrant topics in corporate governance research. However, despite sustained academic interest in interlocks, there has not been a comprehensive review of the literature in nearly two decades. To address this need for an up-to-date review, this paper aims to conduct an assessment and integration of the empirical research on board interlocks.

Design/methodology/approach

In reviewing the board interlocks literature, the “systematic review” approach, which emphasizes methodological rigor and transparency, has been used. Using this method, 81 empirical papers that became the focus of this analysis have been identified.

Findings

This review reveals that board interlocks research can be categorized based on the theoretical lens used, its focus on antecedents or outcomes of interlock activities and the perspective of the study (i.e. firm- or director-level). Moreover, a number of commonly examined themes have been identified. Several unexpected omissions in the literature have also been uncovered. For instance, it was found that scholars have neither examined the implications of engaging in interlocks in a global context nor have they explored the phenomenon of international interlocks (i.e. interlocks between firms located in different countries).

Originality/value

In developing a deeper understanding of the board interlocks literature, this review identifies several topics and disciplines that, if pursued, could enrich the literature and open promising avenues for future research.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 39 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2003

Pauline Ratnasingam

The emphasis on inter-organizational systems gave rise to concerns about inter-organizational relationships as trading partners became aware of the socio-political factors…

Abstract

The emphasis on inter-organizational systems gave rise to concerns about inter-organizational relationships as trading partners became aware of the socio-political factors and trust that affect their relationships. This paper examines the importance of inter-organizational-trust in business-to-business E-commerce organizations. It examines how inter-organizational relationships impact trading partner trust, perceived benefits, perceived risks, and technology trust mechanisms in E-commerce that can in turn influence outcomes of business-to-business E-commerce. This paper develops a conceptual model and tests the model using a case study research methodology. The aim is to solicit qualitative in depth understanding of inter-organizational-trust in business-to-business E-commerce. Eight organizations from a cross section of industries that formed four bi-directional dyads participated in the third stage of this study. The first two stages include exploratory case studies in three organizations in the automotive industry that applied EDI via Value-Added-Networks in 1997, and a nationwide survey of organizations that examined the extent of E-commerce adoption in Australia and New Zealand in 1998. The findings identify the need for trustworthy business relationships in an E-commerce environment.

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Evaluating Marketing Actions and Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-046-3

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

Lin Yang and Danni Wang

The paper aims to empirically examine the questions of how top management team (TMT) characteristics, including TMT heterogeneity and vertical dyads differences between…

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3115

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to empirically examine the questions of how top management team (TMT) characteristics, including TMT heterogeneity and vertical dyads differences between TMT and Board Director, influence entrepreneurial strategic orientation, as well as how industry environment and corporate ownership moderate those relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper designs the panel data on the listed companies of China's Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Board for the period 2006-2010, and uses hierarchical regression analysis and grouping regression analysis when examining the relationships among variables involved.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights about how top management team (TMT) characteristics, including TMT heterogeneity and vertical dyads differences between TMT and Board Director, influence entrepreneurial strategic orientation, as well as how industry environment and corporate ownership moderate those relationships. It suggests that, except for TMT educational background, the heterogeneity of TMT age, gender, functional experience, and the vertical dyad differences between TMT and board chairperson significantly and positively impact ESO. Furthermore, industry environment and corporate ownership will moderate the relationship between TMT characteristics and ESO.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to study how top management team characteristics influence entrepreneurial strategic orientation, as well as how industry environment and corporate ownership moderate those relationships.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 52 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Pingqing Liu and Junxi Shi

The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the mechanism which can explain and predict subordinates’ deferential behaviour in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the mechanism which can explain and predict subordinates’ deferential behaviour in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using mail surveys. The study used two sources of data (supervisor and subordinate) obtained via two separate sets of surveys. In total, 600 questionnaires were distributed to subordinate–supervisor dyads employed in a variety of organizations, and 441 dyad-level questionnaires were collected.

Findings

The paper revealed that supervisors’ political mentoring (PM) moderated the strength of the mediated relationships between a supervisor’s trust in the subordinate and the subordinate’s deference to supervisor via supervisor–subordinate guanxi. Furthermore, the direct interaction effect of a supervisor’s trust and PM influenced the subordinate’s deference to supervisor only when the level of PM was low.

Originality/value

This study clarifies the mechanism by which supervisor’s specific behaviours affect subordinate’s deference to supervisor, and explores how supervisor–subordinate dyad creates a reciprocal relationship. The research indicates the unique effect of supervisor’s PM in Chinese organizations, and reinforces the importance of considering supervisor’s trust in the subordinate.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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