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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2011

Carol Gill and Denny Meyer

This research aims to answer the call for more empirical research on identity theory by exploring the role and impact of human resource management (HRM) policy, and the gap

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to answer the call for more empirical research on identity theory by exploring the role and impact of human resource management (HRM) policy, and the gap between HRM policy and practice, on organizations and their employees. It looks at the role that soft policy plays in obscuring hard practice and considers the impact of unions and HRM role on policy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses survey data collected from the senior members of the HRM function in 189 large Australian organisations.

Findings

The research found a gap between policy and practice with soft policy being used more often than soft practice. It found that a gap between policy and practice has a negative impact on outcomes. Strategic HRM (SHRM) positively impacts on the implementation of soft practices reducing the gap between policy and practice and impoverished HRM that lacks resources, power and time, has a larger gap between policy and practice. Unions did not improve outcomes by minimizing the gap between policy and practice.

Research limitations/implications

This paper used survey data from HRM managers, who whilst being the best single source of information, may have distorted their responses. Further research is required to confirm these results using several data sources.

Practical implications

Managers and HR functions should increase both soft policy and soft practice and ensure there is no gap between policy and practice. To achieve this, organizations should ensure that the HRM function is both strategic and effectively resourced.

Originality/value

This research makes a theoretical and empirical contribution to debates on the role that HRM rhetoric plays in organizations. It also adds value to SHRM research and practice.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Kshitij Kushagra and Dr Sanjay Dhingra

Government is the biggest spender on cloud computing technology but a very limited study and data sets are available to assess the cloud adoption trends in government…

Abstract

Purpose

Government is the biggest spender on cloud computing technology but a very limited study and data sets are available to assess the cloud adoption trends in government organizations in India. As India is ushering towards “Digital India” it becomes essential for the government to embrace the cloud to enhance governance and meet the citizen expectations. This paper aims to discuss the evolution of cloud computing (Meghraj) in government organizations by examining the various information technology (IT) and cloud policies, thereby focusing on the policy gaps. The second part of this study assesses the cloud adoption trend by analyzing adopted cloud services, deployments models, leading sectors in cloud adoption and cloud approach. Eventually, in consultation with experts, a conceptual framework for cloud adoption in the government organizations of India is developed for wider cloud adoption.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors reviewed various IT/cloud policies and related literature to find the policy gaps for slow cloud adoption in government organizations. Authors have researched to collect the data from the various government procurement portals and analysed the tender and contracts of 500 organizations for cloud requirements to infer the cloud adoption trends. Based on the review of policy gaps, adoption trends and by consulting the experts a conceptual cloud adoption framework has been developed for wider cloud adoption in government organizations.

Findings

This study can be a pathfinder where the most innovative findings are about the cloud adoption trends in the government organizations in the time frame from 2013 till 2020. Several key findings are – the public cloud are the most widely adopted, infrastructure as a service model is the most used services, the majority of the applications migrating to the cloud are legacy applications, the leading sector in cloud adoption are – IT, transport and education. It is observed that the pandemic Covid-19 has acted as a catalyst and accelerated cloud adoption in government organizations. Eventually, a conceptual cloud adoption framework has been suggested addressing the policy gaps, deficiencies, overcoming the gaps and their related outcomes for the wider cloud adoption in the government organizations.

Practical implications

The findings of this work highlight the cloud adoption trends in government organizations which can prove vital to the policymakers. This work will assist policymakers, government organizations, researchers, IT professionals and others interested in analyzing the state of cloud adoption. The conceptual cloud adoption framework developed endeavours to uncover the policy gaps, suggest the gap resolution mechanism and outcomes which may assist the organization for wider cloud adoption. This research work effectively connects the policies to practice by stimulating the interest in understanding the policies, strategies and thereby creating the enabling environment for cloud adoption. This study provides feedback on cloud adoption trends which can assist in policy refinement and further strengthen policy/strategies.

Originality/value

As of date, there is limited data available for cloud adoption in government organizations. This work uniquely presents the cloud projections which helps to gain insights on cloud adoption trends in government organizations. This study is the first of its kind, focusing on cloud adoption in the unexplored government sector. This study provides a comprehensive summary of adoption statistics, policy analysis and practice in government organizations of India.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2008

Ng Pak Tee

This paper aims to discuss why there is often a gulf of difference between policy rhetoric and reality. In particular, the paper seeks to explore issues with the policy

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss why there is often a gulf of difference between policy rhetoric and reality. In particular, the paper seeks to explore issues with the policy rhetoric, implementation process and the lens through which reality is perceived, explaining why these issues can open up a policy rhetoric‐reality gap. This article also suggests a simple matrix framework to analyse a rhetoric‐reality gap.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a reflection on, and analysis of, the issue of the difference between policy rhetoric and reality. The framework of analysis involves: issues with policy rhetoric; issues with the implementation process; issues with examining reality.

Findings

Although policy rhetoric always has laudable aims, the underlying dynamics of change and interaction among the various actors at different levels of the system often means that the rhetoric may be compromised in reality. However, it is also possible that even when implementation reality may not correspond closely to policy rhetoric, the adaptation of the policy allows for a better fit with the local context while allowing the policy rhetoric to retain its evocative values for an ideal state of affairs.

Practical implications

Policy rhetoric‐reality is not always “evil” and this gap can be systematically investigated.

Originality/value

This paper provides an explanation of the policy rhetoric‐reality gap and suggests a simple matrix framework to analyse such a gap.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Kennedy Kumangkem Kubuga, Daniel Azerikatoa Ayoung and Stephen Bekoe

Nearly at the end of its lifespan, the Ghana ICT4AD policy is in a position for a holistic view, especially through the eyes of the intended beneficiaries. This paper aims…

Abstract

Purpose

Nearly at the end of its lifespan, the Ghana ICT4AD policy is in a position for a holistic view, especially through the eyes of the intended beneficiaries. This paper aims to fill that gap. The paper measures the gap between what was intended and what has been realised and, based on that, makes recommendations for stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

The research used the design reality gap analysis approach to numerically examine the deviation or otherwise of the ideals of the Ghana ICT4AD policy from or to the reality on the ground. It required the breaking down of the problem into dimensions and subdimensions and involved interviewing office holders, academics, practitioners and students over a three-year period. The recommendations include a review of the policy before it expires and an explicit designation of an agency responsible for coordination, monitoring and evaluation of the various stages of the policy.

Findings

The chief finding is that Ghana’s ICT4AD policy might miss the targets totally, or might well be a partial failure unless action is taken to close the design–reality gaps identified by the research. As the policy is almost at the end of its lifespan, recommendations are even more useful when the recommended revision takes place.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of the is that it looks only at the implementation success or failure without a probe into the causal factors and/or the impact on society.

Practical implications

The policy runs full term at end 2022, with large gaps between the plans of the framers and the reality on the ground. An immediate revision of the policy is most recommended.

Originality/value

Besides this study, the authors have not come across any such comprehensive study of the Ghana ICT4AD policy, especially with the amount of data now available after two decades. There is a similarity with a Pakistani study, which has been acknowledged in this study, but the two works differ greatly in methodology, context and style.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Megan Woods and Morgan Parker Miles

The aim of this paper is to integrate an augmented version of the Thompson et al. model of enterprise policy, delivery, practice and research with services marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to integrate an augmented version of the Thompson et al. model of enterprise policy, delivery, practice and research with services marketing models including SERVQUAL and strategic conversations; and demonstrate a practical application of the analysed through the application of N-Vivo qualitative data classification software to create more satisfying enterprise policy recommendations that better reflect the voices of SMEs and other stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

A five-stage iterative process model to integrate stakeholder input into enterprise policy recommendations is developed through integrating services marketing theory and the Thompson et al. model into a field study of community conversations hosted by the Tasmanian Department of Economic Development, Tourism and the Arts, Regional Development Australia's Tasmanian committee, and local governments.

Findings

The five-stage iterative model leverages strategic conversations, analysis (through N-Vivo), comments and revisions, recommendation co-creation, and policy assessment using SERQUAL to craft more satisfying policy recommendations.

Research limitations/implications

The first limitation was the time and costs associated with conducting the community consultation workshops and analysing the data. The second limitation was the inability to craft policy quickly in response to a changing environment due to the time taken to collect and transcribe the data, undertake the analysis, and develop and report policy recommendations. The third limitation was the complexity of coordinating three levels of government, which took time and effort because each level had different interests and time frames and were at times distracted by other priorities.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to better enterprise policy by providing a process model developed using both theory and a field study to illustrate how policy makers can co-develop policy that is more satisfying to policy stakeholders.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2018

Khalid Arar and Asmahan Masry-Herzallah

The research aimed to clarify how supervisors in the Arab education system act to close the achievement gaps and to introduce learning programs that can empower students…

Abstract

The research aimed to clarify how supervisors in the Arab education system act to close the achievement gaps and to introduce learning programs that can empower students and improve their achievements. Qualitative research employed in-depth interviews with supervisors in the Arab education system, which constitutes a substantial element of the schools’ governance. The research attempted to answer the following questions: (1) Which steps do education administrators in the Arab education system take to reduce students’ underachievement, widen circles of cooperation and empower change agents during crises that deepen achievement gaps between Arab and Jewish students? (2) Do Arab school supervisors understand their interplay with government policies as empowering or disempowering them to improve students’ achievements and ensure the curriculum’s cultural relevance? (3) To what extent do the supervisors believe that cultural change is required to enable them to empower school communities to become societal innovators for equity, peace and renewal within existing administrative structures?

Research findings were interpreted through the lens of Turbulence Theory (Gross, 2014). Findings indicated that the supervisors strive to improve students’ achievements. A major challenge is to ensure the relevance of learning programs to the school community, while mediating between local community demands and the technocratic accountability imposed by the Ministry of Education for the implementation of its policies. This leadership is isolated in its efforts to establish fairness and education for empowerment and coexistence in a divided society. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

Details

Turbulence, Empowerment and Marginalisation in International Education Governance Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-675-2

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Stephan Fahr and John Fell

The global financial crisis demonstrated that monetary policy alone cannot ensure both price and financial stability. According to the Tinbergen (1952) rule, there was a…

Abstract

Purpose

The global financial crisis demonstrated that monetary policy alone cannot ensure both price and financial stability. According to the Tinbergen (1952) rule, there was a gap in the policymakers’ toolkit for safeguarding financial stability, as the number of available policy instruments was insufficient relative to the number of policy objectives. That gap is now being closed through the creation of new macroprudential policy instruments. Both monetary policy and macroprudential policy have the capacity to influence both price and financial stability objectives. This paper develops a framework for determining how best to assign instruments to objectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a simplified New-Keynesian model, the authors examine two sets of policy trade-offs, the first concerning the relative effectiveness of monetary and macroprudential policy instruments in achieving price and financial stability objectives and the second concerning trade-offs between macroprudential policy instruments themselves.

Findings

This model shows that regardless of whether the objective is to enhance financial system resilience or to moderate the financial cycle, macroprudential policies are more effective than monetary policy. Likewise, monetary policy is more effective than macroprudential policy in achieving price stability. According to the Mundell (1962) principle of effective market classification, this implies that macroprudential policy instruments should be paired with financial stability objectives, and monetary policy instruments should be paired with the price stability objective. The authors also find a trade-off between the two sets of macroprudential policy instruments, which indicates that failure to moderate the financial cycle would require greater financial system resilience.

Originality/value

The main contribution of the paper is to establish – with the help of a model framework – the relative effectiveness of monetary and macroprudential policies in achieving price and financial stability objectives. By so doing, it provides a rationale for macroprudential policy and it shows how macroprudential policy can unburden monetary policy in leaning against the wind of financial imbalances.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Noel Yahanpath and Mahbubul Islam

The purpose of this study is to explore whether the present measures being taken by the New Zealand (NZ) government are strengthening its non-banking sector effectively to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore whether the present measures being taken by the New Zealand (NZ) government are strengthening its non-banking sector effectively to address the recent financial crisis and ensure better financial stability to the economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The basic methodology used in this paper is the “documentary research method”. For this study, data has been collected from various published sources; e.g. The Bulletin, the Financial Stability Report and other publications of the Reserve Bank of NZ, publications by Statistics NZ and a number of NZ government Ministries, and some newspapers and magazines, etc.

Findings

We find that the NZ government is revamping the non-banking sector by introducing a prudential regime. However, we also find some gaps in the existing regulatory systems that need to be addressed to ensure soundness in the total system.

Research limitations/implications

The basic limitation of documentary research will be applicable to this study. Further research may be carried out to investigate the policy responses of government from banking, corporate governance and other regulatory perspectives.

Practical implications

Our study identifies some gaps in current policy responses along with some suggestions for the future that may be taken into consideration by the respective policy-makers to further strengthen the support provided by policy responses to financial crises.

Originality/value

Our study provides a unique insight into the evaluation of post-GFC policy response and its effectiveness with regard to non-banking sector and, to our knowledge, the first of its kind in NZ in the post-global financial crisis period.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Nirmaljeet Singh Kalsi and Ravi Kiran

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate e‐governance projects for the social and economic development and citizen services by ten major states of India: Haryana, Punjab…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate e‐governance projects for the social and economic development and citizen services by ten major states of India: Haryana, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and West Bengal.

Design/methodology/approach

ICT and e‐governance policy framework of these ten states was captured from their published policy documents/ literature, as well as through the in‐person interviews and discussions with the concerned Secretary/Director/Managing Director level officials at different forums on the basis of a structured questionnaire.

Findings

The results highlight the policy gaps and suggest that there is a need to look at improving such factors as capacity building, common standards, security guidelines, quality, completeness, depth and spread of services, coordination, mindset, etc. In terms of overall performance, four e‐governance projects, e‐Sewa in Andhra Pradesh, Bhoomi in Karnataka, Setu in Maharashtra and Suwidha in Punjab had higher scores than other projects.

Originality/value

The paper introduces the best e‐governance projects which can be role models for other states in improving e‐governance initiatives. This will help policy makers to understand the policy gaps and focus on those parameters which lead to good governance, not only in India but in other similar developing economies as well.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 June 2016

Douglas B. Downey

Most social scientists believe that schools serving the disadvantaged provide considerably poorer learning environments than schools serving advantaged students. As a…

Abstract

Most social scientists believe that schools serving the disadvantaged provide considerably poorer learning environments than schools serving advantaged students. As a result, schools are thought to be an important source of social problems like inequality. However, an important subset of research employing seasonal comparisons (observing how achievement gaps change when school is in versus out) disputes this position. These studies note that socioeconomic-based gaps in skills grow faster when school is out versus in, suggesting that achievement gaps would be larger if not for schools. I discuss the advantages of seasonal comparison studies and how they provide a more contextual perspective for understanding several important questions, such as: (1) What is the distribution of school quality? (2) How does inequality outside of school condition the way schools matter? and (3) Which policies, school or non-school, most effectively reduce achievement gaps? I conclude that our understanding of how schools influence inequality would be improved by employing the more contextual perspective offered by seasonal comparisons. Seasonal comparison studies have not played a meaningful role in public discussions and so the public lacks a proper understanding of the extent to which social context shapes achievement gaps. This is unfortunate because we continue to try and address achievement gaps primarily through school reform when the real source of the problem lies in the inequalities outside of schools.

Details

Family Environments, School Resources, and Educational Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-627-0

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