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Government and Public Policy in the Pacific Islands
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-616-8

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Robert Huggins, Brian Morgan and Nick Williams

This chapter reviews and critiques the recent evolution of place-based entrepreneurship policy in the United Kingdom, in particular the governance of policies targeted at…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter reviews and critiques the recent evolution of place-based entrepreneurship policy in the United Kingdom, in particular the governance of policies targeted at the regional level to promote economic development and competitiveness. The focus of the chapter is the evolution occurring from 1997, when the Labour government came to power, through to the period leading to the Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition government, which came to power in 2010.

Methodology/approach

A review and critique of key academic and policy-based literature.

Findings

The chapter shows the way in which governance systems and policies aimed at stimulating entrepreneurship have permeated regional development policy at a number of levels in the United Kingdom. In general, the overarching themes of enterprise policy are similar across the regions, but the difference in governance arrangements demonstrates how emphasis and delivery varies.

Practical implications

Place-based enterprise policy needs long-term commitment, with interventions required to survive changes in approaches to governance if they are to prove effective; something which has been far from the case in recent years. Whilst the analysis is drawn from the case of the United Kingdom, the lessons with regard to the connection between regional modes of governance and effective policy implementation are ones that resonate across other nations that are similarly seeking to stimulate the development of entrepreneurial regions.

Social implications

Evidence of ongoing disparities in regional economic development and competitiveness, linked to differences in regional business culture, suggest the continuance of market failure, whereby leading regions continue to attract resources and stimulate entrepreneurial opportunities at the expense of less competitive regions.

Originality/value of paper

The time period covered by the chapter – 1997 onwards – forms an historic era with regard to changing regional governance and enterprise policy in the United Kingdom, with the emergence – and subsequent demise – of regional development agencies (RDAs) across English regions, as well as the introduction of regional governments in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, which were handed certain powers for economic and enterprise development from the UK central government.

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Enterprising Places: Leadership and Governance Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-641-5

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Alexandra McCormick

In this chapter, increasing education civil society organization (CSO) and coalition participation in education and development policy processes is interpreted from the…

Abstract

In this chapter, increasing education civil society organization (CSO) and coalition participation in education and development policy processes is interpreted from the perspective of network governance theories. In 2015 “deadline” year for the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals, I consider their significance and influences within the decolonizing and reorienting “policyscapes” that govern the region and/or sub-region that is variously known as Oceania and the Pacific. The chapter is based on continuing research begun in 2007 into education policy processes at multiple discursive and geographical levels of activity, with a focus on the Southeast Asia and the Pacific, and Melanesian sub-regions. A critical educational policy approach is taken, specifically drawn from the application of methods of Critical Discourse Analysis based in critical development and postcolonial theories. These analytical strategies are particularly salient in mapping and understanding how education policy actors, some “new,” have moved toward and through inclusive and protective regionalism(s). These had developed prior to and during the past quarter of a century of significant changes to governments, governing and governance in the Pacific, Oceania, and well beyond.

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The Global Educational Policy Environment in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-044-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Mustangimah Mustangimah, Prakoso Bhairawa Putera, Muhammad Zulhamdani, Setiowiji Handoyo and Sri Rahayu

The purpose of this study is to outline the improvement of framing in Indonesia science and technology policy content, policy formulation model, policy strategy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to outline the improvement of framing in Indonesia science and technology policy content, policy formulation model, policy strategy implementation and policy performance indicators.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is conducted by implementing action research model to generate new knowledge as a research interest, through the search for solutions or improvements to problematical situation, applying Soft Systems Methodology. Thus, this research model is regarded as Soft Systems Methodology-based Action Research (SSM-based AR).

Findings

Policy formulation is not evidence based in which policy documents remain theoretical and are impractical or not detailed in engaging real conditions and strategic issues, yet the targets are measurable despite predictive results. Change and strengthening are required in the national science and technology policy for the next period, on the basis that future research policies are encouraged to address problems and solutions to build a country based on science and technology. Indonesia requires policies involving both effective and efficient national research; therefore, the need for an integrated policy direction conveying science and technology and other related sectors, such as the health sector and food, remains vital.

Originality/value

Previously, science and technology policy planning in Indonesia was not equipped with data and indicators of success, having no target to achieve within a five-year period. In the coming periods, science and technology policy documents in Indonesia are issued in the form of government regulations/presidential decrees, including indicators of science and technology achievements (quantitatively) for five years.

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Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Emmanuel Tetteh Jumpah, Richard Ampadu-Ameyaw and Johnny Owusu-Arthur

Creating employment opportunities for the youth remains a dilemma for policymakers. In many cases, policies and programmes to tackle youth unemployment have produced…

Abstract

Purpose

Creating employment opportunities for the youth remains a dilemma for policymakers. In many cases, policies and programmes to tackle youth unemployment have produced little results, because such initiatives have failed to consider some fundamental inputs. In Ghana, youth unemployment rate has doubled or more than doubled the national average unemployment rate in recent years. The current study, therefore, examines how policies in the past two decades have affected youth unemployment rate and other development outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study reviewed national economic development policy documents from 1996 to 2017 and other relevant policies aimed at creating employment opportunities for the youth, applying the content analysis procedure. Four main policy documents were reviewed in this regard. Data from secondary sources including International Labour Organisation (ILO), World Bank (WB), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) were analysed to examine the trends in youth unemployment rate, human development index and GDP growth rate in Ghana over the years. There were also formal and informal consultations with youth and development practitioners.

Findings

The results of the study show that policies that promote general growth in the economy reduce youth unemployment, while continuation of existing youth programmes, expansion, as well as addition of new ones by new governments reduces youth unemployment rate. In particular, GDP growth and youth unemployment rate trend in opposite direction; periods of increased growth have reduced youth unemployment rate and vice versa. The period of Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda I & II witnessed better reduction (5.7%) in youth unemployment rate than any of the policy periods. This was not sustained, and despite the current youth employment initiatives, unemployment among young people still remained higher than the national average.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides relevant information on how development policies and programmes affect youth unemployment rate over time. In as much as it is not the interest of the study, the study stops short of empirical estimation to determine the level of GDP growth rate that can reduce a particular level of youth unemployment, which is a case for further research. Nevertheless, the outcome of the study reflects the data and methodology used.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is a first study in Ghana that has attempted to directly link development outcomes such as youth unemployment to national economic development policies, although there are studies that have analysed the policy gaps and implementation challenges. This paper, therefore, bridges the knowledge of how development policies affect youth employment opportunities, particularly for Ghana.

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World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Madlen Sobkowiak, Thomas Cuckston and Ian Thomson

This research seeks to explain how a national government becomes capable of constructing an account of its biodiversity performance that is aimed at enabling formulation…

Abstract

Purpose

This research seeks to explain how a national government becomes capable of constructing an account of its biodiversity performance that is aimed at enabling formulation of policy in pursuit of SDG 15: Life on Land.

Design/methodology/approach

The research examines a case study of the construction of the UK government's annual biodiversity report. The case is analysed to explain the process of framing a space in which the SDG-15 challenge of halting biodiversity loss is rendered calculable, such that the government can see and understand its own performance in relation to this challenge.

Findings

The construction of UK government's annual biodiversity report relies upon data collected through non-governmental conservation efforts, statistical expertise of a small project group within the government and a governmental structure that drives ongoing evolution of the indicators as actors strive to make these useful for policy formulation.

Originality/value

The analysis problematises the SDG approach to accounting for sustainable development, whereby performance indicators have been centrally agreed and universally imposed upon all signatory governments. The analysis suggests that capacity-building efforts for national governments may need to be broader than that envisaged by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

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Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Rashmi Anand, Sanjay Medhavi, Vivek Soni, Charru Malhotra and D.K. Banwet

Digital India, the flagship programme of Government of India (GoI) originated from National e-Governance Project (NeGP) in the year 2014. The programme has important…

Abstract

Purpose

Digital India, the flagship programme of Government of India (GoI) originated from National e-Governance Project (NeGP) in the year 2014. The programme has important aspect of information security and implementation of IT policy which supports e-Governance in a focused approach of Mission Mode. In this context, there is a need to assess situation of the programme which covers a study of initiatives and actions taken by various actor involved and processes which are responsible for overall e-Governance. Therefore, the purpose of this case study is to develop a Situation-Actor-Process (SAP), Learning-Action-Performance (LAP) based inquiry model to synthesize situation of information security governance, IT policy and overall e-Governance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this case study both systematic inquiry and matrices based SAP-LAP models are developed. Actors are classified who are found responsible and engaged in IT policy framing, infrastructure development and also in e-Governance implementation. Based on a synthesis of SAP components, various LAP elements were then synthesized then which further led to learning from the case study. Suitable actions and performance have also been highlighted, followed by a statement of the impact of the efficacy i.e. transformation of information security, policy and e-Governance on the Digital India programme.

Findings

On developing the SAP-LAP framework, it was found that actors like the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology of the Govt. of India secures a higher rank in implementing various initiatives and central sector schemes to accelerate the agenda of e-Governance. Actions of other preferred actors include more investments in IT infrastructure, policy development and a mechanism to address cyber security threats for effective implementation of e-Governance. It was found that actors should be pro-active on enhancing technical skills, capacity building and imparting education related to ICT applications and e-Governance. Decision making should be based on the sustainable management practices of e-Governance projects implementation to manage change, policy making and the governmental process of the Indian administration and also to achieve Sustainable Development Goals by the Indian economy.

Research limitations/implications

The SAP-LAP synthesis is used to develop the case study. However, few other qualitative and quantitative multi criteria decision making approaches could also be explored for the development of IT security based e-Governance framework in the Indian context.

Practical implications

The synthesis of SAP leads to LAP components which can bridge the gaps between information security, IT policy governance and e-Governance process. Based on the learning from the Situation, it is said that the case study can provide decision making support and has impact on the e-Governance process i.e. may enhance awareness about e-services available to the general public. Such work is required to assess the transparency and accountability on the Government.

Social implications

Learning based on the SAP-LAP framework could provide decision making support to the administrators, policy makers and IT sector stakeholders. Thus, the case study would further help in addressing the research gaps, accelerating e-Governance initiatives and in capturing cyber threats.

Originality/value

The SAP-LAP model is found as an intuitive approach to analyze the present status of information security governance, IT policy and e-Governance in India in a single unitary model.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Ria Christine Siagian, Besral Besral, Anhari Achadi and Dumilah Ayuningtyas

The World Health Organization has pointed out that the majority of developing countries currently rely on imported drugs, in spite of the fact that there is potential for…

Abstract

Purpose

The World Health Organization has pointed out that the majority of developing countries currently rely on imported drugs, in spite of the fact that there is potential for them to produce their own drugs. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework as an innovation policy model that can strategically predict the outcome of drug development investment in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to explore a model relevant to the policy-making process, the literature was systematically reviewed with a focus on the impact of policy changes on drug development in developing countries.

Findings

An innovation policy model consists of the relational influences of contextual variables of pharma capabilities, innovation incentives and political factors affecting drug development in developing countries, derived from a dissenting policy-making perspective. This was built to test two hypotheses of a positive relationship between the above variables; and a perspectives gap between the pharmaceutical companies and the policymakers. These hypotheses address issues related to the lack of drug development in developing countries.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents a conceptual framework for the evaluation and provides examples of its use, but it is currently at a relatively early stage of research. Further work is currently underway and will later be presented to the same journal.

Social implications

Domestic drug development in developing countries needs to be feasible in order to ensure drug security. This predictive policy model provides a comprehensive approach to health policy reforms to examine innovation strategies.

Originality/value

This model includes measures to explore whether pharma capabilities, innovation incentives and/or political factors have an effect on domestic drug development in developing countries. It bridges the policy implementation’s operational process between pharmaceutical companies and policymakers.

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International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1983

In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This…

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Abstract

In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This wealth of material poses problems for the researcher in management studies — and, of course, for the librarian: uncovering what has been written in any one area is not an easy task. This volume aims to help the librarian and the researcher overcome some of the immediate problems of identification of material. It is an annotated bibliography of management, drawing on the wide variety of literature produced by MCB University Press. Over the last four years, MCB University Press has produced an extensive range of books and serial publications covering most of the established and many of the developing areas of management. This volume, in conjunction with Volume I, provides a guide to all the material published so far.

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Management Decision, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Aletha Connelly and Shenera Sam

The purpose of this paper is to outline the policy directives in Guyana as it relates to community-based tourism and to argue that the development of this niche can only…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to outline the policy directives in Guyana as it relates to community-based tourism and to argue that the development of this niche can only be driven by clear policies which speak to community empowerment and institutional strengthening.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is exploratory in nature and used document analysis as the primary means of data collection.

Findings

Community-based tourism presents an opportunity to advance the goals of government to include communities into the economic growth and development agenda. The vision for community-based tourism is community empowerment that develops the industry in line with the needs and aspirations of host communities. However, this cannot be fully realized without the supporting role of government via effective policy development and implementation.

Originality/value

It is anticipated that this research will serve as a valuable reference tool for researchers, policy makers and other relevant bodies with an interest in community-based tourism and the policy implications.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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