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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Jonathan Boston and Frieder Lempp

This paper has two main purposes. First, it considers the detrimental effects of four politically‐salient asymmetries on the policy choices of liberal democracies when…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper has two main purposes. First, it considers the detrimental effects of four politically‐salient asymmetries on the policy choices of liberal democracies when dealing with the problem of human‐induced climate change. Second, it outlines and evaluates possible solutions for reducing or countering these asymmetries.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach involves an analysis and evaluation of policy options based on a survey of the relevant literature.

Findings

The paper highlights the serious mismatch between the magnitude and urgency of the climate change problem and the current political will to overcome or mitigate the problem. Although four categories of potential solutions, and the various mechanisms through which they might operate, are discussed, it is recognized that all the available options have significant drawbacks, not least limited political feasibility and doubtful effectiveness. In short, action within liberal democracies to mitigate climate change is likely to remain seriously constrained by the four asymmetries discussed, thus increasing the risk of dangerous climate change.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the complexities, both international and national, of confronting human‐induced climate change. In particular, it identifies four systemic reasons, in the form of politically‐salient asymmetries, why liberal democracies have struggled to take effective measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provides a systematic assessment of possible solutions to these asymmetries. These include changes to accounting frameworks to ensure that the impact of humanity on the environment and future generations is more transparent.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 24 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2020

Mostafa Harakeh, Ghida Matar and Nagham Sayour

The literature of financial economics documents a causal relationship between the level of information asymmetry in the firm and its dividend policy. Nevertheless, this…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature of financial economics documents a causal relationship between the level of information asymmetry in the firm and its dividend policy. Nevertheless, this relationship suffers endogeneity problems arising from reverse causality and omitted variable bias. The purpose of this study is to examine how the dividend policy reacts to changes in asymmetric information in an exogenous research setting.

Design/methodology/approach

To overcome endogeneity concerns, the authors employ the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) in the US in 2002 as a source of an exogenous variation in the level of information asymmetry to study the potential effect that this variation might have on the dividend policy. In doing so, we utilize a difference-in-differences research design, in which the treatment group is US publicly traded firms that were exposed to the policy and the control group is publicly traded companies in the UK where SOX was not enacted. Both countries have similar institutional settings and enforcement of laws, which makes them comparable in this research context.

Findings

The authors’ findings show that, compared to UK companies, US firms increase their dividend payments following a reduction in asymmetric information as a result of the SOX enactment.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature of financial economics by showing that policy makers can mitigate agency conflicts and protect shareholders by improving the corporate information environment and reducing asymmetric information.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Periklis Gogas and Ioannis Pragidis

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of unanticipated fiscal policy shocks on the growth rate and the cyclical component of real private output and reveal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of unanticipated fiscal policy shocks on the growth rate and the cyclical component of real private output and reveal different types of asymmetries in fiscal policy implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use two alternative vector autoregressive systems in order to construct the fiscal policy shocks: one with the simple sum monetary aggregate MZM and one with the alternative CFS Divisia MZM aggregate. From each one of these systems we extracted four types of shocks: a negative and a positive government spending shock and a negative and a positive government revenue shock. These eight different types of unanticipated fiscal shocks were used next to empirically examine their effects on the growth rate and cyclical component of real private GNP in two sets of regressions: one that assumes only contemporaneous effects of the shocks on output and one that is augmented with four lags of each fiscal shock.

Findings

The authors come up with three key findings: first, all fiscal multipliers are below unity but with signs as predicted by Keynesian theory. Second, government expenditures have a larger impact as compared to the tax policy and finally, positive government spending shocks are more significant than negative spending shocks. All these results are in line with previous studies and are robust through many tests using structural identification proposed by Blanchard and Perotti (2002).

Practical implications

The empirical findings in this manuscript can be used for conducting a more efficient fiscal policy. The importance of government spending shocks is empirically verified along with the asymmetries related to price stickiness predicted by Keynesian theory. According to the results an efficient fiscal policy would: in terms of an expansionary policy, use government spending as a means to stimulate the economy instead of tax cuts and in the case of a contractionary policy use government revenue (higher taxes) so that the costs of this policy in terms of output lost are lower.

Originality/value

In this study the authors introduce three main innovations: first, to the best of our knowledge the Divisia monetary aggregates have not yet been used to previous research pertaining to fiscal policy. Second, following Cover’s (1992) procedure of identifying monetary policy shocks we extract the unanticipated fiscal policy shocks on government spending and revenue. Finally, the authors explicitly test for the asymmetric effects on the growth rate and the cyclical component of real private GNP of a contractionary and expansionary fiscal policy.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2012

Husam Basiddiq and Khaled Hussainey

This paper aims to extend and contribute to prior UK research on the association between information asymmetry and dividends propensity. It seeks to investigate the impact…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to extend and contribute to prior UK research on the association between information asymmetry and dividends propensity. It seeks to investigate the impact of the number of analysts following firms, a proxy for information asymmetry, on dividends propensity.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a 282 UK FTSE‐All Share non‐financial/non‐utilities firms with fiscal year ends on 2007, the paper uses a multiple regression model to investigate the association between dividends and analysts following.

Findings

The paper finds that after controlling for firm‐specific characteristics, there is a significant negative association between the number of analysts following firms and dividend propensity. The finding suggests that higher coverage of financial analysts for UK firms reduces levels of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, which results in lower dividend propensity. These findings are consistent with agency theory and pecking order theory, but inconsistent with signalling theory.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to prior research related to the drivers of dividend propensity by being the first UK study to examine the association between dividend propensity and information asymmetry.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Opeoluwa Adeniyi Adeosun, Olumide Steven Ayodele and Olajide Clement Jongbo

This study examines and compares different specifications of the fiscal policy rule in the fiscal sustainability analysis of Nigeria.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines and compares different specifications of the fiscal policy rule in the fiscal sustainability analysis of Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

This is methodologically achieved by estimating the baseline constant-parameter and Markov regime switching fiscal models. The asymmetric autoregressive distributed lag fiscal model is also employed to substantiate the differential responses of fiscal authorities to public debt.

Findings

The baseline constant-parameter fiscal model provides mixed results of sustainable and unsustainable fiscal policy. The inconclusiveness is adduced to instability in primary fiscal balance–public debt dynamics. This makes it necessary to capture regime switches in the fiscal policy rule. The Markov switching estimations show a protracted fiscal unsustainable regime that is inconsistent with the intertemporal budget constraint (IBC). The no-Ponzi game and debt stabilizing results of the Markov switching fiscal model further revealed that the transversality and debt stability conditions were not satisfied. Additional findings from the asymmetric autoregressive model estimation show that fiscal consolidation responses vary with contraction and expansion in output and spending, coupled with downturns and upturns in public debt dynamics in both the long and short run. These findings thus confirm the presence of asymmetries in the fiscal policy authorities' reactions to public debt. Further, additional evidences show the violation of the IBC which is exacerbated by the deleterious effect of the pro-cyclical fiscal policy response in boom on the improvement of the primary fiscal balance.

Originality/value

This study deviates from the extant literature by accommodating time variation, periodic switches and fiscal policy asymmetries in the fiscal sustainability analysis of Nigeria.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Claire E. Crutchley and Marlin R.H. Jensen

This paper tests how changes in information asymmetry and agency variables affect changes in debt policy. Unlike previous studies that examine levels of variables to…

Abstract

This paper tests how changes in information asymmetry and agency variables affect changes in debt policy. Unlike previous studies that examine levels of variables to explain what may determine debt policy, we calculate yearly changes in variables to provide a stronger test of causal relations. By examining changes in agency and information variables, we are able to identify factors that cause firms to change their optimal capital structure. We find institutional ownership has become a substitute for debt financing due to increased shareholder activism. In addition, we find support for Jensen's free cash flow theory, mixed support for informational asymmetry, and no support for Jensen and Meckling's agency model.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Guobing Wu, Hao Zhang and Ping Chen

In this paper, six forms of non-linear Taylor rule have been applied to compare the fitting and prediction of response function of monetary policy of China, in an attempt…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, six forms of non-linear Taylor rule have been applied to compare the fitting and prediction of response function of monetary policy of China, in an attempt to figure out a form of non-linear Taylor rule that accords with Chinese practices. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors will conduct in-sample fitting and out-of-sample prediction on the response function of monetary policy of China by introducing the factor of exchange rate and by applying forward-looking, backward-looking and within-quarters non-linear Taylor rule with data from the first quarter of 1994 to the second quarter of 2011, with a view to provide reference for formulation and implementation of monetary policies of China.

Findings

By analyzing the experimental data, the authors find that first, after introducing the factor of exchange rate, both the implementation effect and prediction ability of the monetary policies improve. Exchange rate has a relatively greater influence on the effect of the monetary policies during low inflation period. Introduction of exchange rate can improve the prediction accuracy of our monetary policies significantly. Second, as the implementation effect of monetary policy under different macro-background varies greatly, the situation should be correctly appraised when formulating and implementing monetary policies. According to the empirical results, the monetary policies have obvious non-linear characteristics, and transit smoothly with the change of inflation rate. On the two sides of inflation rate of 2.174 percent, there is an asymmetry response.

Research limitations/implications

Surely, the conclusions are reached on the basis of quarterly data and one-step prediction method. It is no doubt that use of frequency mixing data including quarterly and monthly data will provide more sample information for studying relevant issues. And the use of multiple-step prediction method may cause a dynamic change of prediction indicators of models, which will help choose more appropriate prediction models. That is what the authors will study next.

Originality/value

First, by introducing exchange rate, this paper will extend non-linear Taylor rules and test its applicability and fitting effect in China. Second, figure out a non-linear Taylor rule that conforms to Chinese practices with data. In this paper, multiple forms of non-linear Taylor rules and actual macro date will be adopted for fitting and finding out a non-linear Taylor rule that fits Chinese practices. Third, empirical basis will be provided for further perfecting monetary policies prediction models. As there are few studies in connection with the prediction accuracy of non-linear Taylor rules so far, this paper will compare and study the prediction accuracy of non-linear Taylor rules by utilizing multiple advanced prediction techniques, so as to offer a beneficial thinking for predicting and formulating monetary policies by the central bank.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 April 2020

Nadia Loukil

The purpose of this study tests whether political instability influence financial decision-making behavior of Tunisian-listed firms, in particular dividend payout policy.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study tests whether political instability influence financial decision-making behavior of Tunisian-listed firms, in particular dividend payout policy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses dividend payout decisions announced over the period 2008–2015 by nonfinancial firms listed on the Tunisian Stock Exchange. A logistic regression is applied to analyze the relationship between political instability and dividend payout decision “changes. These latter are: past non-payers” dividend initiation, past payers' dividend termination, dividend payout “increasing and dividend payout” decreasing. Political instability variables used are as follows: number of changes in government head and dummy variables indicating the changes of ruling party and election year.

Findings

This study shows that government head changes are positively related to dividend initiation decisions while changes in ruling party are negatively related to termination dividend decisions except for family controlled ones. These firms are more likely to stop dividend on period of ruling party changes. Moreover, firms become unwilling to increase dividend payment on the period of political instability (changes in ruling party and government head and elections) and become willing to decrease dividend payment only when the government head changes.

Practical implications

The empirical findings contribute to the current debate on the signaling power of dividend policy in emerging market where raising equity capital is difficult and controlling shareholders prefer reinvest benefit to pay dividends. In addition, this study has important implications for regulators and governments struggling to design policies to improve investors' confidence and boost market activity. Indeed, investors may use corporate payout as a signal for better governance.

Originality/value

To the author' best knowledge, this paper is the first to investigate and to compare the effect of three political instability sources; government head changes, changes in ruling party and elections, on dividend payout decision changes. This paper provides evidence that firms facing political unstable environment seek to achieve two goals when they make dividend policy: reducing financial distress probability and attracting minority owners.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Anis Ben Amar, Olfa Ben Salah and Anis Jarboui

In financial literature, dividend payout decisions are determined by factors such as debt, liquidity, profitability, size and risk. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

In financial literature, dividend payout decisions are determined by factors such as debt, liquidity, profitability, size and risk. The purpose of this paper is to identify the effect of earnings management measured by discretionary accruals based on Dechow et al.’s (1995) model on dividend policy.

Design/methodology/approach

This research will use panel data analysis to test the effect of earnings management on dividend policy. The authors selected 280, French non-financial companies, listed on the CAC All Tradable index for the 2008-2015 period.

Findings

Using a sample of 2108 firm-year observations, the authors find a positive impact of earnings management on dividend policies of firms. Besides, there is a positive/negative relationship between the size of the firm and the dividend policy. Moreover, this paper has dealt with some factors such as debt, the risk of the firm and liquidity which may affect the corporate dividend policy. The results are robust as the authors adopted an additional measure of dividend policy.

Practical implications

The findings may have important implications for analysts, investors, regulators and academics. First, the study shows that earnings management is a common practice in the French context and constitutes a major objective of dividend policy. Better still, identifying the other variables that influence the dividend policy provides a clearer understanding of dividend policy for investors, analysts and academics alike. Second, the study provides ample evidence of agency problems between various partners in French capital markets, highlighting the necessity to establish new corporate governance mechanisms. This is highly relevant for policymakers in their quest for a better financial market.

Originality/value

This study extends the literature on the impact of dividend thresholds on earnings management by showing that firms run earnings to inform the market that the company can distribute dividends.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2017

Abstract

Details

Economic Imbalances and Institutional Changes to the Euro and the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-510-8

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