Search results

1 – 10 of over 13000
Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Lina Salazar

This paper aims to develop and validate a framework about the enablers and constraints to the creation, sharing and use of knowledge, by analyzing how enablers and

1255

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop and validate a framework about the enablers and constraints to the creation, sharing and use of knowledge, by analyzing how enablers and constraints in a particular information environment – advocacy networks – impact each of the phases of the knowledge process.

Design/methodology/approach

The setting chosen for this research is a group of leading international non‐governmental organizations (INGOs), and their NGO partners in a developing country, pursuing a policy advocacy strategy in the context of an international donors conference. The qualitative research follows an embedded case study design with two levels of data collection and analysis: intra‐organizational: an individual INGO; and inter‐organizational: the advocacy network to which this INGO belongs.

Findings

Most enablers and constraints are internal to organizations and focus on the phases of knowledge use. Constraints associated with organizations' cultures, individuals' information‐processing preferences, and politics are prominent. The validated framework can then explain how specific constraints influence particular phases of the creation, sharing and use of knowledge and the nature of these constraints in settings where particular organizational cultures dominate.

Originality/value

Researchers have studied the enabling conditions through which knowledge is created and shared. Some contributions have focused on the role of personal beliefs and formal procedures; higher codification of knowledge; social capital; or technology and measurement, among others. The literature has been mainly focused on identifying particular constraints, without paying much attention to how they are manifested in the distinct phases of the knowledge process. This paper aims to make a contribution in this area.

Details

VINE, vol. 40 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Annabel Jackson

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that both the processes and outcomes of advocacy can be evaluated in ways that can help with learning and accountability. The…

936

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that both the processes and outcomes of advocacy can be evaluated in ways that can help with learning and accountability. The paper reviews the literature on evaluating advocacy, with a particular focus on development work, and describes an example of the systematic evaluation of the Business Environment Strengthening in Tanzania-Advocacy Component business advocacy programme in Tanzania.

Design/methodology/approach

The evaluation uses a Scientific Realist methodology to give a disaggregated, contextual analysis of advocacy, asking the typically Scientific Realist question: “What works for whom in what circumstances?” Complementary methods are being applied longitudinally over a five-year period and include stakeholder interviews, business surveys, diagnostic tools and learning seminars.

Findings

The paper argues that advocacy evaluation is no more complex or difficult than other aspects of development. Rigorous, cost-effective methods can be developed, so long as clear conceptualisation is carried out as an initial step. Systematic analysis of influencing tactics and capacity building demonstrates the relative skill of the advocacy organisations and allows the funder to see intermediate indicators of progress which are otherwise invisible.

Practical implications

Consistent conceptualisation and measurement allow comparison over time, and between different types of projects and organisations. Integrating methods with the operation of campaigns or programmes allows the evaluator to give feedback in real time and minimise the burden on evaluands.

Originality/value

The paper is based on original research/evaluation. The field is heavily concentrated on social change. The paper makes a contribution by providing an example of advocacy evaluation in the field of business advocacy and economic development. In addition, the example extends the field of advocacy evaluation by considering the systematic evaluation of a whole programme of individual advocacy projects.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Georgina Watts

The need for advocacy for autistic adults is emphasised in many government policy and good practice guidelines. The purpose of this paper is to investigate legislation and…

Abstract

Purpose

The need for advocacy for autistic adults is emphasised in many government policy and good practice guidelines. The purpose of this paper is to investigate legislation and policy relevant to advocacy for autistic adults in England and explore whether this translates into practice. It also seeks to clarify which policies can be enforced under current legislation and highlight the gaps in legislative power to ensure implementation of good practice.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper aims to define what is meant by autism advocacy. Relevant legislation, including human rights, disability and autism-specific guidelines, are discussed in respect to autistic adults in England.

Findings

Implementation of autism advocacy policy appears to vary greatly according to local and individual resources.

Originality/value

Autistic adults, and services that support them, may be unaware of the policies and guidelines relevant to advocacy, they may also be confused by the plethora of different guidelines or unsure how to implement these. Further research is needed to review obstacles to the practical application of autism advocacy policy.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Stefan Toepler and Christian Fröhlich

The growing trend towards closing the political space for civil society in authoritarian regimes has primarily targeted NGOs focused on rights-based advocacy. Drawing on a…

Abstract

Purpose

The growing trend towards closing the political space for civil society in authoritarian regimes has primarily targeted NGOs focused on rights-based advocacy. Drawing on a study of disability NGOs in Russia, this paper seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the advocacy options that nonprofit organizations have even in repressive political contexts. The authors first review the extant literature to identify common actors, types and tactics and then trace what types of advocacy Russian NGOs are engaged in and what tactics they are able to utilize.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical part of this paper is based on 20 interviews conducted among active participants in disability NGOs in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Perm and Nizhniy Novgorod. Despite not being a representative sample of organizations, the selection of cities and organizations was intended to reflect spatial and structural factors of the field.

Findings

The authors find that NGOs are able to pursue a broad range of advocacy activities despite a generally restrictive legal environment for civil society.

Research limitations/implications

Research on advocacy in authoritarian countries is often focused on NGOs that are primarily engaged in these activities. This has overshadowed the considerable leeway that nonprofit service providers have to engage in advocacy.

Practical implications

Service-providing NGOs should not forsake advocacy activities, even in authoritarian contexts, but can find access points in the political system and should seek to utilize their voice on behalf of their clients.

Social implications

Despite general restrictions, NGOs can still find ways to successfully secure social rights, justice and solidarity, provided they accept the supremacy of the state in social policy and appeal to the state's responsibility for the welfare of its citizens without directly questioning the overall status quo too heavily.

Originality/value

We develop a broad framework for various advocacy forms and activities and apply it to nonprofit service providers.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2013

Anna-Britt Coe

This chapter bridges cultural and political approaches to determine why elite support for movement claims may be inconsistent across the policy process. I analyze this…

Abstract

This chapter bridges cultural and political approaches to determine why elite support for movement claims may be inconsistent across the policy process. I analyze this question empirically through 16 in-depth interviews with government officials in two regions of Peru: Arequipa and Cusco. Regional officials appraised feminist advocacy in two opposing ways. First, they valued feminist advocates’ contributions to policy processes, which enabled them to advance reproductive rights and gender equity initiatives. They also perceived women as a group deserving of these initiatives and framed gender policies in terms of rights and equality. Second, they were critical of feminist advocates’ weaknesses in mobilizing support, which hindered the officials’ own ability to advance reproductive rights and gender equity initiatives. Furthermore, regional officials understood reproductive rights and gender equality to be thwarted by the State’s economic instrumentalism and by Catholic Church’s ultra-conservatism. This research shows how a cultural approach to policy elites’ support for movement claims goes beyond their individual attitudes and calculations to capture their perceptions, frames, and understandings tied to the broader cultural context. This wider conceptualization in turn helps clarify inconsistencies in policy elites’ support for movement claims across the policy process.

Details

Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-732-0

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 21 October 2022

Juliana Santos

This study aims to understand, from the analysis of the work of a Brazilian network of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), how advocacy on human rights issues is…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand, from the analysis of the work of a Brazilian network of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), how advocacy on human rights issues is developed to defend causes before the legislative branch, identifying its contributions and effectiveness. For this, were observed, the strategies and tactics employed in the implementation of two advocacy campaigns promoted by a Brazilian NGOs network.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopts the method of inductive investigation with a qualitative approach and uses the techniques of semi-structured in-depth interviews and documentary research. The paper is developed within the scientific field of public relations (PR), uses as reference the critical theory and the rhetorical theory of PR, and is based on the concept of advocacy.

Findings

Some results of the advocacy are observed, such as the greater awareness of political decision-makers, in addition to the influence on the definition of the political agenda and on the action of the political decision-makers.

Research limitations/implications

Among the limitations of this study are the time span for analyzing the campaigns' actions, which could be extended to observe long-term results, as well as the dedication of the study exclusively to the legislative branch since the campaigns also sought to influence decision-making in the executive branch.

Social implications

The results found encourage the strengthening of the democratic environment since it increases the power and influence of civil society in the political decision-making of the legislative branch.

Originality/value

The study showed that advocacy, as a PR activity, increases civil society participation in political decisions.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 May 2012

Rachel Aldred

Purpose – This chapter examines how activism and advocacy have shaped the policy and politics of cycling.Methodology – Evidence drawn upon includes policy documents and…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter examines how activism and advocacy have shaped the policy and politics of cycling.

Methodology – Evidence drawn upon includes policy documents and interviews with advocates and activists, some carried out as part of the Economic and Social Research Council Cycling Cultures project. The chapter focuses on the United Kingdom but within a comparative context drawing upon material from The Netherlands and the Republic of Ireland.

Findings – The chapter argues that cycling has always been constructed in relation to social movements and social identities, and so the politics of cycling varies depending on the relationship of cycling to politics more broadly. Understanding this context can contribute to the analysis of policy and infrastructural debates within and between cycling movements.

Research limitations – The research could be strengthened by a comparative focus upon middle- and lower-income countries, where the demographic profile of cyclists is likely to be different leading to distinctively different politics of cycling.

Research implications – The politics of cycling should be considered as crucial in shaping the content and outcomes of cycling policies, particularly in terms of understanding – and redressing – perceived policy failures.

Social implications – The chapter argues that the current political and economic situation is generating distinctive political problems for cycling movements, and this is already beginning to produce new debates and changes in forms of advocacy and activism.

Details

Cycling and Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-299-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Femida Handy

Several policy alternatives exist to protect environmental quality. Environmental nonprofits advocating for better environmental quality must often choose what policies to…

1594

Abstract

Several policy alternatives exist to protect environmental quality. Environmental nonprofits advocating for better environmental quality must often choose what policies to advocate and support. This article argues that environmental nonprofits will do best by designing strategies of advocacy contingent on the net costs to the stakeholders and paying attention to the crowding‐out effects of monetary incentives. It investigates the advocacy policies of 50 environmental organizations in Canada. The findings of this survey show that although reduction of net costs is espoused, market‐based policies are not generally advocated, while a greater emphasis is put on regulatory approaches combined with moral suasion through the dissemination of information and educational programs.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2004

Mary Futrell, Fred van Leeuwen and Bob Harris

The way in which the international teacher organizations evolved suggests both the advantages and the difficulties of maintaining a coherent and purposeful international…

Abstract

The way in which the international teacher organizations evolved suggests both the advantages and the difficulties of maintaining a coherent and purposeful international organization for education advocacy (the abbreviations and acronyms for all the organizations are spelled out for reference in Appendix A to this chapter; the complex succession of organizations is traced in a table, presented as Appendix B to this chapter). The international teacher organizations began at the outset of the 20th century in Europe.1 The first of these, founded in 1905 and centering on the concerns of primary school teachers, was the International Bureau of Federations of Teachers (IBFT; it became the International Federation of Teachers’ Associations [IFTA] in 1926). The second, founded in 1912, was the International Foundation of Secondary Teachers (known by its French acronym, FIPESO, the Fédération internationale des professeurs de l’enseignement secondaire officielle).

Details

Teacher Unions and Education Policy: Retrenchment of Reform?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-126-2

1 – 10 of over 13000