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Abstract

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Police Occupational Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-055-2

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Article

Monika Agrawal and Ritika Mahajan

Using conservation of resources (COR) theory the study investigates the interrelationships between optimism, bidirectional work-family conflict, enrichment, and…

Abstract

Purpose

Using conservation of resources (COR) theory the study investigates the interrelationships between optimism, bidirectional work-family conflict, enrichment, and psychological health.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were gathered from 356 Indian police officers using a survey questionnaire and purposive sampling technique.

Findings

The results inform that optimism mitigates family to work conflict (FWC) and fosters work to family enrichment (WFE), family to work enrichment (FEW), and psychological health in the police. The results further suggest optimism influences psychological health via WFE (partial mediation). However, FWC and FEW do not influence mental health.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in a specific culture and context (Rajasthan police), so results cannot be generalized. The study discusses the practical implications for police practitioners.

Originality/value

The study adds to work-family literature by considering personal differences that have received less space in work-family models. To the best of authors' knowledge, none of the previous studies have considered optimism, the work-family interface and psychological health in the police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article

Xinting Wang, Jia Qu and Jihong Zhao

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect and duration of supervised field training on police cadets' worldview of police work in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect and duration of supervised field training on police cadets' worldview of police work in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The four-wave longitudinal data were collected from graduate students who were pursuing their master's degree in a national Chinese police university from 2016 to 2018. Independent variables including demographic characteristics and knowledge along with experience gained from the internship were used to explain police cadets' attitudes toward police work. Ordinary least square (OLS) regression models were used in the current study.

Findings

Findings derived from multiple regression analyses suggest that police cadets' attitudes toward police work are conducive to the “shock” of the real-world experience after three-month field training. However, the effect of the field training on police cadets' attitudes toward police work is temporary, not enduring.

Research limitations/implications

The data for this study were collected from one national police university, and the findings reported here may not be generalized.

Practical implications

Police field training is important for cadets to develop positive view of police work. It provides practical knowledge for police training and socializes cadets before entering into the law enforcement filed, avoiding the financial cost of resignation. However, the influence of field training is temporal. Hence, it is more appropriate for police administrators to arrange police cadets' field training close to their graduation date, the third year of their college education.

Originality/value

This study can be considered as an extension of relevant research on law-enforcement-related field training reported in the United States. However, it goes beyond the existing literature by using longitudinal data to answer a long-overdue question: Does supervised field training change the worldview of cadets concerning police work?

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Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article

Tiina Saari, Noora Ellonen and Matti Vuorensyrjä

The purpose of this paper is to compare the employee well-being of police officers in different investigative groups. This paper analyses crime investigators’ employee…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the employee well-being of police officers in different investigative groups. This paper analyses crime investigators’ employee well-being from four perspectives: organisational commitment, job satisfaction, exhaustion and turnover intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on Finnish Police Personal Survey data (n=6,698), and qualitative and quantitative analysis methods are utilised.

Findings

Significant differences between investigative groups were found, and the police officers working in short-term investigations had the lowest level of well-being. The qualitative results revealed the employee- and organisational-level reasons behind these attitudes. One major issue is the lack of meaningfulness in work as the respondents describe their jobs as boring and monotonous and report that they do not have the appropriate resources to do their work as well as they wish.

Practical implications

To enhance the well-being of the investigators, police forces should improve the ways of leadership and invest more resources especially on short-term investigation to diminish the insecurity and ensure the quality and continuity of the work.

Originality/value

Research on the well-being of police officers has mostly focused on officers conducting surveillance or emergency operations, and there is very little knowledge of the well-being of crime investigators. This research adds to the limited knowledge on employee well-being of crime investigators.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article

Dale C. Spencer, Rosemary Ricciardelli, Dale Ballucci and Kevin Walby

Digital evidence is now infused in many (or arguably most) cases of sexual assault, which has refigured investigative tools, policing strategies and sources of cynicism…

Abstract

Purpose

Digital evidence is now infused in many (or arguably most) cases of sexual assault, which has refigured investigative tools, policing strategies and sources of cynicism for those working in sex crime units. Although cynicism, both its sources and affects, is widely studied among scholars of work and policing, little is known about how police working in sex crime units experience, mitigate and express cynicism. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in understanding and explore the role of cynicism amongst investigators working in sex crime units.

Design/methodology/approach

To address this research gap, the authors conducted 70 semi-structured in-depth interviews and two focus groups with members of police services organizations across Canada working in sex crime units.

Findings

Examining sources of cynicism and emotional experiences, the authors reveal that officers in these units normalize and neutralize organizational and intra-organizational sources of cynicism, and cope with the potentially traumatizing and emotionally draining realities of undertaking this form of “dirty work.” The authors show that officer cynicism extends beyond offenders into organizational and operational aspects of their occupations and their lived experiences outside of work, which has implications for literature on police work, cynicism and digital policing.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to the literature on cyber policing by, first, examining sex crimes unit member’s sources of cynicism in relation to sex crimes and the digital world and, second, by exploring sources of cynicism in police organizations and other branches in the criminal justice system. The authors examine how such cynicism seeps into relationships outside of the occupation. The authors’ contribution is in showing that cynicism related to police dirty work is experienced in relation to “front” and “back” regions (Dick, 2005) but also in multiple organizational and social spheres. The authors contribute to the extant literature on dirty work insofar as it addresses the underexplored dirty work associated with policing cyber environments and the morally tainted elements of such policing tasks.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article

Wen‐Chung Hsieh, Chun‐Hsi Vivian Chen, Chi‐Cheng Lee and Rui‐Hsin Kao

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of work characteristics on members’ self‐efficacy and collective efficacy, and the subsequent effect on police officers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of work characteristics on members’ self‐efficacy and collective efficacy, and the subsequent effect on police officers’ performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A multilevel model is adopted to analyze quantitative data obtained by using 812 police officers and 54 chiefs of police stations in Taiwan as the research objects.

Findings

The authors found that work characteristics affected members’ self‐efficacy and collective efficacy, which further affected the individual‐ and group‐level performance and the contextual effect of social work characteristics (SWCs) and collective efficacy on self‐efficacy and individual performance. The authors also confirmed the cross‐level moderation of social characteristics on the relationship between motivational work characteristics (MWCs) and self‐efficacy, and between self‐efficacy and individual performance.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation was the characteristics of the sample, which consisted of mostly first‐line uniformed police officers in Taiwan. From the perspective of managerial implications, it is felt that police organizations should beef up the training on police officers’ collective efficacy, such as building group spirit, improving members’ sense of responsibility, and building up trust with the organization.

Originality/value

The findings prove that the study of work design is particularly important for enhancing the management effectiveness of police organization, because it explains the causes of a number of organizational behaviors as well as a number of important results that influence the police organization (e.g. efficacy and performance).

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article

Ni He, Jihong Zhao and Carol A. Archbold

This study explores the impact of work environment, work‐family conflict, and coping mechanisms on physical and psychological stresses of police officers. Using survey…

Abstract

This study explores the impact of work environment, work‐family conflict, and coping mechanisms on physical and psychological stresses of police officers. Using survey data from a large police department located in the New England area, we pay specific attention to analyzing similar and dissimilar results while comparing across gender groups. Our research indicates that for both gender groups, work‐family conflict (spillover) and destructive coping mechanisms are among the strongest and most consistent stressors, regardless of the measures of dependent variable employed (i.e. somatization, anxiety and depression). On the other hand, we also find divergent impact of exposures to negative work environment, camaraderie, and constructive coping mechanisms on different measures of work related stresses across the two gender groups. Implications of these convergent and divergent effects are discussed.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article

Penny Dick

The expansion of part‐time or reduced hours working into skilled, managerial and professional jobs is increasing. This expansion is generally viewed positively. Not only…

Abstract

The expansion of part‐time or reduced hours working into skilled, managerial and professional jobs is increasing. This expansion is generally viewed positively. Not only does it herald a change of status for part‐time working but also suggests that organisations are taking Equal Opportunities policies and specifically, family‐friendly policies, seriously. However, the emerging literature in this area suggests that part‐time working within professional roles poses a considerable HRM problem. Using an explicitly pluralistic perspective, this paper presents the results of a case study into the management of part‐time working in a UK police force. It is argued that part‐time working has different meanings for managers and part‐time employees, producing conflicting needs and expectations that are not readily reconcilable. The cultural and institutional factors that reproduce these differences are explored and the implications for human resource management are identified.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article

Dragana Todovic, Dragana Makajic-Nikolic, Milica Kostic-Stankovic and Milan Martic

The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for automatically determining the optimal allocation of police officers in accordance with the division and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for automatically determining the optimal allocation of police officers in accordance with the division and organization of labor.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem is defined as the problem of the goal programming for which the mathematical model of mixed integer programming was developed. In modeling of the scheduling problem the approach police officer/scheme, based on predefined scheduling patterns, was used. The approach is applied to real data of a police station in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Findings

This study indicates that the determination of monthly scheduling policemen is complex and challenging problem, which is usually performed without the aid of software (self-rostering), and that it can be significantly facilitated by the introduction of scheduling optimization approach.

Research limitations/implications

The developed mathematical model, in its current form, can directly be applied only to the scheduling of police officers at police stations which have the same or a similar organization of work.

Practical implications

Optimization of scheduling significantly reduces the time to obtain a monthly schedule. In addition, it allows the police stations to experiment with different forms of organization work of police officers and to obtain an optimal schedule for each of them in a short time.

Originality/value

The problem of optimal scheduling of employees is often resolved in other fields. To the authors knowledge, this is the first time that the approach of goal programming is applied in the field of policing.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article

L. Thomas Winfree, David Guiterman and G. Larry Mays

Since the creation of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration in 1968 there has been a tremendous amount of research on policing, police officers and police

Abstract

Since the creation of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration in 1968 there has been a tremendous amount of research on policing, police officers and police departments in the USA. Most of the studies have focussed on the large municipal police agencies that have large numbers of officers and, presumably, face the greatest problems. This means that small and medium‐sized policing largely has been ignored, or it surfaces as a research topic only periodically. Remedies this by looking at the officers serving in four small city police departments. Considers a single research question: is it who the officers are, or what they do that explains their perceptions of the workplace? Based on 162 questionnaires received from certified police officers in four New Mexico police departments, examines the effects of service, gender and work activities on officers’ perceptions of the workplace and their general work world. Finds that officer perceptions of the work world are related more closely to what they do than who they are. Addresses the practical and policy implications of these findings.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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