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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Dragana Todovic, Dragana Makajic-Nikolic, Milica Kostic-Stankovic and Milan Martic

The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for automatically determining the optimal allocation of police officers in accordance with the division and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for automatically determining the optimal allocation of police officers in accordance with the division and organization of labor.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem is defined as the problem of the goal programming for which the mathematical model of mixed integer programming was developed. In modeling of the scheduling problem the approach police officer/scheme, based on predefined scheduling patterns, was used. The approach is applied to real data of a police station in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Findings

This study indicates that the determination of monthly scheduling policemen is complex and challenging problem, which is usually performed without the aid of software (self-rostering), and that it can be significantly facilitated by the introduction of scheduling optimization approach.

Research limitations/implications

The developed mathematical model, in its current form, can directly be applied only to the scheduling of police officers at police stations which have the same or a similar organization of work.

Practical implications

Optimization of scheduling significantly reduces the time to obtain a monthly schedule. In addition, it allows the police stations to experiment with different forms of organization work of police officers and to obtain an optimal schedule for each of them in a short time.

Originality/value

The problem of optimal scheduling of employees is often resolved in other fields. To the authors knowledge, this is the first time that the approach of goal programming is applied in the field of policing.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

Jiann-Sheng Wu and Tze-chiang Lou

The purpose of this paper is to improve the efficiency of accident management from the angle of reducing highway accident response times while taking into account total…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the efficiency of accident management from the angle of reducing highway accident response times while taking into account total daily work hours.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed a patrol beat scheduling model, which is formulated as a chance-constrained optimization model, with the objective of minimizing the sum of officer work hours. Along with the model, a simulation program was also developed to help evaluate the effectiveness of the model-generated beat schedule in terms of response times.

Findings

This study concluded that, first, the current manually designed beat schedule could be improved should the National Highway Police Bureau adopt the proposed model. Second, the total daily work hours of the model-generated schedule at the confidence level of 100 percent were 64 hours, 21 hours less than the average work hours recorded in the 2006 data, or about an improvement of 24 percent. Should the model be adopted, not only response times will be improved, the 24 percent reduction in work hours could be translated into a cut in personnel cost.

Research limitations/implications

The scheduling model and simulation program are both built upon one-year historical data whose accuracy and completeness is prerequisite.

Practical implications

The proposed model can be adopted by other public service agencies such as fire departments, or emergency service centers. By replacing the historical data used in the study with their own data, agencies can evaluate the efficiency of their existing schedule or generate various schedules based on institutional needs.

Originality/value

This model utilizes historical accident data to generate optimal beat schedule and evaluate the efficiency of such schedule. Similar models have not been found in other studies.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

S. Marlon Gayadeen and Scott W. Phillips

– The purpose of this research is to examine ritualistic humor or joking that exists in a small, rural police department in Western New York.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to examine ritualistic humor or joking that exists in a small, rural police department in Western New York.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through participatory observations and interviews during the summer of 2014. Both authors worked in tandem to capitalize on individual expertise to maximize data collection and analyses.

Findings

Results suggest that humor is leveraged by officers to socialize, cope and demarcate authority. Depending on the circumstance, humor can be orchestrated or spontaneous, given the intentions of the officer.

Originality/value

Humor is an important lens through which to view police behavior. The current research underscores the importance of levity as a gauge of organizational and individual health.

Details

Journal of Organizational Ethnography, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6749

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Sanja Kutnjak Ivković and Wook Kang

The purpose of this study is to examine the contours of police integrity among Korean police officers a decade after police reform was started.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the contours of police integrity among Korean police officers a decade after police reform was started.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected in 2009 at the Korean National Police University (KNPU) and the Police Comprehensive Academy (PCA). The questionnaires distributed to police officers contained 14 vignettes describing various forms of police misconduct. The sample consists of 329 police officers, mostly non‐supervisors, attending courses at the KNPU and PCA.

Findings

Results indicate that the contours of police integrity vary across different forms of misconduct. Regardless of whether the respondents' views were measured through questions about misconduct seriousness, appropriate discipline, willingness to report, or knowledge about official rules, the findings suggest that Korean police officers perceived corruption as a serious form of police misconduct, while they considered the use of excessive force to be substantially less serious. In addition, a strong code of silence among the police was detected.

Research limitations/implications

The study examines the contours of police integrity among a convenience sample of police officers from South Korea.

Practical implications

The Korean police administrators interested in controlling police misconduct could utilize this methodology to explore the contours of the code of silence among the Korean police. The results of the study indicate that substantial focus should be put on changing police officer views about the use of excessive force and narrowing the code of silence in general.

Social implications

The results show that the contours of police integrity among South Korean police officers clearly reflect the attitudes and views of the society at large toward corruption and use of excessive force. The lenient attitudes that South Korean police officers have expressed regarding the use of excessive force reflect both the historical attitudes and the lack of clarity of official rules. The strong code of silence is related to the insufficient protection for whistleblowers and the adherence to Confucianism among Korean citizens.

Originality/value

Prior research predominantly measured police integrity as the opposite of police corruption in Western democracies and East European countries in transition. This research expands this by focusing on different forms of police misconduct. In addition, it explores integrity in an Asian democracy with the police agency undergoing extensive reform.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

Michael J. Brusco and Larry W. Jacobs

Examines an alternative approach to labour utilisation, based onthe concept of simulated annealing, implemented on a microcomputer.Demonstrates the use of the new approach…

Abstract

Examines an alternative approach to labour utilisation, based on the concept of simulated annealing, implemented on a microcomputer. Demonstrates the use of the new approach in a study of the potential labour utilisation effect of two types of scheduling flexibility: shift length flexibility and meal‐break placement flexibility. Finally, offers implications of the new approach for management.

Details

Work Study, vol. 42 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2009

Sanja Kutnjak Ivković

This paper aims to explore a critical component of the successful transition into a democratic police agency – the state of police integrity – among the Croatian police

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore a critical component of the successful transition into a democratic police agency – the state of police integrity – among the Croatian police officers. The paper also analyzes the police officers' views about the community policing efforts.

Design/methodology/approach

The questionnaire administered to police officers in Croatia focuses on various forms of police misconduct, as well as the respondents' views about community policing. A random sample of 811 Croatian police officers was collected at the end of 2008.

Findings

The results of 2008 survey portray a more optimistic picture of integrity of the Croatian police than the results of the 1995 survey did. The respondents in 2008 seem to expect more serious discipline than the respondents in 1995 did. Furthermore, the code of silence – one of the key elements of police integrity theory – seems to be weakening. However, the evaluations of scenario seriousness remain relatively similar, indicating a common hierarchy of seriousness. Finally, the support for the idea of community policing is perceived to be much stronger at the top than at the lower levels of the organizational hierarchy or among individual police officers.

Research limitations/implications

The 1995 and 2008 samples are random samples and thus do not constitute a panel data set.

Practical implications

The methodology can be utilized by police administrators to explore the contours of police integrity in their agencies. More specifically, the administrators can explore whether police officers know the official rules, how serious they evaluate police misconduct, what they think the appropriate and expected discipline is, and how willing they are to tolerate police misconduct in silence.

Originality/value

Prior studies of police integrity focused almost exclusively on one form of police misconduct – police corruption. Following the idea that police integrity encompasses the inclination to resist all temptations (and not just for‐gain ones) to abuse the rights and privileges, the questionnaire used in the study tests the police officers' tendency to resist a variety of temptations and thus yields a more comprehensive picture of police integrity. Furthermore, this methodology enables measurement of the changes in police integrity, which is particularly relevant for a police agency in transition or a police agency undertaking efforts to improve its state of police integrity.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Michael J. Brusco and T. Reid Johns

Labour scheduling heuristic methods have been applied in serviceoperating environments using both actual and synthetic demand patterns.Two important characteristics of…

Abstract

Labour scheduling heuristic methods have been applied in service operating environments using both actual and synthetic demand patterns. Two important characteristics of these demand patterns are (1) demand smoothness and (2) mean demand. Investigates the effects of demand smoothness and mean demand on the solution quality associated with four prominent heuristic methods. Indicates that both characteristics can affect the performance of the heuristic methods. An especially important finding is that the two methods which use information from linear programming solutions are far more robust to changes in the degree of demand smoothness. Concludes that managers should consider linear programming methods as an alternative or supplement for making their scheduling decisions. Also recommends that labour scheduling researchers use multiple levels of mean demand and demand smoothness when evaluating new heuristic methods.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2018

Andrew Palmer Wheeler

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of the p-median model to construct optimal patrol areas. This can improve both time spent traveling to calls, as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of the p-median model to construct optimal patrol areas. This can improve both time spent traveling to calls, as well as equalize call load between patrol areas.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an introduction to the use of integer linear programs to create optimal patrol areas, as many analysts and researchers in the author’s field will not be familiar with such models. The analysis then introduces a set of linear constraints to the p-median problem that are applicable to police agencies, such as constraining call loads to be equal and making patrol areas geographically contiguous.

Findings

The analysis illustrates the technique on simplified simulated examples. The analysis then demonstrates the utility of the technique by showing how patrol areas in Carrollton, TX can be made both more efficient and equalize the call loads given the same number of patrol beats as currently in place.

Originality/value

Unlike prior applications of creating patrol areas, this paper introduces linear constraints into the p-median problem, making it much easier to solve than programs that have non-linear or multiple objective functions. Supplementary code using open source software is also provided, allowing other analysts or researchers to apply the model to their own data.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Security strategy shift.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB217419

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Sudharshana Srinivasan, Toni P. Sorrell, J. Paul Brooks, David J. Edwards and Robyn Diehl McDougle

The purpose of this research paper is to describe quantitative methods that assist police administrators with evaluating current staffing and justifying to local governing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to describe quantitative methods that assist police administrators with evaluating current staffing and justifying to local governing bodies the size of the patrol workforce required to meet performance benchmarks.

Design/methodology/approach

A discrete-event simulation model is developed to analyze various staffing levels and alternative scheduling scenarios. Input distributions are based on computer-aided dispatch (CAD) data from an urban police department. The results can be used to estimate the size of the patrol force needed to meet performance objectives.

Findings

The simulation model produces an estimate of the number of officers required to staff the department in order to meet benchmark goals. The output also indicates when and where patrol officers need to be added and shows performance plateaus where staffing increases only marginally improve performance. Observations on the trade-offs between meeting budget (via staffing) and benchmark goals are also provided.

Research limitations/implications

Assuming that the quality of CAD data is reliable, our model requires data for one year to generate the distributions needed for the simulation. The computation of staffing estimates requires a shift-relief factor, calculated by the department to account for times when officers cannot be scheduled.

Practical implications

This study suggests that the department should hire additional patrol officers or increase overtime hours in order to meet performance benchmarks.

Originality/value

In contrast to previous modeling approaches, our simulation does not rely on the assumption that the policing system is static or in a steady state.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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