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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Guy Moshe Ross

This research aims to test focus of attention effects in risky choice.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to test focus of attention effects in risky choice.

Design/methodology/approach

As opposed to traditional aspiration-level theory, the shifting-focus concept introduces a second reference point, the survival point, and assumes a shifting focus of attention between the two reference points. In this conceptualization, risk-taking is a function of focus of attention on the survival reference point or the aspiration-level and resources relative to the two reference points. Four randomized controlled studies tested this concept.

Findings

Study 1 showed that with aspiration focus the probability of choosing a risky option was higher below an aspiration-level than above it. With survival focus, the effect was reversed. Study 2 found that close to the survival reference point, the probability of choosing a risky option was higher with aspiration focus relative to survival focus. Study 3 revealed that with scarce resources the risk taken was higher with aspiration focus than with survival focus, and the scarcer the resources the stronger was the effect. Study 4 demonstrated that with aspiration focus the risk taken was higher below an aspiration-level than above it. With survival focus the effect was reversed.

Originality/value

In addition to providing support for the validity of the shifting focus concept, this paper elaborates on the theoretical model by providing evidence for moderation effects. Risk-taking was affected by a focus of attention on one of two reference points, and the effect was moderated by resources relative to the two focal points. An advanced model is proposed to capture the effects of focus of attention and resources on risk-taking behavior.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Bruna Caroline Campos, Felicio Bruzzi Barros and Samuel Silva Penna

The aim of this paper is to present a novel data transfer technique to simulate, by G/XFEM, a cohesive crack propagation coupled with a smeared damage model. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to present a novel data transfer technique to simulate, by G/XFEM, a cohesive crack propagation coupled with a smeared damage model. The efficiency of this technique is evaluated in terms of processing time, number of Newton–Raphson iterations and accuracy of structural response.

Design/methodology/approach

The cohesive crack is represented by the G/XFEM enrichment strategy. The elements crossed by the crack are divided into triangular cells. The smeared crack model is used to describe the material behavior. In the nonlinear solution of the problem, state variables associated with the original numerical integration points need to be transferred to new points created with the triangular subdivision. A nonlocal strategy is tailored to transfer the scalar and tensor variables of the constitutive model. The performance of this technique is numerically evaluated.

Findings

When compared with standard Gauss quadrature integration scheme, the proposed strategy may deliver a slightly superior computational efficiency in terms of processing time. The weighting function parameter used in the nonlocal transfer strategy plays an important role. The equilibrium state in the interactive-incremental solution process is not severely penalized and is readily recovered. The advantages of such proposed technique tend to be even more pronounced in more complex and finer meshes.

Originality/value

This work presents a novel data transfer technique based on the ideas of the nonlocal formulation of the state variables and specially tailored to the simulation of cohesive crack propagation in materials governed by the smeared crack constitutive model.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Xiao Bo Liang, Xinghua Qu, YuanJun Zhang, Lianyin Xu and Fumin Zhang

Laser absolute distance measurement has the characteristics of high precision, wide range and non-contact. In laser ranging system, tracking and aiming measurement point

Abstract

Purpose

Laser absolute distance measurement has the characteristics of high precision, wide range and non-contact. In laser ranging system, tracking and aiming measurement point is the precondition of automatic measurement. To solve this problem, this paper aims to propose a novel method.

Design/methodology/approach

For the central point of the hollow angle coupled mirror, this paper proposes a method based on correlation filtering and ellipse fitting. For non-cooperative target points, this paper proposes an extraction method based on correlation filtering and feature matching. Finally, a visual tracking and aiming system was constructed by combining the two-axis turntable, and experiments were carried out.

Findings

The target tracking algorithm has an accuracy of 91.15% and a speed of 19.5 frames per second. The algorithm can adapt to the change of target scale and short-term occlusion. The mean error and standard deviation of the center point extraction of the hollow Angle coupling mirror are 0.20 and 0.09 mm. The mean error and standard deviation of feature points matching for non-cooperative target were 0.06 mm and 0.16 mm. The visual tracking and aiming system can track a target running at a speed of 0.7 m/s, aiming error mean is 1.74 pixels and standard deviation is 0.67 pixel.

Originality/value

The results show that this method can achieve fast and high precision target tracking and aiming and has great application value in laser ranging.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2021

Angela Towers and Neil Towers

This paper aims to define and frame the understanding of customer journeys, associated areas of consumer decision-making process stages and touch point categories based on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to define and frame the understanding of customer journeys, associated areas of consumer decision-making process stages and touch point categories based on an ownership perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a detailed literature review of customer journeys, in peer-reviewed marketing and retail journals, within the last decade. The Chartered Association of Business Schools (ABS) academic journal guide marketing discipline list was used because it only includes peer-reviewed journals, based on an internationally accepted quality ranked list.

Findings

The detailed analysis of the journals identified three groups of touch points (brand owned, partner owned/managed and outside the control of brand owner/partner) and three decision-making process stages (pre-purchase, purchase and post–purchase) that informed a clearer definition and understanding of the customer journey.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations concern the ABS database was used and a ten-year date period was selected, which may exclude some relevant journal articles, particularly those written in a language other than English.

Originality/value

The authors have provided a revised definition of customer journey, clarified the decision-making stages and subsequent categorisation of touch points from an ownership perspective.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Book part
Publication date: 29 April 1994

Karen Markey Drabenstott and Diane Vizine-Goetz

Abstract

Details

Using Subject Headings for Online Retrieval: Theory, Practice and Potential
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12221-570-4

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Linh Truong-Hong, Roderik Lindenbergh and Thu Anh Nguyen

Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds have been widely used in deformation measurement for structures. However, reliability and accuracy of resulting deformation…

Abstract

Purpose

Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds have been widely used in deformation measurement for structures. However, reliability and accuracy of resulting deformation estimation strongly depends on quality of each step of a workflow, which are not fully addressed. This study aims to give insight error of these steps, and results of the study would be guidelines for a practical community to either develop a new workflow or refine an existing one of deformation estimation based on TLS point clouds. Thus, the main contributions of the paper are investigating point cloud registration error affecting resulting deformation estimation, identifying an appropriate segmentation method used to extract data points of a deformed surface, investigating a methodology to determine an un-deformed or a reference surface for estimating deformation, and proposing a methodology to minimize the impact of outlier, noisy data and/or mixed pixels on deformation estimation.

Design/methodology/approach

In practice, the quality of data point clouds and of surface extraction strongly impacts on resulting deformation estimation based on laser scanning point clouds, which can cause an incorrect decision on the state of the structure if uncertainty is available. In an effort to have more comprehensive insight into those impacts, this study addresses four issues: data errors due to data registration from multiple scanning stations (Issue 1), methods used to extract point clouds of structure surfaces (Issue 2), selection of the reference surface Sref to measure deformation (Issue 3), and available outlier and/or mixed pixels (Issue 4). This investigation demonstrates through estimating deformation of the bridge abutment, building and an oil storage tank.

Findings

The study shows that both random sample consensus (RANSAC) and region growing–based methods [a cell-based/voxel-based region growing (CRG/VRG)] can be extracted data points of surfaces, but RANSAC is only applicable for a primary primitive surface (e.g. a plane in this study) subjected to a small deformation (case study 2 and 3) and cannot eliminate mixed pixels. On another hand, CRG and VRG impose a suitable method applied for deformed, free-form surfaces. In addition, in practice, a reference surface of a structure is mostly not available. The use of a fitting plane based on a point cloud of a current surface would cause unrealistic and inaccurate deformation because outlier data points and data points of damaged areas affect an accuracy of the fitting plane. This study would recommend the use of a reference surface determined based on a design concept/specification. A smoothing method with a spatial interval can be effectively minimize, negative impact of outlier, noisy data and/or mixed pixels on deformation estimation.

Research limitations/implications

Due to difficulty in logistics, an independent measurement cannot be established to assess the deformation accuracy based on TLS data point cloud in the case studies of this research. However, common laser scanners using the time-of-flight or phase-shift principle provide point clouds with accuracy in the order of 1–6 mm, while the point clouds of triangulation scanners have sub-millimetre accuracy.

Practical implications

This study aims to give insight error of these steps, and the results of the study would be guidelines for a practical community to either develop a new workflow or refine an existing one of deformation estimation based on TLS point clouds.

Social implications

The results of this study would provide guidelines for a practical community to either develop a new workflow or refine an existing one of deformation estimation based on TLS point clouds. A low-cost method can be applied for deformation analysis of the structure.

Originality/value

Although a large amount of the studies used laser scanning to measure structure deformation in the last two decades, the methods mainly applied were to measure change between two states (or epochs) of the structure surface and focused on quantifying deformation-based TLS point clouds. Those studies proved that a laser scanner could be an alternative unit to acquire spatial information for deformation monitoring. However, there are still challenges in establishing an appropriate procedure to collect a high quality of point clouds and develop methods to interpret the point clouds to obtain reliable and accurate deformation, when uncertainty, including data quality and reference information, is available. Therefore, this study demonstrates the impact of data quality in a term of point cloud registration error, selected methods for extracting point clouds of surfaces, identifying reference information, and available outlier, noisy data and/or mixed pixels on deformation estimation.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

Mustafa Bojakli and Hasan Sankari

The authors have determined whether the points fixed by all the full and the partial Atkin–Lehner involutions WQ on X0(N) for N ≤ 50 are Weierstrass points or not.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors have determined whether the points fixed by all the full and the partial Atkin–Lehner involutions WQ on X0(N) for N ≤ 50 are Weierstrass points or not.

Design/methodology/approach

The design is by using Lawittes's and Schoeneberg's theorems.

Findings

Finding all Weierstrass points on X0(N) fixed by some Atkin–Lehner involutions. Besides, the authors have listed them in a table.

Originality/value

The Weierstrass points have played an important role in algebra. For example, in algebraic number theory, they have been used by Schwartz and Hurwitz to determine the group structure of the automorphism groups of compact Riemann surfaces of genus g ≥ 2. Whereas in algebraic geometric coding theory, if one knows a Weierstrass nongap sequence of a Weierstrass point, then one is able to estimate parameters of codes in a concrete way. Finally, the set of Weierstrass points is useful in studying arithmetic and geometric properties of X0(N).

Details

Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1319-5166

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Avinash Kumar Shrivastava and Ruchi Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new software reliability growth model considering different fault distribution function before and after the change point.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new software reliability growth model considering different fault distribution function before and after the change point.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors have developed a framework to incorporate change-point in developing a hybrid software reliability growth model by considering different distribution functions before and after the change point.

Findings

Numerical illustration suggests that the proposed model gives better results in comparison to the existing models.

Originality/value

The existing literature on change point-based software reliability growth model assumes that the fault correction trend before and after the change is governed by the same distribution. This seems impractical as after the change in the testing environment, the trend of fault detection or correction may not follow the same trend; hence, the assumption of same distribution function may fail to predict the potential number of faults. The modelling framework assumes different distributions before and after change point in developing a software reliability growth model.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Tsz-Ho Kwok

Support structures are often needed in additive manufacturing (AM) to print overhangs. However, they are the extra materials that must be removed afterwards. When the…

Abstract

Purpose

Support structures are often needed in additive manufacturing (AM) to print overhangs. However, they are the extra materials that must be removed afterwards. When the supports have many contacts to the model or are even enclosed inside some concavities, removing them is very challenging and has a risk of damaging the part. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop a new type of tree-support, named Escaping Tree-Support (ET-Sup), which tries to build all the supports onto the build plate to minimize the number of contact points.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is to first classify the support points into three categories: clear, obstructed and enclosed. A clear point has nothing between it and the build plate; an obstructed point is not clear, but there exists a path for it to reach the build plate; and an enclosed point has no way to reach the build plate. With this classification, the path for the obstructed points to come clear can be found through linking them to the clear points. All the operations are performed efficiently with the help of a ray representation.

Findings

The method is tested on different overhang features, including a lattice ball and a mushroom shape with a concave cap. All the supports generated for the examples can find their way to the build plate, which looks like they are escaping from the model. The computation time is around one second for these cases.

Originality/value

This is the first time truly realizing this “escaping” property in the generation of tree-like support structures. With this ET-Sup, it is expected that the AM industries can reduce the manufacturing lead time and save much labor work in post-processing.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Gustaf Kastberg Weichselberger and Cristian Lagström

The authors argue that the mainstream scholarly discourse on hybridity and accounting is thus far primarily interested in the use and effects of accounting “in” hybrid…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors argue that the mainstream scholarly discourse on hybridity and accounting is thus far primarily interested in the use and effects of accounting “in” hybrid organizations. Consequently, the literature has to a lesser extent explored how accounting mediates hybrid settings (while also being mediated), and the role of disentanglements in such processes. In hybrid settings, objects are difficult to define, and measures and tools difficult to agree upon. However, the literature on hybrid accounting is inconclusive and indicates that accounting can potentially both stabilize and de-stabilize relations in a hybrid setting. The authors address the research question of how accounting emerges and manifests itself in a process of entangling and disentangling in a heterogeneous emerging hybrid setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a longitudinal qualitative case study of the implementation of social investments, a public sector calculative framework based on the logic of measuring long term and social and economic impact of prevention. Methodologically, the study was guided by actor-network theory. In total, 18 observations and 48 interviews were conducted.

Findings

The observation the authors make in their case study is that much effort was spent on both keeping things apart and tying elements together. What the authors add to the literature is an illumination of how the interplay between entanglements and disentanglements facilitated the design idea of social investments to be enacted as multiple semi-integrated and purified hybridizations. The authors describe different translation points, each representing a specific hybridization where elements were added, recombined and disentangled. Still, the translation points were not completely compartmentalized, but rather semi-integrated where associations were facilitated through active mediation, likeness and productiveness for each other.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation is the single case approach. A second limitation arises from the ANT approach to hybridity.

Practical implications

A practical implication of this paper is that in hybrid settings, the semi-integrated character may be interpreted as a strength because it allows the mobilization of heterogenous actors. However, this may also come at the cost of governability and raises further questions of managerial practices in hybrid settings.

Social implications

The paper suggests the potentially productive role of disentanglements in allowing multiple hybridizations to evolve in hybrid accounting settings.

Originality/value

The paper suggests the potentially productive role of disentanglements in allowing multiple stabilized hybridizations to evolve in hybrid accounting settings.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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