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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

Kyu-soo Chung, Christopher Brown and Jennifer Willett

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that motivate Korean baseball fans to support Korean Major League Baseball (MLB) players and to identify the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that motivate Korean baseball fans to support Korean Major League Baseball (MLB) players and to identify the effects of the motivations on identification and behavioral loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire at three Korean universities. A model was designed to see which three motivations (commitment to Korean baseball, interests in MLB and ethnic identity) affect loyalty behaviors to support Korean MLB players. In the model, the mediating effect of player identification is set to the relation between the three motivations and behavioral loyalty. The moderating effect of team identification is also set to the relation between player identification and behavioral loyalty. Collected data (n=294) were first analyzed via confirmatory factor analysis to ascertain the factor structure of the study model. Then, the study performed a structural equation modeling which finds the magnitude and significance of each causal path among designed factors.

Findings

All the effects were found to be significantly positive except team identification whose moderating effect was not significant. Interests in MLB had the greatest impact on the fan’s player identification followed by commitment to the Korean baseball league and their ethnic identity. It was also found that the influence of player identification was positive on behavioral loyalty.

Originality/value

This work can help MLB expand their fan base internationally, especially in Asian countries.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Wioleta Kucharska, Ilenia Confente and Federico Brunetti

In the current era of fake news, illusions, manipulations and other artificial attributes of virtuality and reality, authenticity is a virtue that people highly…

Abstract

Purpose

In the current era of fake news, illusions, manipulations and other artificial attributes of virtuality and reality, authenticity is a virtue that people highly appreciate. This study aims to examine the influence of the personal brand authenticity of top football players on loyalty to the football discipline in general, via the mediation of personal brand identification.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on data collected from a convenience sample of 562 respondents from Poland via an electronic survey and analyzed using the structural equation modeling method, this study explored, first, the influence of top football players’ personal brand authenticity on consumers’ identification with these football players, and second, how this identification may lead to enhancing loyalty to the football discipline. Finally, it verified how the loyalty effect (attitudinal and behavioral) varies across different categories of spectators.

Findings

Personal brand identification with authentic football stars is a focal factor enabling the creation of loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) to the whole discipline. Consumers’ perceptions of the authenticity of the personal brands of football players play a role in increasing identification with these personal brands. This identification is essential in achieving loyalty to football as a sports discipline via football celebrities.

Practical implications

Football players perceived as authentic are evaluated more positively, leading to consumer identification with these players, which, in turn, increases consumers’ loyalty to football. Thus, the presence of authentic, skilled players is important for football, but the actual loyalty effect from authenticity can be achieved only by identification. Therefore, football requires exceptional, strong stars who reflect a set of desired personal values. Further research is needed to identify the desired set of values that leads to identification with football stars.

Originality/value

This study presents evidence that the personal brand authenticity of a football star is a driver of loyalty towards football discipline in general if the spectators’ identification with this superstar occurs. Moreover, this study proves that loyalty to football driven by the personal brand authenticity of football stars differs between spectators’ categories.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2015

Claudio M Rocha and Janet S Fink

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of patriotism and identification with national players on identification with the NBA and, ultimately, with…

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of patriotism and identification with national players on identification with the NBA and, ultimately, with purchase intentions of league-related merchandise. Findings revealed that the interaction between patriotism and identification with national players was a significant predictor of identification with NBA, which in turn was a significant predictor of purchase intentions of league-related products. The moderated mediation model fit the data quite well and explained 44.5% of the variance in purchase intentions. Theoretical implications of the findings, as well as practical implications for sports managers, are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Le Wang

The purpose of this paper is to understand the antecedents of peer recommendations (generating positive word-of-mouth and recruiting others) in the context of mobile social games.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the antecedents of peer recommendations (generating positive word-of-mouth and recruiting others) in the context of mobile social games.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the needs–supplies fit framework and social identity theory, this paper proposes that game design characteristics (challenge, fairness, innovativeness and ease of use) influence game identification, which further predicts word-of-mouth (WOM) generation and recruitment intention. This paper further suggests fits between gamer orientation (passing time and seeking achievements) and game design lead to enhanced game identification. The model was tested using data from an empirical survey with 767 mobile social gamers.

Findings

Game challenge, game fairness, game innovativeness and ease of use are positively associated with game identification, whereas game identification positively predicts WOM generation and recruitment intention. Achievement-seeking use was found to enhance the effects of game challenge and game fairness on game identification, and passing time use was found to strengthen the effects of game innovativeness and ease of use on game identification.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study provide operable implications to facilitate peer recommendations in a mobile gaming context. The model was only tested within the context of mobile social games, however, so caution is advised when generalizing the findings to other game subgenres.

Originality/value

This study distinguishes itself from other peer recommendation studies by taking recruitment, a more straightforward and salient form of peer recommendation, into account. This paper enriches theory by investigating the antecedents and consequences of game identification. This study clarifies the underlying mechanism of how game design influences peer recommendations and examines the interactions between game design and gamer orientation.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Yi-Hsuan Lee, Ying-Che Hsieh, Chan Hsiao and Chen-Hsiang Lin

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether online leadership affects offline leadership through a mediation mechanism.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether online leadership affects offline leadership through a mediation mechanism.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on social presence theory, the authors developed a mediation model of online leadership to offline leadership, and examine the moderating effect of interactivity. Data were collected through an internet questionnaire, with gamers in Taiwan’s leading forum as research targets. After receiving 912 valid questionnaires, the authors used SPSS 21 and AMOS 21 to conduct data analysis to test the model.

Findings

The results show that online leadership will affect offline leadership. Moreover, game achievements and character identification have partial mediated effects in this model. Finally, interactivity has a moderating effect in this model.

Practical implications

These findings provide insights for future leadership training effectiveness, training guidelines, game design, and selection of references.

Originality/value

This research extends the current state of knowledge about the paths to transfer online leadership experiences to office situations through direct influence, game achievement, and character identification.

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Giridhar B. Kamath, Shirshendu Ganguli and Simon George

This paper tests and validates a conceptual model linking the attachment points, team identification, attitude towards the team sponsors and the behavioural intentions in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper tests and validates a conceptual model linking the attachment points, team identification, attitude towards the team sponsors and the behavioural intentions in the context of Indian Premier League (IPL), while testing for the moderating effects of age and gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 1,053 participants through both online and offline survey and then analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM).

Findings

Attachment points influence the formation of team identification, which, in turn, affect the attitude towards the team sponsors. Attitude towards the team sponsors influence the behavioural intentions. Player attachment influences team identification the most. Age and gender have a moderating effect on the constructs of the study. Team identification in females is stronger because of attachment to sports, whereas males have stronger team identification based on player attachment. Males have a stronger intention to spread positive word of mouth (WOM) about sponsor products as compared to the female respondents. The younger age group of less than 21 years has more intention to spread positive WOM compared to the other age groups considered in the study.

Practical implications

This study contributes towards sports sponsorship research and the paradigms of social identity and attachment theories. Moreover, it will also help the marketers (sponsors) in IPL to strategically market their brands.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate the impact of attachment points on sponsorship outcomes in the context of IPL. Further, it is also the first to investigate the purchase intentions and WOM for the team sponsors in IPL. The multi-group analysis results will provide insights into marketers to better understand IPL viewers' segments and their behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Dong Woo Ko and Jihye Park

The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of congruence between the ideal self-image of a game player and the game character on identification and interaction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of congruence between the ideal self-image of a game player and the game character on identification and interaction with the game character, perceived game power and performance, character attachment and willingness to spend money on the game character.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 347 online game players participated in an online survey posted via the nationwide crowdsourcing web service Mechanical Turk in the US. A structural equation modelling was conducted using a maximum-likelihood estimation procedure to test the relationships among the variables.

Findings

The results revealed a significant positive impact of congruence between a game character and the ideal self-image of a game player on identification and interaction with the game character, perceived game power, game performance, attachment to the game character and willingness to spend money on the game character.

Originality/value

Although significant research has been conducted in the area of online gaming, limited attention has been given to the strategic game content that stimulates a player's intention to purchase game items. Due to the challenges in sales growth in the game industry caused by business model shifts from a subscription-based model to a free-to-play one, it is important for marketing practitioners to motivate game players to continue playing the game and purchase game items. The results of this study provide valuable strategic insights to overcome the limitations of existing marketing strategies in the online game business.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2016

Jae-Pil Ha, Mary Hums and T. Christopher Greenwell

Despite the remarkable economic power and rapid growth of the Asian population in the USA, relatively little attention has been paid to this group in the sport management…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the remarkable economic power and rapid growth of the Asian population in the USA, relatively little attention has been paid to this group in the sport management literature compared to African-Americans and Hispanics. In addition, sport management scholars have paid limited attention to two important cultural factors: ethnic identity and acculturation. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study attempted to examine a comprehensive sport consumption model for Asians by testing theoretical relationships between these two cultural factors (ethnic identity and acculturation), fan identification, and sport consumption behavior.

Findings

The structural equation modeling results indicated that ethnic identity indirectly affected consumption of sport products reflecting attributes of a native country, e.g. ethnic player popular sports in a native country through identification with the sport products. In contrast acculturation indirectly affected consumption of sport products reflecting attributes of a host country, e.g. popular sports in a host country.

Originality/value

The results of this study provide implications on how sport marketers should effectively design sport products based on the Asians’ levels of acculturation and ethnic identity.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Ching-I Teng

Online games are popular electronic commerce platforms in which gamers use avatars to interact with others. Avatar identification (the extent to which gamers regard…

Abstract

Purpose

Online games are popular electronic commerce platforms in which gamers use avatars to interact with others. Avatar identification (the extent to which gamers regard avatars as an extension of themselves) is known to be related to online gamer loyalty. However, few studies have examined how avatars could be designed to enhance avatar identification and online gamer loyalty, indicating a gap. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to contextualize self-affirmation theory into online gaming contexts, identified key theoretical elements and examined how they are related to avatar identification and online gamer loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed 1,348 massively multi-player online role-playing game players, and their responses were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The analytical results indicate that irreplaceability within a team and avatar customization are positively related to unique avatar image, while avatar customization is positively related to positive avatar image. Moreover, avatar physical attractiveness and avatar ability to achieve are positively related to positive avatar image. Both unique and positive images of an avatar (as perceived by the user) are positively related to avatar identification, and further to online gamer loyalty.

Originality/value

This study proposes new constructs: irreplaceability within a team, avatar ability to achieve, unique avatar image and positive avatar image. Such new constructs provide insights to aid electronic commerce managers in avatar design, thus instilling gamer identification with avatars, and thus loyalty.

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2020

Wooyoung William Jang, Kevin K. Byon, Thomas A. Baker III and Yosuke Tsuji

Recently, Jang and Byon (2020) found that esports recreational gameplay consumption is causally linked to esports online media consumption. In the context of esports…

Abstract

Purpose

Recently, Jang and Byon (2020) found that esports recreational gameplay consumption is causally linked to esports online media consumption. In the context of esports, live-streaming content (by individual creators) is a new type of media consumption, which should be distinguished from esports event broadcast. Extending Jang and Byon’s finding, the purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effect of esports content live streaming in the relationship between esports recreational gameplay and esports event broadcast because it allows the games to be more accessible to viewers due to two-way communication. In order to test for stability of the mediating effect of esports live content streaming, we examined the hypothesized model across the three genres (i.e. imagination [n = 224], physical enactment [n = 195], sport simulation [n = 179]).

Design/methodology/approach

Data (N = 598) were collected via an online survey from individuals who had experienced esports recreational gameplay. A total of 15 items with five dimensions (i.e. esports recreational gameplay, esports content live streaming, esports event broadcast, streamer identification, and pro-player identification) were adapted from existing studies. The two identification constructs and gender were used as control variables.

Findings

The model fit of the measurement model was found to be acceptable via CFA. The results of SEM indicated that the intention of esports content live streaming consumption played a full mediation role in the relationship between esports recreational gameplay behavior and the intention of esports event broadcast consumption. Additionally, we found the mediating effect of esports content live streaming across the three genres.

Originality/value

This study contributes to literature related to the esports consumer behavior by conceptualizing esports content live streaming and found that esports content live streaming represents a mechanism that underlies the relationship between esports recreational gameplay intention and esports event broadcast consumption.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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