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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

K. Aitkenhead

Provides basic steps and general guidelines for the correct use ofplaster and render. Includes suggestions of several preparationsavailable to aid this process.

600

Abstract

Provides basic steps and general guidelines for the correct use of plaster and render. Includes suggestions of several preparations available to aid this process.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Brit Anak Kayan, Deanne Seanuau Kely Jitilon and Mohammad Nazmi Mohd Azaman

Low carbon repair epitomises sustainable maintenance management for heritage buildings. However, there is little recognition of this aspect, coupled with impractical…

Abstract

Purpose

Low carbon repair epitomises sustainable maintenance management for heritage buildings. However, there is little recognition of this aspect, coupled with impractical assessment of repair impact strategies. This paper aims to present a decision-making process based on life cycle assessment (LCA) approach of lime plaster repair options for heritage buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

Calculation procedures of LCA were carried out to enable sustainable maintenance management appraisal for heritage buildings upon embodied carbon expenditure expended from lime plaster repair during the maintenance phase.

Findings

Calculation procedures could be understood as a carbon LCA of lime plaster repair and recognised in reducing CO2 emissions. This underpins low carbon of lime plaster repair in achieving sustainable maintenance management of heritage buildings.

Practical implications

It must be emphasised that the LCA approach is not limited to heritage buildings and can be applied to any repair types, materials used and building forms. This supports environmentally focused economies and promotes sustainable maintenance management solutions.

Social implications

The LCA approach highlights the efficiency of repair impact strategies through evaluation of low carbon repairs options.

Originality/value

The LCA approach results show that low carbon repair, contextualised within maintenance management, relays the “true” embodied carbon expenditure and stimulates sustainable development of heritage buildings.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

A.A. Adedeji

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of cement‐ and earth‐plastered straw bale walls against the appropriate vertical loads.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of cement‐ and earth‐plastered straw bale walls against the appropriate vertical loads.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of contact between two common types of plasters and the stacked straw bale by the optimal design analysis have been assessed in this work with the use of finite element method.

Findings

Cement‐ and earth‐plastered straw bale walls have shown adequate resistance against the appropriate vertical loads and showed that the earth‐plaster can bear higher stress than the cement plastered straw bale. There is the implication that the collapse or response of the earth‐straw bale wall will be significantly higher compared to that of cement‐straw bale wall.

Practical implications

The stress stability obtained of the analytical walls is adequate after using the best fit variables for the wall height and thickness.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the allowable stresses of 70.14 kN/m2 for cement plastered straw bale wall and 73.14 kN/m2 for earth‐plastered straw bale wall are higher than the calculated stress values using SAP2000 of 18.836 and 64.2 kN/m2 for cement plastered straw bale wall, respectively.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

Abdulsalam A. Al‐Sudairi

This paper seeks to test the applicability of lean principles to simple construction processes using discrete‐event simulation.

5952

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to test the applicability of lean principles to simple construction processes using discrete‐event simulation.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative construction data and process mapping of plastering and block‐laying processes were first gathered and established from construction project through field observation and interviews with those involved in the selected projects. Then a simulation model was built to mimic the aforementioned processes to study the impact of certain lean principles. The simulation models became like an experimentation tool where lean principles (e.g. focus on actual objects and map the value stream) were introduced to evaluate their impact on such processes.

Findings

Lean principles are effective not only in complicated processes, as proved in previous studies, but also in simple processes. Enhancing the flow of construction materials means the less time they will spend in the value stream and as a result the leaner a process will be. In fact, simple processes are good candidate for lean improvements.

Research limitations/implications

Simulating lean principles did not bring different construction processes to the leanest level of performance. There are other factors that govern each process. Rework, uncertainty, labor skills, site conditions and location are some examples of such factors that need further analyses for leaner construction processes.

Originality/value

Many studies focused on complicated processes to investigate the applicability of lean principles to construction. Results of these studies affirmed the great potentiality of such principles in improving construction processes. This study readdressed the issue of lean applicability to construction by focusing on simple processes, which are block‐laying and plastering.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Jane Schofield

Discusses the techniques of repair and conservation of earlylime‐based plasterwork. Considers the problems of cracks in plaster,detachment of plates of plaster, the…

Abstract

Discusses the techniques of repair and conservation of early lime‐based plasterwork. Considers the problems of cracks in plaster, detachment of plates of plaster, the breaking up of plaster, and the stages in the repair of wall panels and overmantles and the re‐hanging of ceilings. Concludes that since old plaster cannot be reproduced, careful consideration procedures are necessary, although complete plasterwork is best left alone.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Jairo Chimento, M. Jason Highsmith and Nathan Crane

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of 3D printed materials for use as rapid tooling (RT) molds in low volume thermoforming processes such as in…

2335

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of 3D printed materials for use as rapid tooling (RT) molds in low volume thermoforming processes such as in manufacturing custom prosthetics and orthotics.

Design/methodology/approach

3D printed specimens of different materials were produced using the Z‐Corp process. The parts were post processed using both standard and alternative methods. Material properties relevant to the 3D printed parts such as pneumatic permeability, flexural strength and wear rate were measured and compared to standard plaster compositions commonly used.

Findings

Three‐dimensional printing (3DP) can replicate the performance of the plaster materials traditionally used in prosthetic/orthotic applications by using modified post process techniques. The resulting 3D printed molds can still be modified and adjusted using traditional methods. The results show that 3D printed molds are feasible for thermoforming prosthetic and orthotic devices such as prosthetic sockets while providing new flexibility.

Originality/value

The proposed method for RT of a mold for prosthetic/orthotic manufacturing provides great flexibility in the manufacturing and fitting process while maintaining proven materials in the final device provided to patients. This flexibility increases the value of digital medical records and efforts to develop model‐based approaches to prosthetic/orthotic device design by providing a readily available process for recreating molds. Depending on the needs of the practitioners and patients, 3DP can be incorporated at a variety of points in the manufacturing process.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

Bryan Bowley

Encourages the saving of distressed stucco and fibrous plaster ceilingsof merit and shows that repairs are able to be carried out in nearly allcases by use of traditional…

417

Abstract

Encourages the saving of distressed stucco and fibrous plaster ceilings of merit and shows that repairs are able to be carried out in nearly all cases by use of traditional materials, all of which are available in one form or another. These ceilings are able to be reinstated/ conserved using plaster firms and conservationists, with specialist advice available supported by many years of experience. Such ceilings are to be found throughout the UK, ranging from small residences to theatres, historic houses and palaces. It is indicated that repair of the ceilings must be carried out as soon as possible by the use of qualified artisans and conservators using methods, some being described, with emphasis on calling in experts at an early stage.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 June 2019

Amir Hamzeh Keykha

This study aims to investigate the effect of high temperature (600°C) on the compressive strength of concrete covered with a mixture of polypropylene fiber and gypsum…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of high temperature (600°C) on the compressive strength of concrete covered with a mixture of polypropylene fiber and gypsum plaster (PFGP).

Design/methodology/approach

To study the compressive strength of concrete specimens exposed to temperature, 16 cubic specimens (size: 150 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm) were made. After 28 days of processing and gaining the required strength of specimens, first, polypropylene fiber was mixed with gypsum plaster (CaSO4.2H2O) and then the concrete specimens were covered with this mixture. To cover the concrete specimens with the PFGP, the used PFGP thickness was 15 mm or 25 mm. The polypropylene rates mixed with the gypsum plaster were 1, 3 and 5 per cent. A total of 14 specimens, 12 of which were covered with PFGP, were exposed to high temperature in two target times of 90 and 180 min.

Findings

The results show that the PFGP as covering materials can improve the compressive strength lost because of the heating of the concrete specimens. The results also show that the presence of polypropylene fiber in gypsum plaster has the effect on the compressive strength lost because of the heating of the PFGP-covered concrete. The cover of PFGP having 3 per cent polypropylene fiber had the best effect on remained strength of the specimens.

Originality/value

The cover of PFGP having 3 per cent polypropylene fiber has the best effect on remained strength of the PFGP covered specimens exposed to temperature.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

H.M. Iqbal Mahmud, Autri Mandal, Sudip Nag and Khalid A.M. Moinuddin

The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of fire protective materials in protecting steel section. A new indexing system is introduced, named as fire…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of fire protective materials in protecting steel section. A new indexing system is introduced, named as fire endurance index (FEI), which can be used to evaluate the performance of fire protective materials.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, experiments were carried out using W4 × 13 steel section. Eight samples were prepared; one was a bare steel section without any coating material, and seven were prepared using four types of materials such as vermiculite-gypsum plaster, gypsum plaster, concrete cover and glass wool-concrete cover for fireproofing of the sections. An enclosed electric coiled furnace was used for heating the samples for a certain period. The duration of protection was determined, and the FEI of the materials was calculated. The higher the index value is, the better the performance.

Findings

The results demonstrate that the glass-wool-concrete cover offered the best performance at high temperature among the four types of materials. In the experiment with glass-wool-concrete cover, the furnace temperature reached 750°C, whereas the steel temperature reached only 100°C. The FEI of the coatings were calculated. Among the eight samples, glass wool-concrete cover also achieved the highest index value.

Research limitations/implications

The experimental work was performed using a limited number of specimens. Furthermore, the robustness of the indexing system needs to be evaluated with other materials and a wide range of heating rate and temperature. This study sets the foundation for future work.

Practical implications

The findings of this research may contribute to a better understanding of the performance of the materials used as fire protective coatings. This might be helpful for the researchers and practitioners in their design and implementation of legislation of fire safety codes.

Social implications

Understanding the performance of the fire protective coatings will help in evaluating the fire resistance capabilities of the materials to use for the structural steel members, which may protect collapses and disasters of buildings.

Originality/value

This paper deals with the performance of four types of materials, that can be used as fire protective coatings for structural steel members. Furthermore, the FEI explicitly indicated their performance with numerical values. In this study, the heating of the specimens was performed using a non-standard fire curve based on the concept that naturally occurring incidents of fire do not follow the standard fire curves.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 November 2009

41

Abstract

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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