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Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Julia Buxton and Lona Burger

This chapter explores the norms and assumptions that frame and sustain international drug policy and the international drug control regime. Drug policy is conceptualised…

Abstract

This chapter explores the norms and assumptions that frame and sustain international drug policy and the international drug control regime. Drug policy is conceptualised as a ‘policy fiasco’ that persists despite extensive evidence of goal failure. The absence of effective monitoring and evaluation, impact assessment, stakeholder participation and mainstreaming of rights-based approaches, conflict sensitivity and gender sensitivity is emphasised, substantiating the argument that drug policy is a case study of ‘institutional path dependence’. Drug policy has repeatedly missed targets for achievement of a ‘drug free world’. This is explained through reference to the counterproductive and ‘unintended consequences’ of a drug policy approach of criminalisation. The impacts of drug policy enforcement are shown to be negative, pernicious and disproportionately born by the poor, by vulnerable communities and those subject to discrimination on account of race, gender and class.

Details

The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Robert W. Herdt and Rebecca Nelson

The products of transgenic technology have captured the attention of enthusiasts and detractors, but transgenics are just one tool of agricultural biotechnology. Other…

Abstract

The products of transgenic technology have captured the attention of enthusiasts and detractors, but transgenics are just one tool of agricultural biotechnology. Other applications enable scientists to understand biodiversity, to track genes through generations in breeding programs, and to move genes among closely related as well as unrelated organisms. These applications all have the potential to lead to substantial productivity gains.

In this chapter we provide an introduction to basic plant genetic concepts, defining molecular markers, transgenic and cisgenic techniques. We briefly summarize the status of commercialized biotechnology applications to agriculture. We consider the likely future commercialization of products like drought tolerant crops, crops designed to improve human nutrition, pharmaceuticals from transgenic plants, biofuels, and crops for environmental remediation. We identify genomic selection as a potentially powerful new technique and conclude with our reflections on the state of agricultural biotechnology.

Research at universities and other public-sector institutions, largely focused on advancing knowledge, has aroused enormous optimism about the promise of these DNA-based technologies. This in turn has led to large private-sector investments on maize, soybean, canola, and cotton, with wide adoption of the research products in about eight countries. Much has been made of the potential of biotechnology to address food needs in the low-income countries, and China, India, and Brazil have large public DNA-based crop variety development efforts. But other lower income developing countries have little capability to use these tools, even the most straightforward marker applications. Ensuring that these and other applications of biotechnology lead to products that are well adapted to local agriculture requires adaptive research capacity that is lacking in the lowest income, most food-insecure nations. We are less optimistic than many others that private research will fund these needs.

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Russell J. Seidle

This paper aims to examine how distinct sequences of organizational learning types (experiential and vicarious) underpin processes of exploratory versus exploitative innovation.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how distinct sequences of organizational learning types (experiential and vicarious) underpin processes of exploratory versus exploitative innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection consists of 16 interviews conducted with senior personnel at two firms in the biopharmaceutical sector, with sequences of organizational learning types derived from the associated innovation projects. These sequences and their differential emphases on experiential or vicarious learning are used to construct a conceptual model. Propositions describe the structural differentiation and integration mechanisms useful to foster organizational ambidexterity.

Findings

Technological brokering emerges as a key means by which organizations can reconcile the learning sequences underlying exploration and exploitation. For exploration, a structure incorporating cross-industry technology brokerage during the initiation and development phases of innovation is posited. For exploitation, a structure harnessing intra-industry technology brokerage during the development phase of innovation is suggested. Integration of these projects can be accomplished through cross-unit interfaces incorporating both types of brokerage roles, with emphasis on their use during implementation.

Originality/value

This paper considers the ways in which organizations focus on separate types of organizational learning at different stages of the innovation process. Insights are provided into how firms mobilize internal and external knowledge to advance these projects independently, as well as to link these efforts and thereby facilitate ambidexterity.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2018

T. Colin Campbell and T. Nelson Campbell

Nutrition, as a science, is poorly understood, both professionally and publicly. The confusion that surrounds this science makes it very difficult, if not impossible, to…

Abstract

Nutrition, as a science, is poorly understood, both professionally and publicly. The confusion that surrounds this science makes it very difficult, if not impossible, to formulate public health policy, which creates opportunities for political manipulation and control. Nutrition, for a century or more, has been variously described as a summation of the physiological and biochemical properties of individual nutrients in food rather than the whole food itself. This infers that isolated nutrients in supplements will function in the same way as nutrients in food. It also infers that removing or minimizing “undesirable” nutrients from food will make the food more healthful. This arises from the highly reductionist way that we focus on individual nutrients minus their natural context, both the context within the foods of which they are a part and the context within biological systems where they function. The shortcomings of this belief system may be illustrated by hugely costly mistakes made in the past, even more than a century ago, that corrupt current practices. Such mistakes have become so embedded in the contemporary narrative on nutritional science, both fundamentally and practically, that we fail to recognize the damage they continue to cause.

Alternatively, when nutritional effects are considered more within their natural contexts, that is, more wholistically, then it helps to explain, for example, the remarkable ability of nutrition, as provided by a whole food plant-based diet, to prevent even to cure varied types of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the breadth of this nutritional effect for a wide variety of illnesses and diseases suggests that nutrition, properly provided by a whole food plant-based diet, is more efficacious than a combination of all the contemporary pills and procedures combined. It also suggests that genetic determinism is not the explanation for disease that is widely advanced. And finally, among still more consequences, there are many societal outcomes that can be substantially mitigated, including the escalating cost of health care and the dangerously increasing array of destructive practices that damage the environment. Many of the momentous health, economic, environmental and sociopolitical problems currently faced may be traced to a misunderstanding of the effects of food and nutrition. The task therefore is how to bring this message to the attention of a public who for too long have gradually adopted flawed food production and healthcare systems that are on the verge of collapse, threatening the collapse of entire societies as we know them. More specifically, a public and professional dialog on the meaning of nutrition, especially its wholistic properties, is desperately needed, especially in medical schools where nutrition as a science is almost totally ignored.

Details

Ethics and Integrity in Health and Life Sciences Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-572-8

Keywords

Expert briefing
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Diversion from legitimate pharmaceutical stocks, counterfeiting, adulteration and false labelling are key problems. National and international responses emphasising…

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2022

Gahyun Kim, Jieun Oh and Mi Sook Cho

Vegetarian diets are increasingly common worldwide. Vegetarianism is no longer just related to food, but rather it evokes a deeper meaning, such as environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

Vegetarian diets are increasingly common worldwide. Vegetarianism is no longer just related to food, but rather it evokes a deeper meaning, such as environmental sustainability and animal welfare. In Western cultures, many studies have examined how vegetarians' motivations relate to animal welfare, health and environmentalism. However, there is little research in this area in Asia, especially in South Korea, despite a growing number of vegetarians. This study identifies the hierarchical value maps (HVMs) of vegetarians to clarify why people choose to become vegetarians and investigates the negative aspects of these dietary types.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted in-depth, one-to-one laddering interviews with 33 vegetarians in South Korea based on the means-end chain theory. The laddering technique is a qualitative approach to determining connections between attributes, consequences and values.

Findings

Vegetarians tend to value an ethical lifestyle, sustainable future, ecological circulation, responsibility for nature, respect for life, respect for the weak and quality of life. HVM differs slightly among groups by the type of vegetarianism (vegan vs non-vegan vegetarians) and sex (females vs males). The most dominant cognitive structures toward vegetarian diets were “meat-free,” “no factory farming,” and “plant-based” (attributes); “health,” “environment-friendly” and “animal-friendly” (consequences); and “quality of life,” “ethical life,” and “sustainable future” (values).

Originality/value

This study offers insights into the motivations of Korean vegetarians, and they are not culturally different from those of Westerners as they relate to animals, the environment and health.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2011

K. Dhanya, S. Syamkumar, S. Siju and B. Sasikumar

This study aims to treat the development and application of sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) markers for the detection of plant based adulterants (dried red…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to treat the development and application of sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) markers for the detection of plant based adulterants (dried red beet pulp and powdered Ziziphus nummularia fruits) in traded ground chilli.

Design/methodology/approach

Adulterant‐specific DNA fragments (red beet pulp specific – “Beet 01” and Z. nummularia specific – “Ziz 01”) identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD‐PCR) analysis were cloned and sequenced for SCAR marker development. Red beet pulp specific SCAR primer pair, B1, and Z. nummularia specific SCAR primer pair, Z1, were designed from the corresponding RAPD marker sequences to amplify SCAR markers of 320 bp and 389 bp, respectively. The utility of the SCAR markers for adulterant detection was verified in model blends of chilli powder with the adulterants. Six commercial samples of ground chilli powder were analysed using the SCAR markers.

Findings

SCAR markers could detect the adulterants at a concentration as low as 10 g adulterant kg−1 of blended sample. The Z. nummularia SCAR marker could detect the presence of Z. nummularia fruit adulteration in one of the commercial samples. All the market samples tested were free from red beet pulp adulteration.

Practical implications

The PCR‐based method developed in the study is simple, rapid, and sensitive and has the potential to be developed into a quantitative analytical method and for commercial PCR kits for the large‐scale screening of ground chilli to detect and prevent plant‐based adulterants. The work has public health significance too, as ground chilli is one of the major spices consumed worldwide.

Originality/value

The study is the first report on the development of SCAR markers for adulterant detection in ground chilli. This work has relevance, as adulteration is a major concern of the sanitary and phytosanitary issues of the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Expert briefing
Publication date: 14 January 2019

Food technology.

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 26 January 2022

Abstract

Details

Artisan Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-078-8

Expert briefing
Publication date: 9 April 2021

Government authorities, including in the United States, are speeding up licensing for clinical trials of these controlled drugs. Substantial philanthropic funding supports…

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