The paper considers a plane joint or interface element suitable for implementation into a standard non‐linear finite element code. Sliding of the joint is assumed to be…
The paper considers a plane joint or interface element suitable for implementation into a standard non‐linear finite element code. Sliding of the joint is assumed to be governed by Coulomb friction, with a non‐associated flow rule and no cohesion. The constitutive equations are formulated in a manner appropriate for a backward difference discretization in time along the path of loading. It is shown that the backward difference assumption can lead to an explicit formulation in which no essential distinction need be drawn between opening and closing of the joint and sliding when the joint is closed. However, an inherent limitation of the dilatant Coulomb model becomes evident; the final formulation is internally consistent but does not describe reversed shear displacement in a physically reasonable way. Explicit equations for the consistent tangent stiffness and for the corrector step (or return algorithm) of the standard Newton—Raphson iterative algorithm are given. The equations have been implemented as a user element in the finite element code ABAQUS, and illustrative examples are given.
To simulate the kinematics associated with mining‐induced subsidence in a blocky rock mass, a hybrid rigid block model was developed by combining a small displacement code…
To simulate the kinematics associated with mining‐induced subsidence in a blocky rock mass, a hybrid rigid block model was developed by combining a small displacement code with a large displacement code. Gravity was applied to a rigid block mesh using an implicit formulation and the equilibrium displacements are then used as initial conditions for an explicit analysis in which excavation of a longwall mine panel and subsequent subsidence was simulated. A parameter study was performed to evaluate the influence of rigid block contact stiffness, vertical joint density, and contact roughness on mining‐induced strata movements for comparison with previously obtained field measurements. The best agreement between measured and calculated displacements was obtained when a relatively low stiffness value was maintained constant for all contacts. A surprising result was that neither increasing the density of vertical joints nor reducing the rigid block contact roughness improved the agreement between measured and simulated displacements.
– The purpose of this paper is to analyse of structures made in rock mass with multiple intersecting discrete discontinuities such as joint, fault, shear plane.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse of structures made in rock mass with multiple intersecting discrete discontinuities such as joint, fault, shear plane.
In this study, a numerical method is proposed for analyzing multiple intersecting joints with varying dip angles, spacing and roughness in eXtended Finite Element Method platform. A procedure is also outlined to treat excavated enhanced (jointed) elements for analysing the effect of excavation sequences.
The proposed method is compared with the existing interface element methods (Phase-2 model) by considering the stress and displacement distributions of a multiple intersecting jointed rock sample under uniaxial loading conditions. A circular tunnel in rock mass having intersecting joints is also analyzed for the distribution of mobilised friction angle of joints and results are compared with a derived analytical solution.
Nucleation and propagation of cracks should be incorporated into the proposed framework in future studies.
The proposed method is a useful tool for rock mechanics and geotechnical engineering problems to analyse strength and deformability of jointed rock masses.
The paper enumerates concepts and detail implementation procedures of the proposed method in three-noded triangular elements. The intersection of joints is formulated in such a way that no additional (junction) enrichment is required in model. The method has been improved for inclusion of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions to be applied in the enhanced part of a problem domain.
The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively investigate the effect of process parameters (including welding current, voltage and speed) and plate thickness on in-plane…
The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively investigate the effect of process parameters (including welding current, voltage and speed) and plate thickness on in-plane inherent deformations in typical fillet welded joint; meanwhile, the plastic strains remaining in the weld zone are also analyzed under different influencing factors.
To achieve the purpose of this study, a thermal-elastic-plastic finite element (TEP FE) model is developed to analyze the thermal-mechanical behavior of the T-welded joint during the welding process. Experimental measurements have verified the validity of the established TEP FE model. Using the effective model, a series of numerical experiments are performed to obtain the inherent deformations under the conditions of different influencing factors, and then the calculation results are discussed based on the relevant data obtained.
Through numerical simulation analysis, it is found that the longitudinal and transverse inherent deformations decrease with the increase of welding speed and plate thickness, whereas as the nominal heat input increases, the inherent deformations increase significantly. The longitudinal shrinkage presents a quasi-linear and nonlinear distribution in the middle and end of the weld, respectively. The plastic strains in the cross section of the T-joint also vary greatly because of the process parameters and plate thickness, but the maximum value always appears near the location of the welding toe, which means that this point faces a relatively large risk of fatigue cracking. The inherent deformations are closely related to the plastic strains remaining in the weld zone and are also affected by many influencing factors such as process parameters and plate thickness.
In this study, relatively few influencing factors such as welding current, voltage, speed and plate thickness are considered to analyze the inherent deformations in the T-welded joint. Also, these influencing factors are all within a certain range of parameters, which shows that only limited applicability can be provided. In addition, only in-plane inherent deformations are considered in this study, without considering the other two out-of-plane components of inherent deformations.
This study can help to expand the understanding of the relationship between the inherent deformations and its influencing factors for a specific form of the welded joint, and can also provide basic data to supplement the inherent deformation database, thereby facilitating further researches on welding deformations for stiffened-panel structures in shipbuilding or steel bridges.
Contact problems are among the most difficult ones in mechanics. Due to its practical importance, the problem has been receiving extensive research work over the years. The finite element method has been widely used to solve contact problems with various grades of complexity. Great progress has been made on both theoretical studies and engineering applications. This paper reviews some of the main developments in contact theories and finite element solution techniques for static contact problems. Classical and variational formulations of the problem are first given and then finite element solution techniques are reviewed. Available constraint methods, friction laws and contact searching algorithms are also briefly described. At the end of the paper, a bibliography is included, listing about seven hundred papers which are related to static contact problems and have been published in various journals and conference proceedings from 1976.
This paper deals with the experimental investigation and non‐linear finite element analysis of composite wing T‐joints in hygrothermal environments. This study is concerned with T‐joints subjected to tension (pull‐out) force and their behaviour up to ultimate failure under bone dry and hygrothermal environments. The behaviour of such joints is complex due to the geometry of the joint configuration and laminated construction. T‐joints are also susceptible when exposed to moisture and temperature environments. As a consequence, the stiffness and strength properties of laminates because degraded. A three‐dimensional 20‐noded multidirectional composite element is developed using three‐dimensional super element concept to analyse both unstitched and stitched T‐joints. All the stress components are computed and the failure loads are evaluated using different failure criteria to get better insight into the behaviour of laminated composite wing T‐joints.
Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the…
Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. The range of applications of FEMs in this area is wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore aims to give the reader an encyclopaedic view on the subject. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 2,025 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with the analysis of beams, columns, rods, bars, cables, discs, blades, shafts, membranes, plates and shells that were published in 1992‐1995.
Offshore structures are generally constructed as frameworks of tubular members. The tubular joints should be designed to allow the full post yield or post buckled capacity…
Offshore structures are generally constructed as frameworks of tubular members. The tubular joints should be designed to allow the full post yield or post buckled capacity of the members. However, design guidelines for ultimate strength capacity of these joints are based exclusively upon compilations of test data for simple configurations under simple loading conditions. A methodology based upon the finite element method is presented for analytically predicting the ultimate strength of arbitrary tubular joints. Eight node, isoparametric, curved shell elements were used for the majority of the tubular joint model. Twenty node, isoparametric, solid elements were used to capture the three‐dimensional stress state at the shell intersection while fifteen node, isoparametric, wedge elements modelled the weld profile. Solid‐shell transition elements provided the connection between the three‐dimensional solid elements and the surface based shell elements. Non‐linearities were included via an elastoplastic material model with isotropic strain hardening and the updated Lagrangian approach for finite deflections and rotations. Several experimental tubular joint analyses were reproduced to validate the analytical procedure. Non‐linear finite element analysis was shown to be a practical approach for the evaluation and extension of current design procedures for tubular joints.
This paper presents a solder joint engineering reliability model —Solder Reliability Solutions** (SRS) — and its application to surface mountarea‐array and chip‐scale…
This paper presents a solder joint engineering reliability model — Solder Reliability Solutions** (SRS) — and its application to surface mount area‐array and chip‐scale assemblies. The model is validated by failure data from 33 accelerated thermal cycling tests, and test vehicles covering several generations of component, assembly and circuit board technologies and a variety of test conditions. The SRS model has been implemented as a PC‐based design‐for‐reliabilltytool that enables rapid assessment of assembly reliability in the early stages of product development.
This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis of ceramics and glass materials. The bibliography at the end of the…
This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis of ceramics and glass materials. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations on the subject that were published between 1977‐1998. The following topics are included: ceramics – material and mechanical properties in general, ceramic coatings and joining problems, ceramic composites, ferrites, piezoceramics, ceramic tools and machining, material processing simulations, fracture mechanics and damage, applications of ceramic/composites in engineering; glass – material and mechanical properties in general, glass fiber composites, material processing simulations, fracture mechanics and damage, and applications of glasses in engineering.