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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Venkateswara Babu P., Ismail Syed and Satish Ben Beera

In an internal combustion engine, piston ring-cylinder liner tribo pair is one among the most critical rubbing pairs. Most of the energy produced by an internal combustion…

Abstract

Purpose

In an internal combustion engine, piston ring-cylinder liner tribo pair is one among the most critical rubbing pairs. Most of the energy produced by an internal combustion engine is dissipated as frictional losses of which major portion is contributed by the piston ring-cylinder liner tribo pair. Hence, proper design of tribological parameters of piston ring-cylinder liner pair is essential and can effectively reduce the friction and wear, thereby improving the tribological performance of the engine. This paper aims to use surface texturing, an effective and feasible method, to improve the tribological performance of piston ring-cylinder liner tribo pair.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, influence of positive texturing (protruding) on friction reduction and wear resistance of piston ring surfaces was studied. The square-shaped positive textures were fabricated on piston ring surface by chemical etching method, and the experiments were conducted with textured piston ring surfaces against un-textured cylinder liner surface on pin-on-disc apparatus by continuous supply of lubricant at the inlet of contact zone. The parameters varied in this study are area density and normal load at a constant sliding speed. A comparison was made between the tribological properties of textured and un-textured piston ring surfaces.

Findings

From the experimental results, the tribological performance of the textured piston ring-cylinder liner tribo pair was significantly improved over a un-textured tribo pair. A maximum friction reduction of 67.6 per cent and wear resistance of 81.6 per cent were observed with textured ring surfaces as compared to un-textured ring surfaces.

Originality/value

This experimental study is helpful for better understanding of the potency of positive texturing on friction reduction and wear resistance of piston ring-cylinder liner tribo pair under lubricated sliding conditions.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Anastasios Zavos and Pantelis Nikolakopoulos

Compression rings are the main sources of frictional losses in internal combustion engines. The present paper aims to present a thermo-mixed hydrodynamic analysis for…

Abstract

Purpose

Compression rings are the main sources of frictional losses in internal combustion engines. The present paper aims to present a thermo-mixed hydrodynamic analysis for coated top compression rings. To understand the coating effects, the main tribological parameters are investigated into a ring-cylinder conjunction in a motorbike engine. Furthermore, flow simulations have been carried out on how different worn profiles on the cylinder inner liner affects friction, lubricant film and localized contact deformation of the coated compression rings.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the basic geometrical dimensions of the top compression ring-cylinder system are obtained from a real motorbike engine. A 2D axisymmetric CFD/FLOTRAN model is created for coated compression rings. Flow simulations are performed by solving the Navier-Stokes and the energy equations. The load capacity of the asperities is also taken into account by Greenwood and Tripp contact model. Realistic boundary conditions are imposed to simulate the in-plane ring motion. The simulation model is validated with analytical and experimental data from the literature. Under thermal considerations, the contribution of worn cylinder profiles in conjunction with different coated compression rings is presented.

Findings

This research shows that because of thermal effects, the boundary friction is higher at reversals and the viscous friction is lower because of reduced oil viscosity. As regards to the isothermal case, the viscous friction is greater because of a higher lubricant viscosity. In the case of chromium-plated ring, boundary friction was 16 per cent lower than a grey cast iron ring taking into account thermal effects. Regarding the localized contact deformation, the coated compression rings showed lower values under different worn cylinder shapes. In particular, hard wear-resistant (Ni-Cr-Mo) coating showed the slighter local deformation. Therefore, the worn cylinder profiles promote boundary/mixed lubrication regime, whereas the lobed profile of cylinder inner liner becomes more wavy.

Originality/value

The solution of the thermo-mixed lubrication model, concerning the piston ring and worn cylinder tribo pair by taking into account the coating of the top compression ring.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Mathias Woydt and Norbert Kelling

The test procedure for characterizing the tribological behavior of lubricants and materials for the system “piston ring/cylinder liner” outside of engines is now…

Abstract

The test procedure for characterizing the tribological behavior of lubricants and materials for the system “piston ring/cylinder liner” outside of engines is now operational and validated. The test parameters presented in this paper (FN=50 N; v=0.3 m/s, s=24 km) may act only as an indicator and should be used to the tasks regarded. It allows the check prior expensive engine testing, if a tribomaterial, tribocouple or new lubricant will reach a satisfactory engine performance. The introduction of piston ring segments and cylinder liner as specimen into the test rig as well as the volumetric wear determined by means of stylus profilometry represented a big step forward in order to increase the transferability of “tribotests” to engine tests on an acceptable level.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 55 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Yali Zhang, Xiaogang Zhang, Tonghai Wu and You-bai Xie

The piston ring-cylinder liner pair is one of the most important tribological systems of an internal combustion engine. The friction loss of the piston ring-cylinder liner

Abstract

Purpose

The piston ring-cylinder liner pair is one of the most important tribological systems of an internal combustion engine. The friction loss of the piston ring-cylinder liner pair accounts for the largest portion of total efficiency losses. Therefore, improving the tribological system design of the piston ring-cylinder liner pair can reduce friction losses and bring tremendous economic benefits to society. This paper aims use surface texturing, which is proving to be an effective method, for improving the tribological performance of sliding surfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, an experimental study using a pin-on-disk tribometer was carried out to evaluate the effects of surface texturing on friction reduction of piston rings under various loads and sliding velocities. Rectangular- and circular-shaped textures with different depths and area densities were produced by a Femtosecond laser. Comparison experiments were conducted with un-textured rings.

Findings

The results indicate that the friction performance of the ring surface was significantly improved by surface texturing, and the running-in stage was also shortened. More specifically, it was found that the rectangular-shaped texture had a better effect on friction reduction than the circular-shaped texture. Results also indicate that an optimum texture density existed for the rectangular-shaped texture. Additionally, it was observed that the average friction coefficient reduction of the textured ring decreased with increasing load and increased with increasing sliding velocity.

Originality/value

Consequently, these findings provide a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between micro-textures and tribological properties of piston rings in lubricating sliding.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2019

Konstantin Risse, Matthias Schorgel, Dirk Bartel, Bernhard Karpuschewski and Florian Welzel

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of different finish processes on the surface integrity and tribological behaviour of cylinder running surfaces…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of different finish processes on the surface integrity and tribological behaviour of cylinder running surfaces for internal combustion engines.

Design/methodology/approach

The cutting force during finishing and the resulting surface topography was measured for a variety of cylinder running surfaces made of EN-GJL-250, EN-GJV-400 and thermal sprayed aluminium alloy. A separate conditioning tool was developed and tested. Different analysis methods (SEM, EDX, SIMS and FIB) for the characterisation of the boundary conditions were used. By an oscillating friction wear test and a single cylinder floating liner engine, the running-in and frictional behaviour was rated.

Findings

It was shown that honing with low cutting forces and silicon carbide cutting material decreases the friction in operation. The characteristics of the boundary layers after running-in depend on the finish machining process. A preconditioning with a separate tool can adjust the boundary layer and running-in behaviour. Based on the experimental results, a multi-body and computational fluid dynamics simulation was developed for the floating liner engine.

Originality/value

The results demonstrate the potential of finishing with low process forces to reduce friction and the need for a complete consideration of the tribological system piston ring/cylinder liner surface.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2019

Jun Sun, Xiao Zhang, Jianxiong Zhu, Yaming Gao, Hu Wang, Xiaoyong Zhao, Qin Teng, Yanping Ren and Guixiang Zhu

Currently, lubrication analysis of piston ring is generally done under engine rated operating condition. However, the engine (such as the vehicle engine) does not always…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently, lubrication analysis of piston ring is generally done under engine rated operating condition. However, the engine (such as the vehicle engine) does not always operate in rated operating condition, and its operating condition changes frequently in actual use. In addition, the lubrication status of piston ring is generally assumed as the flooded lubrication or a certain form of poor lubrication in most of the lubrication analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, based on the equations about the flow rate of lubricating oil and the variation of control volume, the flow model of lubricating oil in the piston ring-cylinder liner conjunction is established. The lubrication analysis of piston ring for a four-stroke engine under different engine operating conditions is done, in which the lubricating oil at the inlet of piston ring is considered as the lubricating oil attached on the relevant location of cylinder wall after the piston ring moves over at the previous stroke.

Findings

There is remarkable difference for the lubrication characteristics of the piston ring under different engine operating conditions. The worst lubrication status of piston ring may not take place under engine rated operating condition.

Originality/value

In this paper, based on the measured engine cylinder pressure, the lubrication analysis of piston ring for a four-stroke engine under different engine operating conditions is done in which the lubricating oil supply condition at the inlet of piston ring is considered. The results of this paper are helpful for the design and research of engine piston ring-cylinder liner conjunction.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Lin Ba, Zhenpeng He, Lingyan Guo, Young Chiang, Guichang Zhang and Xing Lu

The purpose of this paper is to improve the environment and save energy, friction reduction, lower oil consumption and emissions demand that are the chief objectives of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the environment and save energy, friction reduction, lower oil consumption and emissions demand that are the chief objectives of the automotive industry. The piston system is the largest frictional loss source, which accounts for about 40 per cent of the total frictional loss in engine. In this paper, the reciprocating tribometer, which is updated, was used to evaluate the friction and wear performances.

Design/methodology/approach

An alternate method is introduced to investigate the effect of reciprocating speed, normal load, oil pump speed and ring sample and oil temperature on friction coefficient with the ring/liner of a typical inline diesel engine. The orthogonal experiment is designed to identify the factors that dominate wear behavior. To understand the correlations between friction coefficients and wear well, different friction coefficient results were compared and explained by oil film build-up and asperity contact theory, such as the friction coefficient over a long period and averaged the friction coefficient over one revolution.

Findings

The friction coefficient changes little but fluctuates with a small amplitude in the stable stage. The sudden change of frequency, load and stroke will lead to the oil film rupture. The identification for the factors that dominates the wear loss is ranged as F (ring sample) > , E (oil sample) > , B (stroke) > , D (temperature) > , A (load) > , G (liner) > and C (frequency).

Originality/value

This paper develops and verifies a methodology capable of mimicking the real engine behavior at boundary and mixed lubrication regimes which can minimize frictional losses, wear, reduce much work for the experiment and reduce the cost. The originality of the work is well qualified, as very few papers on a similar analysis have been published, such as: The friction coefficient values fluctuating in the whole stage may be caused by the vibration of the system; suddenly, boundary alternation may help the oil film to form the lubrication; and weight loss mainly comes from the contribution of the friction coefficient value fluctuation. The paper also found that the statistics can gain more information from less experiment time based on a design of experiment.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2018

Selman Demirtas, Hakan Kaleli, Mahdi Khadem and Dae-eun Kim

Wear on internal combustion engines is a loss of material that occurs with the rubbing of the materials in contact with each other and significantly reduces the economic…

Abstract

Purpose

Wear on internal combustion engines is a loss of material that occurs with the rubbing of the materials in contact with each other and significantly reduces the economic life of the engine. Even the smallest precaution that can be taken to prevent friction and wear in the engines can provide economical savings in very large quantities. Internal combustion engines are widely utilized in modem automobiles. Around 10 per cent of the total fuel energy is dissipated to heat due to mechanical friction, among which 20 per cent is caused by the contact between the cylinder liner and the piston rings.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, real piston ring-cylinder specimens were tested with reciprocating tribometer by using five different nanoparticles added to engine oil to investigate their wear and friction behavior.

Findings

With regard to the experiments, it has been found that the best results were determined by TiO2 and single-walled carbon nanotubes according to boron nitride, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoparticles added to the engine oil, respectively. At the end of the tests, different wear mechanisms have been determined after the surface analyses on the piston ring and cylinder liner surface, and abrasive wear has been observed as the main wear mechanism.

Originality/value

This paper has an originality with regard to adding different nanoparticles into the commercial engine oil.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Selman Demirtas, Hakan Kaleli, Mahdi Khadem and Dae-Eun Kim

This study aims to investigate the tribological characteristics of a Napier-type second piston ring against a cylinder liner in the presence of graphene nano-additives…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the tribological characteristics of a Napier-type second piston ring against a cylinder liner in the presence of graphene nano-additives mixed into 5W40 fully synthetic engine oil.

Design/methodology/approach

Wear tests were carried out in the boundary lubrication condition using a reciprocating tribometer, and real engine tests were performed using a single spark ignition Honda GX 270 test engine for a duration of 75 h.

Findings

The experimental results of the tribometer tests revealed that the nano-additives formed a layer on the rubbed surfaces of both the piston ring and the cylinder liner. However, this layer was only formed at the top dead center of the cylinder liner during the engine tests. The accumulation of carbon (C) from the graphene was heavily detected on the rubbed surface of piston ring/cylinder liner, mixed with other additive elements such as Ca, Zn, S and P. Overall, the use of graphene nano-additives in engine oil was found to improve the frictional behavior in the boundary and mixed lubrication regimes. Abrasive wear was found to be the main mechanism occurring on the surface of both piston rings and cylinder liners.

Originality/value

Though many researchers have discussed the potential benefits of graphene as a nano-additive in oil to reduce the friction and wear in laboratory tests using tribometers, to date, no actual engine tests have been performed. In this paper, both tribometer and real engine tests were performed on a piston ring and cylinder liner using a fully formulated oil with and without graphene nano-additives in the boundary lubrication condition. It was found that a graphene nano-additive plays an active role in lowering the coefficient of friction and increasing surface protection and lubrication by forming a protective layer on the rubbing surfaces.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2007

J. Landa, I. Illarramendi, N. Kelling, M. Woydt, A. Skopp and M. Hartelt

This paper aims to focus on the potential for substituting molybdenum‐based piston ring coatings, which are recognized as “allrounder” by other candidate metallurgies…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the potential for substituting molybdenum‐based piston ring coatings, which are recognized as “allrounder” by other candidate metallurgies. Another purpose is the tribological interaction of molybdenum‐based and new triboactive/reactive piston ring coatings with low SAP, polymer‐ and metal‐free as well as bionotox engine oils with high‐viscosity indices.

Design/methodology/approach

Substoichiometric titanium dioxide composed of the Magnéli‐types phases Ti4O7 (∼17 per cent), Ti5O9 (∼66 per cent), Ti6O11 (∼17 per cent) deposited by plasma spraying, a vacuum sprayed TiO1,93 and a plasma‐sprayed titanium‐molybdenum carbo‐nitride coated piston rings were compared to a state‐of‐the‐art molybdenum‐based piston ring. They were tribologically characterized by means of BAM and SRV tests lubed under mixed/boundary lubrication by factory fill engine oils, engine oils as blends of hydro‐carbons with esters as well as prototype engine oils based on esters and polyglycols.

Findings

Overall, the molybdenum‐ and titanium‐based ring coatings wore in the same order of magnitude. The ranking depends on the test used. The BAM test favours MKP81A (PL72) more, whereas the SRV methods favour the TinO2n−1 more. The different bionotox and low‐ash prototype engine oils with reduced additive contents displayed isoperformance regarding the tribological behaviour of common and triboreactive materials. They presented no visible weakness in wear resistance, coefficient of friction and extreme pressure properties.

Research limitations/implications

The next steps have to confirm functional properties by different engine and endurance tests.

Practical implications

Titanium‐based piston ring coatings are overall more attractive, as they are primarily refined from titania, which is cheap and not rated at stock exchanges, and they present at least an isoperformance when compared with molybdenum‐based ring coatings.

Originality/value

This supplier report displays the complete methodology in order to substitute molybdenum‐ by titanium‐based piston ring coatings as well as illuminating the beneficial interaction with alternative engine oils in existing engine architectures.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 59 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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