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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Fang Wang, Hongxia Zhang, Hengjia Zang and Ming Ouyang

To analyze Chinese consumers in purchasing pirated software; to establish and empirically validate a model for analyzing consumers in software piracy; and to help software

Abstract

Purpose

To analyze Chinese consumers in purchasing pirated software; to establish and empirically validate a model for analyzing consumers in software piracy; and to help software companies understand the software piracy issue in China and design anti‐piracy strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

A research model was established by extending a model used by Ang et al. in studying Singaporeans' purchasing pirated CD. A survey was conducted. Hypotheses were tested through stepwise regressions. An exploratory factor analysis was carried out to analyze Chinese consumers' attitude toward software piracy.

Findings

Four personal and social factors were found important in influencing Chinese consumers' attitude toward software piracy, including value consciousness, normality susceptibility, novelty seeking, and collectivism. Five attitude measures, which were important in influencing consumer purchase intention, were identified as reliability of pirated software, recognized social benefits of piracy, functionality of pirated software, risks of purchasing, and perceived legality of purchasing. An exploratory study identified three attitude attributes.

Research limitations/implications

As student samples were used, caution needs to be exercised when generalizing findings from this study. Regressions were used to test construct relationships in the model, and the model was not tested as a whole.

Practical implications

This research provides an in‐depth understanding on Chinese consumers, and the research findings are useful in designing anti‐piracy strategies in China.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first to examine the Chinese market, which is a focus of piracy problems for the software industries. This research contributes to theory development in developing and testing a model and important constructs, and to industrial practice in providing understanding on Chinese consumers to help design anti‐piracy strategies.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Mahbubur Rahim, Mohd. Noah Abd. Rahman and Afzaal H. Seyal

This article reports the results of a survey in Brunei Darussalam concerning the use of pirated software among academics. Though, the suspicion of academics using pirated

Abstract

This article reports the results of a survey in Brunei Darussalam concerning the use of pirated software among academics. Though, the suspicion of academics using pirated software has long been circulating around in East and South East Asia, no “hard data” has ever been collected. This article confirms the suspicion, and provides new information on the use of pirated software outside the USA. Also reveals the type of tasks accomplished by academics with pirated software, and identifies the reasons for using such software. Moreover, relates academics’ use of pirated software with nine factors related to demographics, computer exposure, and job profile of academics. The findings are discussed, and are compared with some related findings reported elsewhere. Finally, concludes with some suggestions to curb piracy, and identifies areas of further research.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Eric Kin‐wai Lau

The costs of software piracy are enormous. According to Business Software Alliance, it was estimated that the software industry lost $34 billion globally due to software

Abstract

Purpose

The costs of software piracy are enormous. According to Business Software Alliance, it was estimated that the software industry lost $34 billion globally due to software piracy in 2005. The present study was an exploratory attempt to analyze software piracy at individual level, using a qualitative approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research study with few, if any, theoretical preconceptions would seem to be justified in the Asian context. An internet online survey and a content analysis of internet newsgroups were conducted. Data were transcribed, coded and interpreted so as to generate main predictors of the reported leniency toward software piracy.

Findings

Using extensive qualitative data from two studies, marketing, individual and situational variables are examined as a set of predictors of respondents' reported leniency towards software piracy. The results of the content analysis suggested that the cost of original software was extremely important in software piracy. Respondents commented that excessive price of original software was the key factor pushing them to commit piracy.

Originality/value

This is the first piece of qualitative research to study software piracy. The results of the content analysis suggested that the cost of original software was extremely important in software piracy. It provides new insights to software companies and government officials who are developing programs to promote the concept of anti‐piracy.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2021

Muhammad Sabbir Rahman, Md Afnan Hossain, Fadi Abdel Muniem Abdel Fattah and Abdel Mubdiu Ibne Mokter

This research aims to develop and test a conceptual model for shaping small and medium enterprise (SME) employees' avoidance behaviour towards using pirated software. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to develop and test a conceptual model for shaping small and medium enterprise (SME) employees' avoidance behaviour towards using pirated software. The model specifies the components of morality, spirituality, emotional intelligence and ethical values that influence employees' avoidance behaviour towards using pirated software.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework was developed and tested on the basis of information technology and management literature by using data from 275 influential and active employees of SMEs. Data were collected via a survey and analysed through covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM).

Findings

In the context of SMEs, employees' avoidance behaviour towards using pirated software is motivated by significant moral antecedents. Moral equity and judgement significantly influence employees' avoidance behaviour towards using pirated software when moral emotion mediates such a relationship. In addition, individual spirituality significantly moderates the relationship between moral equity and moral emotion. Employees' emotional intelligence optimises the strength of the relationship between moral judgement and moral emotion. Employees' likelihood to engage in unethical behaviour decreases when they exhibit strong ethical values in the relationship between moral emotion and their behaviour towards using pirated software.

Research limitations/implications

This study offers theoretical support for employees' avoidance behaviour towards using pirated software. The findings of this cross-sectional work have limited generalisability. Single-country data may not be generalised to SME employees in other countries. Thus, cross-country analysis and additional measures and antecedents must be developed and identified in the future.

Practical implications

Policymakers and managers should consciously review the proposed seven-component model that causes SME employees to avoid the use of pirated software. Ethical standards that lessen the use of pirated software can be improved if managers and policymakers understand the components of moral equity and judgement that influence moral emotions.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the specific antecedents of the ethical standards and avoidance behaviours of SME employees towards the use of pirated software. As such, it provides a foundation for further studies on this critical area and software piracy in the context of SMEs in an emerging economy, which is limited in current literature.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

Benjamin Tan

This paper examines the influence of consumers’ moral intensity, perceived risks and moral judgment on their purchase intention of pirated software. The aspects of moral…

Abstract

This paper examines the influence of consumers’ moral intensity, perceived risks and moral judgment on their purchase intention of pirated software. The aspects of moral intensity include magnitude of consequence, social consensus, probability of effect and temporal immediacy. The perceived risks of consumers are related to financial, performance, prosecution and social risks. Moral judgment is based on cognitive moral development and reasoning. Ten hypotheses were developed and tested with data collected using a scenario‐based questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis is used to control for variations that are attributed to factors such as gender, age, educational attainment, income, price levels and past software experience of consumers. Results revealed that consumer purchase intention is influenced by certain aspects of their perceived moral intensity, magnitude of consequence, temporal immediacy and social consensus; perceived risks, financial, prosecution and social; and moral judgment, cognitive moral development and moral reasoning. Applicability and implication of the findings as well as suggestions for further research are discussed.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Norazah Mohd Suki, T. Ramayah and Norbayah Mohd Suki

The purpose of this paper is to study factors that influence consumers' intention to purchase and use of pirated software.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study factors that influence consumers' intention to purchase and use of pirated software.

Design/methodology/approach

This study tests the impact of five factors (procedural fairness, reciprocal fairness, distributive fairness, subjective norm, and attitude) on intention towards software piracy by 289 consumers' in Malaysia. Survey questions from prior studies were adopted and customized, and the model was analyzed using partial least squares and structural equation modeling tool (Smart‐PLS 2.0 M3).

Findings

The results indicated that a significant and positive relationship exists between reciprocal fairness, procedural fairness, subjective norm, attitude, and consumers' intention towards software piracy.

Research limitations/implications

This study was restricted to consumers within one country (Malaysia). Additional studies across other countries are encouraged. This research can help businesses better improve the ways to reduce software piracy rates. They get to understand more about the exact problem and cause behind software piracy and can target better strategies to curb this problem.

Practical implications

This study is useful for researchers, managers, and software vendors willing to highlight the factors that contribute to software piracy.

Originality/value

The study highlights factors that influence consumers' intention towards software piracy, which has not been widely studied especially in Malaysia.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Denni Arli, Fandy Tjiptono and Rebecca Porto

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of moral equity, relativism, and attitude towards digital piracy behaviour in a developing country. End-user piracy is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of moral equity, relativism, and attitude towards digital piracy behaviour in a developing country. End-user piracy is more difficult to detect than commercial piracy. Thus, an effective strategy to combat piracy needs a comprehensive understanding of both the supply and demand sides of piracy. The current study focuses on the demand side by investigating the impact of moral equity, relativism, and attitude on consumer piracy behaviour in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a convenient sample in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, questionnaires were distributed in a large private university. In addition, through snowball sampling techniques, the surveys were also distributed to other adults who live within a walking distance from the campus. The data collection resulted in 222 usable surveys (a response rate of 68 per cent).

Findings

In Indonesia, moral equity had a negative and significant impact on purchases of illegal copies of music CDs and pirated software. Relativism affects the purchase of pirated software positively, but its effect on purchases of illegal copies of CDs is insignificant. Attitude towards the act was negatively impacted by moral equity for CDs and software. Relativism only significantly affects the purchase of pirated software but in the opposite direction while it has failed to reach significance for illegal music CD purchases. Attitude towards the software piracy and purchases of illegal copies of music CDs positively affect consumer’s digital piracy behaviour. Finally, Indonesian consumers feel more morally wrong to purchase illegal copies of CDs than to buy pirated software.

Practical implications

In the context of Indonesia, higher moral equity has affected piracy behaviour negatively. Therefore, efforts to reduce piracy should focus on highlighting the importance of fairness and justice. One of the main drivers of digital piracy (e.g. buying, downloading, copying, and sharing digital materials illegally) is overpriced products. It has led many Indonesians to believe that it is acceptable to purchase pirated software and illegal copies of CDs. Nonetheless, if companies are able to lower prices; thus make it affordable to consumers, consumers will perceive fairness and justice in purchasing original copies of software and CDs.

Originality/value

There are very limited studies investigating factors impacting the purchase of pirated software and CDs in the developing countries specifically Indonesia, the fourth most populous nation in the world and one of the biggest markets for counterfeit products. This is one of first few studies exploring this issue in Indonesia.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Ian Phau and Johan Liang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how personal and social factors influence attitudes towards downloading pirated games from the internet. It also examines the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how personal and social factors influence attitudes towards downloading pirated games from the internet. It also examines the moderators between attitudes and intention to download pirated digital video games.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was conducted using convenience samples in a large university in Western Australia. The data were analysed mostly through regression models.

Findings

Self‐efficacy, affect and moral judgement have significant influences upon attitudes towards downloading pirated games from the internet. Conversely, habits, facilitating conditions and social factors do not have significant influences upon attitudes towards downloading pirated games from the internet. In addition, attitudes towards downloading pirated digital video games from the internet have a significant influence upon the intention to download pirated digital video games from the internet. It is also found that the level of internet usage, the level of internet time spent and the internet speed do not moderate the relationship between attitudes and intention to download pirated games from the internet.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation is the use of a convenience sample. Therefore, future research should replicate and extend this study by using more valid random samples. In addition, qualitative approach, field experiment and foolspeed campaign analysis need to be considered to gain a better understanding of why internet users indulge in games piracy.

Practical implications

Authorities should create awareness campaigns about digital video games piracy to alert the public about the risk of being caught and the consequence of unethical behaviour. Managers, marketers and policy makers should collaborate to combat piracy to prevent illegal downloading of free pirated games in the future.

Originality/value

The paper assesses the impact of six antecedents and the attitudes towards downloading pirated digital video games from the internet that will lead to the intention to download pirated digital video games from the Internet.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2010

Sigi Goode

Software piracy is an ongoing problem for software producers. At the same time, mobile devices such as personal digital assistants and smart phones are increasing in…

Abstract

Purpose

Software piracy is an ongoing problem for software producers. At the same time, mobile devices such as personal digital assistants and smart phones are increasing in popularity. This paper seeks to examine the supply of pirate software for mobile devices, against a backdrop of conventional desktop piracy theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a novel data set of pirate software releases, the paper reviews 18,000 entries from a pirate software database to examine the type and origin of this software.

Findings

The paper finds that more popular platforms are not necessarily subject to greater levels of software piracy. For mobile devices, productivity software was more popular than game software. Many piracy groups were involved, but only four groups were responsible for over half of all releases. Some popular devices, such as the Blackberry and Apple iPhone, showed little to no piracy levels.

Research limitations/implications

As with empirical research into any criminal or deviant behaviour, there may be intention to deceive. The findings regarding device popularity and availability of pirate software have implications for demand‐side research.

Practical implications

The findings provide insights for business managers and information security professionals in the telecommunications and mobile applications industries.

Originality/value

Prior research work has focused on software for desktop computers. This study contributes by being some of the first published work on piracy for mobile devices. The work is also original in that most prior research has focused on the demand for pirate software. This paper provides insight into the supply of this software.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2010

Peter Williams, David Nicholas and Ian Rowlands

The purpose of this paper is to summarise and evaluate the literature on digital consumer behaviour and attitudes towards digital piracy.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarise and evaluate the literature on digital consumer behaviour and attitudes towards digital piracy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a review and synthesis of the academic literature on the subject, using the authors' unique “pro‐forma” approach to the evaluation of individual papers.

Findings

A major limitation in the studies reported became apparent. They are almost exclusively concerned with the behaviours and attitudes of young people. There is a dearth of studies looking at demographic differences, and also a lack of longitudinal work. Given these constraints, the literature strongly suggests that social and situational factors impact on the likelihood of illegally obtaining digital content more than ethical considerations. Anonymity is a strong indicator, “de‐individualising” people and releasing them from traditional societal constraints and making the digital world far different from the physical one. The literature is ambiguous on whether punishment acts as a deterrent.

Practical implications

The main point that comes out of these studies is that the digital world is not the same as the physical world. It is changing basic assumptions about the idea of ownership, sharing, and copying content. Laws prohibiting all unauthorised downloading potentially criminalise millions of people, so new and creative business models are needed to resolve the problem.

Originality/value

The authors believe this to be the first systematic review of current literature in this area since the issue became topical with the Pirate Bay trial and the Government's Digital Britain report.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 62 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Keywords

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