Search results

1 – 5 of 5
Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Marek Antosiewicz and Piotr Lewandowski

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors behind cyclical fluctuations and differences in adjustments to shocks in Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain (GIPS) and a reference…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors behind cyclical fluctuations and differences in adjustments to shocks in Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain (GIPS) and a reference country – Germany. The authors try to answer the question whether the GIPS countries could have fared differently in the Great Recession if they reacted to shocks affecting them like a resilient German economy would have.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a DSGE model of real open economy with search and matching on the labour market and endogenous job destruction, estimated separately for each country. The authors calculate impulse response functions, historical decompositions and perform counterfactual simulations of the response of the German model to the sequence of shocks identified for each of GIPS.

Findings

The authors find that all GIPS countries were more vulnerable to productivity and foreign demand shocks than Germany. They would have experienced lower macroeconomic volatility if they reacted to their shocks like Germany. Employment (unemployment) rates in GIPS would have been less volatile and higher (lower) during the Great Recession, especially in Spain and Greece. Real wage volatility would have been higher, especially in Spain and Portugal.

Originality/value

The trade-off between unemployment and wage adjustments vis-à-vis Germany was the largest in Spain, which also would have experienced lower variability of job separations and hirings. The evolution of the labour market in Greece and Portugal was driven rather by its higher responsiveness to GDP fluctuations than in Germany, whereas Italy emerges as the least responsive labour market within GIPS.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Marta Palczyńska

The main purpose of this paper is to assess the degree of complementarity between cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills, and to evaluate their joint impact on individual wages.

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to assess the degree of complementarity between cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills, and to evaluate their joint impact on individual wages.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses a survey representative of the Polish working-age population with well-established measures of cognitive and non-cognitive skills.

Findings

Non-cognitive skills are important in the labour market, not only as separate factors that influence wages, but as complements to cognitive skills. Specifically, the analysis showed that the more neurotic an individual is, the lower his or her returns to cognitive skills are. Social skills were not shown to be complementary to cognitive skills in Poland unlike the recent results in the United States.

Originality/value

To the best of author's knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence that neurotic individuals have lower returns to cognitive skills. It also tests the existence of the complementarity between social and cognitive skills.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Oliwia Komada, Pawel Strzelecki and Joanna Tyrowicz

The purpose of this paper is to isolate and evaluate the causal effect of the changes in eligibility criteria on labor force participation (LFP) and exit to retirement of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to isolate and evaluate the causal effect of the changes in eligibility criteria on labor force participation (LFP) and exit to retirement of the cohorts affected by the reform that canceled most of the early pensions in Poland in 2009. At the individual level the reform created a huge discontinuity in treatment of different generations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors rely on Polish Labor Force Survey and employ regression discontinuity design to evaluate the change in participation subsequent to the eligibility reform among the treated cohorts.

Findings

The authors find a statistically significant, but economically small discontinuity at the timing of the reform. The placebo test shows no similar effects in earlier or later quarters. Yet, the pure treatment effects are insignificant in vast majority of the specifications.

Research limitations/implications

There are some limitations of the data used in the research. It does not cover total population and some panel attrition can be expected. Authors also needed to cope with the lack of required details in survey questions. The main limitation of the method lies in the measurement of the immediate (short-term) effects while in many cases people require more time that 1–2 quarters for the decision after policy change.

Practical implications

The reduction of outflows to retirement was much less pronounced than could have been expected, largely due to already relatively lower propensity to retire early.

Social implications

There are two main policy implications of the study. First, constraining the pension eligibility criteria for retirement are frequently opposed by social actors. It is often considered that early retirement is a privilege – awarded on a basis of occupation or even simply employment in an industry. In many countries – e.g. France, Italy, Germany – attempts to make the eligibility criteria more strict resulted in general strikes and Poland was no exception from this rule. If treatment effects of the large and radical eligibility reform are small in participation rates and pension take-up rates, then immediate fiscal effects are bound to be small as well, even if in the desirable direction. This may explain why – given the strong social resistance – in many countries eligibility reforms are delayed or narrowed in scope. Second, the economic rationale for strong social resistance to eligibility reforms builds on assuming either a relatively high valuation of leisure time after exiting the labor market or a relatively high subjective valuation of the unemployment risk after passing the early retirement age threshold. If leisure preference is overstated, reducing eligibility may be opposed as such, but eligibility alone is irrelevant for household decision making. Meanwhile, unemployment risk may be mitigated via alternative instruments, such as employment protection legislation, as is the case in Poland. Depending on a specific composition of the two factors in a given country, the effects of the eligibility reforms may be as high as in Switzerland or as low as in Poland.

Originality/value

First, the authors provide an analysis of discontinuities in transitions from activity to retirement, rather than focusing on the labor market status. The panel dimension of the data permits to observe directly the flows into retirement/inactivity, controlling for age and birth cohort. Second, the authors complement a pure discontinuity in cohort analysis with a fuzzy design, because in addition to age eligibility the authors also analyze the effects of changes in occupational eligibility. Third, the authors provide a benchmark for the estimates in the actual quarter of the reform by a series of placebo and conditional specifications. This allows to evaluate the (immediate) size and heterogeneity of the treatment effects. The authors find small effects of age eligibility reduction and effectively no effects of occupational eligibility. Hence, increased LFP of the elderly, observed even prior to the reform, seems to be driven by factors unrelated to early pension eligibility.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2023

Małgorzata Zdzisława Wiśniewska and Piotr Grudowski

To recognize the existing state of knowledge on a culture of excellence (CoE) in higher education institutions (HEIs) and to define the CoE in HEI and the dimensions that make up…

Abstract

Purpose

To recognize the existing state of knowledge on a culture of excellence (CoE) in higher education institutions (HEIs) and to define the CoE in HEI and the dimensions that make up that culture. A subsidiary goal is to propose a qualitative tool to measure CoE maturity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was based on the qualitative method, the preferred reporting system of systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA). Next, the conceptual work method was used.

Findings

A research gap in the topic of CoE in HE has been confirmed. The CoE's own definition has been proposed, as well as a set of seven dimensions that comprise it, such as: Clear vision, mission and goals for excellence; Leadership oriented to excellence; Employee engagement; Human resources management; Meeting and exceeding student and staff expectations; Continuous improvement of processes through innovation and excellent practices; and Partnership and teamwork for improvement.

Research limitations/implications

The study research was limited to open-access articles. Therefore, in the future, the search can be broadened to include monographs or doctoral dissertations, and other peer-reviewed studies. The research implications are related to the originality of our work and the proposals of two concepts – a CoE model and a CoE maturity assessment tool.

Practical implications

Leaders at universities, e.g. rectors and deans, can take into account the identified dimensions and progressively provide them as conditions conducive to achieving above-average levels.

Originality/value

This is the first literature review on CoE in HEIs, which can be considered an original contribution to science and practice. The original contribution of the paper is also the proposal of a CoE conceptual model and a CoE maturity assessment tool.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Nataraj Poomathi, Sunpreet Singh, Chander Prakash, Rajkumar V. Patil, P.T. Perumal, Veluchamy Amutha Barathi, Kalpattu K. Balasubramanian, Seeram Ramakrishna and N.U. Maheshwari

Bioprinting is a promising technology, which has gained a recent attention, for application in all aspects of human life and has specific advantages in different areas of…

Abstract

Purpose

Bioprinting is a promising technology, which has gained a recent attention, for application in all aspects of human life and has specific advantages in different areas of medicines, especially in ophthalmology. The three-dimensional (3D) printing tools have been widely used in different applications, from surgical planning procedures to 3D models for certain highly delicate organs (such as: eye and heart). The purpose of this paper is to review the dedicated research efforts that so far have been made to highlight applications of 3D printing in the field of ophthalmology.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the state-of-the-art review has been summarized for bioprinters, biomaterials and methodologies adopted to cure eye diseases. This paper starts with fundamental discussions and gradually leads toward the summary and future trends by covering almost all the research insights. For better understanding of the readers, various tables and figures have also been incorporated.

Findings

The usages of bioprinted surgical models have shown to be helpful in shortening the time of operation and decreasing the risk of donor, and hence, it could boost certain surgical effects. This demonstrates the wide use of bioprinting to design more precise biological research models for research in broader range of applications such as in generating blood vessels and cardiac tissue. Although bioprinting has not created a significant impact in ophthalmology, in recent times, these technologies could be helpful in treating several ocular disorders in the near future.

Originality/value

This review work emphasizes the understanding of 3D printing technologies, in the light of which these can be applied in ophthalmology to achieve successful treatment of eye diseases.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

1 – 5 of 5