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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Pilar García-Gómez, Erik Schokkaert and Tom Van Ourti

Most politicians and ethical observers are not interested in pure health inequalities, as they want to distinguish between different causes of health differences. Measures…

Abstract

Most politicians and ethical observers are not interested in pure health inequalities, as they want to distinguish between different causes of health differences. Measures of “unfair” inequality – direct unfairness and the fairness gap, but also the popular standardized concentration index (CI) – therefore neutralize the effects of what are considered to be “legitimate” causes of inequality. This neutralization is performed by putting a subset of the explanatory variables at reference values, for example, their means. We analyze how the inequality ranking of different policies depends on the specific choice of reference values. We show with mortality data from the Netherlands that the problem is empirically relevant and we suggest a statistical method for fixing the reference values.

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2007

Pilar García Gómez and Angel López Nicolás

This paper reports an analysis of the evolution of equity in the utilisation of health care in Spain over the period 1987–2001, a time span covering the development of the…

Abstract

This paper reports an analysis of the evolution of equity in the utilisation of health care in Spain over the period 1987–2001, a time span covering the development of the modern Spanish National Health System. Our measures of utilisation are the probabilities of visiting a doctor, using emergency services and being hospitalised. For these three measures, we obtain indices of horizontal inequity from microeconometric models of utilisation that exploit the individual information in the Spanish National Health Surveys of 1987 and 2001. We find that by 2001, the system had improved insofar as differences in income no longer lead to differences in utilisation given the same level of need. However, tenure of private health insurance leads to differences in utilisation given the same level of need, and its contribution to inequity has increased over time, both because insurance is more concentrated among the rich and because the elasticity of utilisation for the three services has also increased.

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Equity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1450-8

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2007

Peter J. Lambert

For equity, societies may wish to eliminate certain forms or manifestations of inequality. Horizontal equity and vertical equity in the income tax are topics which have…

Abstract

For equity, societies may wish to eliminate certain forms or manifestations of inequality. Horizontal equity and vertical equity in the income tax are topics which have interested me for some years. Although any shortfall from each of these objectives can be measured in terms of unwanted inequalities, equity per se is a different concept from equality. Equity relates to fairness, justice and other societal norms which give expression to the best aspirations of our collective social conscience. For example, equal access to health care for those in equal need is an accepted norm for horizontal equity in the health field. Vertical equity in this context means treating appropriately differently those who have different needs. When offered the opportunity to be Guest Editor of this volume of Research on Economic Inequality, I decided to define the focus simply as “equity”, without placing any further restriction on topics. The papers which were ultimately included in this volume are the ones, from among those offered, which survived a rigorous refereeing process. Each has its own “take” on the concept of equity, and its link with equality. I hope that you, the reader, will gain from reading all of these contributions and pondering their significance.

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Equity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1450-8

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Abstract

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Health and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-553-1

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Abstract

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Health and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-553-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Eileen Oliver

Cuba’s 1959 Revolution brought about dramatic changes not only in that island‐nation but also in the USA. Cubans, and later Cuban‐Americans, have changed the face of Miami…

Abstract

Cuba’s 1959 Revolution brought about dramatic changes not only in that island‐nation but also in the USA. Cubans, and later Cuban‐Americans, have changed the face of Miami and south Florida. The economic and social successes of Cuban‐Americans, the third largest Latino group in the USA, are prevalent in scholarly and popular literature. In this annotated bibliography, the author presents journal articles, chapters in books, books, and human rights reports, published between 1990 and 1998, as well as World Wide Web sites, that discuss the Cuban‐American experience. Articles from the popular literature are not included, nor are materials that deal primarily with Cuba or Cuba‐USA relations.

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Reference Services Review, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Dolores Romero López and José Luis Bueren Gómez-Acebo

Studies of Spanish literature during the late nineteenth century and the first one-third of the twentieth century are evolving from research on canonical writers to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies of Spanish literature during the late nineteenth century and the first one-third of the twentieth century are evolving from research on canonical writers to the study of “odd and forgotten” authors, themes and genres during what is now called the Other Silver Age. This paper aims to focus on the work undertaken in the field of literary translation by the women writers of this period.

Design/methodology/approach

Mnemosyne is an open-access digital library that allows data modeling for specific collections (women translators, science fiction, etc.) in support of research and teaching on Silver Age Spain. The first version of the library is stored on the server at the Universidad Complutense Library, and it is linked to the collections of the digital library HathiTrust and Biblioteca Nacional de España. Behind the scenes of Mnemosyne’s public presence online, the project is developing with the aid of the tool Clavy which is a rich internet application that is able to import, preserve and edit information from big data collections of digital objects so as to build bridges between institutional and digital repositories and create collections of enriched digital content. See:http://repositorios.fdi.ucm.es/mnemosine/queesmnemosine.php

Findings

The Collection Women Translators in Spain (1868-1936) inside Mnemosyne selects, categorizes and makes visible in digital format women translators and literary translations that belong to a forgotten repertoire to allow the historical review of the period. The digital collection of Spanish Women Translators pretends to be a field of international experimentation for the creation of interoperable semantic networks through which a large group of scholars could generate innovative research and theoretical reading models for literary texts. See:http://repositorios.fdi.ucm.es/mnemosine/colecciones.php

Research limitations/implications

Clavy also provides a basic system of data visualization, edition and navigation. There are plans to integrate @Note, a collaborative annotation application, into Clavy. These two computational tools were developed by the software languages research group ILSA[1] at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

Practical implications

Its been followed NEWW Women Writers’ categories concerning biographical categories as successful standard for ensuring interoperability in the near future: children, marital status, social class, religion, profession and other activities, financial aspects, memberships. See:http://repositorios.fdi.ucm.es/mnemosine/ver_documento.php?documento=208369

Social implications

These women also showed their interest in the writings of contemporary women by translating their works into Spanish or glossing foreign ideas about how the modern woman should be, think or behave. This digital collection shows the first steps of the intellectual women in the South of Europe.

Originality/value

To incorporate specially tailored metadata for the women translators’ collection into Mnemosyne, it will be necessary to use of Clavy’s extensibility to account for the particularities of the women translators’ collection. This is where prior knowledge of this literature’s historical and cultural context proves indispensable. In particular, the specific metadata model for the women translators’ collection incorporates elements that reflect the literary, historical and cultural characteristics of the collections.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Pedro José Martínez‐Jurado, José Moyano‐Fuentes and Pilar Jerez Gómez

This paper aims to identify the success factors linked to human resources management during the lean production (LP) adoption process. A model of these factors and their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the success factors linked to human resources management during the lean production (LP) adoption process. A model of these factors and their interrelationships is also to be built to understand the sequence that leads to the cultural change required in lean production adoption.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study is carried out in selected same‐industry companies that are on the same level in the supply chain and have recently completed LP adoption. Twelve first‐tier production plants in the aeronautics industry were selected. Data were gathered from interviews with plant managers and the people in charge of LP in the plant. Data were analyzed using open and coaxial coding and triangulation both within cases and across cases.

Findings

The results highlight a number of success factors that depend on the phase of the LP adoption process. In the phase prior to adoption, the success factors are the incorporation of external change agents and the management averting inertia, whereas in the other phases of the adoption process five main factors were found: training, communication, rewards, job design and work organization.

Research limitations/implications

The findings stress the importance of human resources being managed appropriately during LP adoption for LP to be accepted and adapted. There are a number of key aspects related to human resource management that should be taken into account during each of the phases that occur during the LP adoption process. Further developments include measuring the intensity of the relationships identified and combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies simultaneously to overcome problems with the limited generalization of the results.

Practical implications

Practitioners in charge of LP adoption must be mindful of the key human resource management‐related aspects before and during the LP adoption process and the guidelines to be followed in each of these aspects for the outcomes of LP to be achieved and maintained.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to research in the area of the role that people play in LP with a new line of research centered on the role of human resource management during the LP adoption process. Unlike prior research, this study analyzes the changes that take place in human resource management from the time the company makes the decision to adopt LP until it is implemented.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Juan Miguel Alcántara-Pilar and Salvador Del Barrio-García

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moderating role of the cultural dimensions of long-term orientation (LTO) and individualism (IND) on the relationships between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moderating role of the cultural dimensions of long-term orientation (LTO) and individualism (IND) on the relationships between satisfaction online, message involvement (MI) and perceived usefulness (PU) of the web site on attitude toward the web site.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors chose a between-subjects experimental design, using culture (Spanish vs British) as the independent variable. Two versions of a web site for a fictitious tourist destination were created – one written in Spanish and the other in English. The sample comprised 491 users.

Findings

The findings indicate that the LTO dimension moderates the relationship between satisfaction online and PU on attitude toward the web site. The relationships between MI and attitude toward the web site could not be confirmed.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is the comparison of only two cultures, Spain vs the UK.

Practical implications

The key implication is that if marketers and web site designers can better understand how national cultural differences moderate the attitude formation and change process among tourists, this will enable them to market their destinations and services more effectively. National cultural differences explain the differences found in the effect of satisfaction and PU on attitude toward the web site.

Originality/value

This study is one of the few analyzing the moderating effect of LTO and IND on three antecedents of attitude toward the web site. The original cultural values established by Hofstede (2001) were tested among the present sample to establish the extent to which they remain true today. To create an authentic browsing scenario for the experiment, a web site was specially designed for a fictitious tourist destination, with its own domain name (buyada.org). Subjects were invited to browse the site freely while carrying out the task assigned to them. This approach contributed added value to the research by simulating the real behavior of tourists who are faced with a range of choices when putting together a tourism package for a given destination.

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2019

Elena Rosillo-Díaz, Francisco Javier Blanco-Encomienda and Esmeralda Crespo-Almendros

While there have always been cultural differences between countries and between individuals, the virtualisation of markets is rendering the impact of these differences…

Abstract

Purpose

While there have always been cultural differences between countries and between individuals, the virtualisation of markets is rendering the impact of these differences even more salient. There is clear evidence that cultural dimensions are relevant in the adoption and use of e-commerce. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the significant effects of individual cultural dimensions on perceived product quality, perceived risk and purchase intention in e-commerce platforms.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was developed to serve as a tool of measurement. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine whether all the indicators for the constructs are reliable. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results reveal that, in the case of e-commerce platforms, the cultural dimensions uncertainty-avoidance and collectivism exert a significant influence on perceived product quality, perceived risk and purchase intention.

Research limitations/implications

The present study is based on real well-known e-commerce platforms which could have influenced the responses of the sample due to potential past experiences of use. An experimental design based on fictitious platforms could offer more objective findings.

Practical implications

This research contributes to the understanding of e-commerce and the behaviour of consumers during online purchasing, taking into account the cultural differences that may exist between them.

Originality/value

The literature on individual cultural dimensions – that is, non-national cases – and the variables analysed in the present study suffers from great limitations. This study complements a growing interest in analysing the individual cultural dimensions and their effects on the sphere of e-commerce, specifically on perceived product quality, purchase intention and perceived risk during browsing, measured in terms of the six types of risk prevalent in e-commerce platforms.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

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