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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Abdul Azeem, Sharjeel Abid, Noman Sarwar, Shahzaib Ali, Ahsan Maqsood, Rashid Masood and Tanveer Hussain

The purpose of this study is to improve the mechanical properties and reduce the stiffness/harshness of fabric associated with the pigment dyeing of textiles.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to improve the mechanical properties and reduce the stiffness/harshness of fabric associated with the pigment dyeing of textiles.

Design/methodology/approach

The fabric was pigment dyed with the addition of three different softeners and binders. The fabric was then analyzed to have improved textile properties by measuring tear strength, bending length, crocking and washing fastness tests.

Findings

The conventional route of pigment dyeing (without any softener) imparted poor mechanical and rubbing fastness. The softener-added recipe provided better mechanical, rubbing and washing fastness, and the stiffness values were oppressed as well.

Practical implications

Because of reduced stiffness, increased fastness and mechanical properties, the use of softener with pigment dyeing can improve the market values and satisfaction of the dyed fabrics. The finished product would also have better life and endurance. The process can be modified easily to have a better end-product with a negligible cost addition in industrial process, as softeners are cheap and used in low (10-20 g/l) in industrial settings without affecting the required shades.

Originality/value

This is the first report, to the best of the author’s knowledge, on the optimization of pigment dyeing of PC fabric with the addition of Helizarin and perapret softeners in dyeing bath.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2009

Lijuan Wang, Jian Li and Hao Feng

The purpose of this paper is to develop an environmentally friendly dyeing process using brown pigment from chestnut shells (BPFCS). This material is obtained from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an environmentally friendly dyeing process using brown pigment from chestnut shells (BPFCS). This material is obtained from foodstuff residues and can make a significant contribution to reusing a reproducible biomass resource, economizing petroleum, avoiding water pollution and protecting human health.

Design/methodology/approach

The brown pigment is extracted from the raw material and purified with solvents containing 30 and 100 per cent EtOH. It is then used to dye flax fabric in aqueous solution with added NaCl as a dye accelerator. The effects of dyeing conditions and fastness are investigated. The pigment, and the pristine and dyed fabrics are analysed by Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy (FT‐IR) and the fabric samples are observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fastness to washing, rubbing and light are also measured.

Findings

BPFCS show promising dyeability on cellulosic fibers. White flax fabric is successfully dyed with the pigment to a yellow‐brown colour. The base dyeing conditions are as follows: pigment concentration 16 g/l, NaCl concentration 10 g/l, liquor ratio 10:1, temperature 95°C, dyeing time 40 min. The dyed fabrics have lower fastness to washing and higher fastness to rubbing and light. A total of 4 per cent Al3+ or Fe2+ treatment of dyed fabric can improve fastness to washing, but decrease fastness to rubbing. The yellowish‐brown samples are transformed to brown or dark‐green after Al3+ or Fe2+ treatment, respectively. The pigment is a mixture with abundant hydroxyl groups.

Research limitations/implications

The studies of dyeing conditions and fastness are carried out in detail as BPFCS used as a dye. However, a qualitative analysis of the pigment could not be performed due to the difficulty of separating the mixture. The BPFCS used in this paper can dye cellulosic fiber and can also be used to dye other fibers such as silk, wool and PET. Dyeing conditions for these other fibers need to be investigated.

Practical implications

BPFCS may play an important role in the dyeing industries because of its good dyeability, lack of toxicity and resistance to water, rubbing and light. The present work offers an environmentally friendly dye and a simple dyeing method.

Originality/value

At present, no report exists in the literature of work on dyeing flax fabric with BPFCS. This paper represents a preliminary study to determine the relationships of dyeing conditions to fastness and the role of mordant. BPFCS appears to be a new and practically useful natural dye.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

K. Chakvattanatham, S. Phattanarudee and S. Kiatkamjornwong

The purpose of this paper is to prepare anionically surface‐modified organic pigment/binder ink jet inks for printing on chitosan‐pre‐treated silk fabrics.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare anionically surface‐modified organic pigment/binder ink jet inks for printing on chitosan‐pre‐treated silk fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

Anionically surface‐modified organic pigment/binder ink jet inks were prepared in four colours (cyan, magenta, yellow and black). The pigment‐to‐binder ratio was controlled at 1:6.4 for the cyan, magenta and yellow inks, and 1:3.4 for the black ink. Ink formulations (by weight) were assembled and mixed as follows: 8 per cent pigment dispersion, 10 per cent diethylene glycol, 12 per cent glycerol, 5 per cent urea, 10 per cent polyacrylate emulsion binder and 55 per cent deionised water. They were characterised in terms of their particle size, zeta‐potential, particle morphology, viscosity, surface tension and pH. The inks were printed onto silk or the chitosan pre‐treated silk fabrics using a piezo‐type ink jet printer. The fabrics were then heat cured and analysed for the effect of chitosan pre‐treatment on colour gamut, wash fastness and crock fastness.

Findings

The formulated ink jet inks yielded an acceptably good ink jetting reliability, one‐year stability and printability. The chitosan pre‐treated silk fabrics gave a wider colour gamut and colour saturation than the non‐treated one. Crock fastness and wash fastness of the chitosan pre‐treated fabrics were relatively better than those of non‐treated fabrics.

Research limitations/implications

The surface‐modified pigments are transparent and thus their inks printed on the chitosan pre‐treated fabrics produced slightly low K/S values of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black colours because the limited chitosan concentration in the pre‐treatment is controlled by its solubility in acidic solution. The higher loading of chitosan pre‐treatment gave higher K/S values and a stiffer touch of the fabrics.

Practical implications

The water‐based pigmented inks having the sulphonate group on the pigment surface can be printed on the fabric surface pre‐treated with chitosan molecules which have the protonated amino groups to give good colour appearance. It is anticipated that this type of ink can be applied to any textile surface which has been pre‐treated with the protonated chitosan.

Originality/value

The modified organic pigments having the sulphonate group on their surface can be used to produce novel water‐based ink jet inks which can print on the chitosan pre‐treated silk fabric. Ionic interactions between the sulphonate group of the pigment and protonated amino groups of chitosan in conjunction with polyacrylate binder enhance colour strength, widen colour gamut and chroma, and produce good adhesion for fabric operational properties such as wash fastness and crock fastness.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Vicente Hernández, Felipe Galleguillos, Nicole Sagredo and Ángela Machuca

The study aims to test the color fastness of wool and linen fabrics dyed by simple immersion in ethanol dissolutions of fungal dyes.

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to test the color fastness of wool and linen fabrics dyed by simple immersion in ethanol dissolutions of fungal dyes.

Design/methodology/approach

Ethanol dissolutions of Talaromyces australis and Penicillium murcianum dyes were prepared to a concentration of 0.3% and used to dye wool and linen samples by immersion. Color fastness to washing, dry cleaning, wet and dry rubbing, perspiration and light, were tested according to AATCC standards.

Findings

Color fastness reached acceptable results at dry cleaning and wet and dry rubbing by crocking but did not performed well at laundering, perspiration and light exposure. Results indicate that ethanol dissolutions of tested dyes had better affinity for wool fabrics than linen, but the dyeing method requires further improvements to be considered attractive for full scale applications.

Originality/value

In this work sustainability of fabrics dyeing is improved by using natural pigments produced by filamentous fungi and a method to dye that requires no increment of temperature and mordants.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Monthon Nakpathom, Buppha Somboon, Nootsara Narumol and Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit

The present study aims to focus on the feasibility of using an aqueous extract from the fruit shell of Camellia oleifera Abel as a source of natural colourant in…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to focus on the feasibility of using an aqueous extract from the fruit shell of Camellia oleifera Abel as a source of natural colourant in printing-paste preparation for pigment printing of cotton fabric. The effects of pre- and post-mordanting with three common metallic mordants, that is AlK(SO4)2, CuSO4 and FeSO4 on colour yield and colour fastness properties are also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The printing paste was prepared by mixing the concentrated Camellia oleifera Abel fruit shell extract solution with commercially available synthetic thickener and binder. The fabric sample was printed with the prepared printing paste using a flat-screen printing technique. To determine the effects of pre- and post-mordanting, AlK(SO4)2, CuSO4 and FeSO4 mordant aqueous solutions with various concentrations were applied using the pad-dry technique. Comparisons between printing with and without mordants were evaluated in terms of colour strength (K/S values) and colour fastness to washing, light, crocking and perspiration.

Findings

Without the mordants, the printed fabric had a yellowish brown shade with acceptable colour fastness properties, that is fair to good wash fastness, moderate light fastness, good to very good crocking fastness and fair to good perspiration fastness. The use of mordants, especially CuSO4 and FeSO4, not only enhanced colour strength but also imparted different colours to the fabric. Compared to the unmordanted fabrics, colour fastness properties were mostly comparable or improved in the mordanted fabrics depending on the type and concentration of mordants.

Research limitations/implications

Although in the case of CuSO4 the light fastness was increased to a good to very good level, it is recommended that the final print be produced with a concentration of less than 0.125 gL−1 to yield the print with the residual amount of Cu metal under the limit, that is less than 50 ppm as regulated by the Oeko-Tex® standard.

Practical implications

The obtained prints from Camellia oleifera Abel fruit shell extract provided shades with satisfactory colour fastness to washing, light, crocking and perspiration. The extract from Camellia oleifera Abel fruit shell has the potential to be used as an alternative to synthetic dye in the textile industry.

Originality/value

The use of Camellia oleifera Abel fruit shells, which are considered as abundant byproducts of tea seed oil production, as natural colouring agents for pigment printing of cotton fabric has been reported for the first time. It will minimise the environmental impact of this waste and create more valuable textile products.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

S. Daplyn and L. Lin

Recent years have seen a significant increase in the use of inkjet technology for printing on textile fabrics. Typical inkjet printed textile products included curtains…

Abstract

Recent years have seen a significant increase in the use of inkjet technology for printing on textile fabrics. Typical inkjet printed textile products included curtains, large advertising posters, flags and banners. As a result of the need for such inkjet printed products to have a greater durability, especially for outdoor applications, inks containing pigments as the colourants are gaining more interests. However, pigments may give rise to logistical problems in terms of their dispersion stability within the ink formulation, consequently blocking the nozzles within the inkjet print head. This paper reports methods for the preparation of pigment dispersions and of inkjet printing ink formulations and the methods for the evaluation of the suitability of pigmented ink formulations for jet printing on textile materials. In particular, the suitability of three magenta pigments for inkjet inks were assessed and reported.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

A. Higazy, M.H. El‐Rafie, M.A. Ramadan and A. Hebeish

Poly (acrylic) starch composites were prepared by polymerizing acrylic acid, acrylamide alone or in admixtures with maize starch using KMnO4/citric acid as redox…

Abstract

Poly (acrylic) starch composites were prepared by polymerizing acrylic acid, acrylamide alone or in admixtures with maize starch using KMnO4/citric acid as redox initiation. The cooked composite pastes were used as partial substituent of kerosene oil emulsion in the pigment printing pastes for cotton fabric. Printing was carried out under a variety of conditions including neutralization of the free carboxylic groups of the polyacrylic acid component in the composite or AA/Aam mixtures, composite concentration, and the type of pigment dyes. The effect of storage on the efficiency of the printing paste was also examined. The printed samples were assessed for colour strength (K/S) overall fastness properties. Results obtained indicate that:

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2020

Akshita Agrawal and Sheetal Chopra

This paper aims to extract the dye colourant from teak leaves using different aqueous mediums (Alkaline, Neutral and Acidic); to characterize the dye in terms of yield %;…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to extract the dye colourant from teak leaves using different aqueous mediums (Alkaline, Neutral and Acidic); to characterize the dye in terms of yield %; ash content and moisture content; to standardize the conditions of application of dye extracted from teak leaves on selected natural and synthetic fabrics using selected natural and chemical mordants; to assess the colour value (K/S, L*, c*/ h*, a*, b*) and fastness properties of the dyed samples in terms of wash, rub, light and perspiration fastness; and to develop dyed and printed designs using combinations of mordant and extracted dye.

Design/methodology/approach

Stage 1 – Extraction of dye from teak leaves; and characterization of dye: yield% ash content and moisture content. Stage 2 – Preparation of fabrics for dyeing; optimization of mordanting parameters using pre mordanting method followed by post mordanting; and optimization of dyeing parameters. Stage 3 – Testing of dyed fabricColour Measurement; K/S L*a*b*/L*c*h*; fastness properties; wash fastness done in the Laundrometer using ISO 2 standard test method; crock fastness done by Crockmeter using AATCC 116–1995 test method; perspiration fastness tested by perspirometer using AATCC 15– 2007 test method; and light fastness assessment in Mercury Bulb Tungsten Filament (MBTF) light fastness tester using AATCC Test Method 16–2004.

Findings

The findings of the study show that waste teak leaves can be used as an effective dye for natural as well as synthetic fabrics giving a wide range of colours on wool, silk and nylon. The maximum relative colour strength of the extracted dye on unmordanted dyed samples was found to be at pH 5 on wool and silk and at pH 7 on nylon. A range of shades was obtained with the use of different mordants. The extracted dye showed moderate to good fastness properties in terms of light, wash, rub and perspiration on wool and silk and excellent on nylon. Fastness properties were found to improve with the application of mordants both as pre and post method. Various combinations of mordants and dye result in obtaining pleasing and harmonious colours which were used aesthetically for printing.

Research limitations/implications

Due to time constrains, extraction in an organic medium could not be done, which could be a further scope for study.

Practical implications

Dyeing using teak leaves is a step towards sustainability and effective waste utilization with promising potential for application on natural as well as synthetic fabrics. Good colour with added properties will provide excellent solutions for eco-friendly methods of dyeing.

Social implications

This paper demonstrates the new possibilities offered by innovative uses of by-products of the timber industry and open good prospects for alternatives to synthetic colourants and new markets for the textile industry. It offers a new tool for the development of slow fashion.

Originality/value

It is a common practice to prune the tree branches to improve wood quality; thus, leaves are easily available as by product from pruning and also from wood harvesting. In the present study, waste teak leaves (Tectona grandis L.) were used for the extraction of dye.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2019

Amjed Javid, Awais Irshad, Munir Ashraf, Abdur Rehman, Shagufta Riaz and Kashif Iqbal

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of plasma treatment on the performance and color strength of pigment printed polypropylene nonwovens fabrics.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of plasma treatment on the performance and color strength of pigment printed polypropylene nonwovens fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

Melt spun nonwoven fabrics have been treated with plasma discharge using oxygen as a reactive gas to activate their surfaces for better interfacial interactions. The untreated and plasma treated fabrics are printed using pigment print pastes to investigate the print properties of nonwoven fabrics that are correlated to surface characteristics. The printed fabrics are characterized through FTIR, color fastness to washing and rubbing, flexural rigidity and moisture management observations.

Findings

The fabrics treated with oxygen plasma exhibited higher wettability, higher overall moisture management capability, enhanced color strength and superior color fastness to washing. However, bending length and flexural rigidity have been increased.

Originality/value

This study offers promising findings regarding the surface activation of polypropylene nonwovens for enhanced performance, comfort and color fastness characteristics.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Padma S. Vankar, Rakhi Shanker, Shalini Dixit, Debajit Mahanta and S.C. Tiwari

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasonication on new natural dye obtained from leaves and stem extracts of Daphne papyraceae using metal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasonication on new natural dye obtained from leaves and stem extracts of Daphne papyraceae using metal mordant for good cotton, silk and wool dyeing prospects. It also proposes to effect the characterisation of the colorant.

Design/methodology/approach

For effective natural dyeing with leaves and stem extracts of D. papyraceae, both conventional and sonication methods for cotton, silk and wool dyeing were carried out using metal mordants. The purpose of using sonication was for betterment of dye uptake, improved dye adherence and good wash and light fastnesses. Results show marked improvement by the chosen dyeing method. Simultaneously, chemical characterisation of the colorant was carried out by first column chromatographic separation of the crude extract, followed by spectral analysis of the isolated products.

Findings

The superiority of sonicator dyeing over conventional dyeing in terms of enhanced resource productivity and, as a result, reduced wastes makes it the established best available technique in the natural dyeing industry. This fact has been examined for several natural dyes. Use of sonicator shows marked enhancement for cotton‐, silk‐ and wool‐dyed fabrics. Typical bath liquor to fabric ratio for conventional dyeing varies from 20:1 to 15:1 and for sonicator dyeing from only 12:1 to 10:1, thereby reducing specific water and energy consumption by 30 and 50 per cent, respectively. The cycle time for dyeing was also reduced by 50 per cent and this would benefit the dyeing process with more tonnage of fabric per unit time and with lower waste generation. This would also result in improved capacity utilization leading to enhanced productivity levels in the dyeing houses.

Research limitations/implications

Although metal mordanting with copper sulphate and potassium dichromate is not ecofriendly, only 2 per cent of these metal salts has been used to prepare different shades with leaves and stem extracts of D. papyraceae for cotton, silk and wool fabrics.

Practical implications

The method developed for natural dyeing of cotton, silk and wool fabrics using sonication in conjunction with metal mordanting has shown marked improvement. The chemical composition of the crude extract shows the presence of flavonoids and other specific natural pigments.

Originality/value

The method developed for natural dyeing of cotton, silk and wool fabrics using stem and leaves extracts of D. papyraceae under sonication in conjunction with metal mordanting has shown marked improvement in terms of dye adherence and fastness properties and can thus be recommended for industrial application. This is a new source of natural dye.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

1 – 10 of 132