Computer corpus linguistics (CCL) is a scientific innovation that has facilitated the creation and analysis of large corpora in a systematic way by means of computer…
Computer corpus linguistics (CCL) is a scientific innovation that has facilitated the creation and analysis of large corpora in a systematic way by means of computer technology since the 1950s. This article provides an account of the CCL pioneers in general but particularly of those in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. It is found that Germany and Sweden, due to more advantageous financing and weaker communities of generativists, had a faster adoption of CCL than the other two countries. A particular late adopter among the four was Switzerland, which did not take up CCL until foreign professors had been recruited.
This article presents a conceptual framework for reviewing the integrity of police organizations, provides a general basis for developing specific activities and gives an overview of possible strategies and activities. Integrity management has to safeguard the conditions in the organization that enable police officers to find a responsible balance between three fundamental types of conflicting interests: the entangled hands dilemma; the many hands dilemma; and the dirty hands dilemma. We develop seven organizational qualities that encourage a prudent balance. An integrity audit can help in measuring these qualities. By examining the organization from this perspective, it is possible to work on improving the organization’s integrity.