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The concept of ba was introduced in 1996 by Ikujiro Nonaka and Noboru Konno. Since then, it has played a major role in the Japanese way of knowledge creation. It now…
The concept of ba was introduced in 1996 by Ikujiro Nonaka and Noboru Konno. Since then, it has played a major role in the Japanese way of knowledge creation. It now belongs to the specialized jargon of KM out of the archipelago whose approach of KM is different from the IT oriented one in the USA. The print of Japanese culture in this concept makes it not so easy to understand through Western languages using a unique word, clear, distinct and without any shadow. Therefore this paper proposes an equivalent through the formulation of strategic knowledge community. This contribution is organized in three parts. First, it strives to define the ba concept from a Japanese cultural point of view. Then, it considers some philosophical implications of the concept, and last, it presents some case studies from the Human Health Care’s program from the Eisai Company. This paper was made possible because of an investigation program about the Japanese way of knowledge creation that is supported by the French Embassy in Japan. The global results of this investigation will be available in a book this year.
The purpose of this research is to aim to understand how the dynamic of knowledge creation takes place within a small‐firm network (SFN).
The research, qualitative in nature, was developed through the case study of the Clothing Industries Association, called AGIVEST, formed by 35 small clothing industries located in southern Brazil. This article attempts to offer a more comprehensive approach towards the creation of organizational knowledge, by shifting from an endogenous process of the individual firm to a multidirectional exogenous process within networks.
The research presents evidence that the context of a cooperation network may provide an environment of collective learning, represented above all by the interaction dynamic that occurs between the firms through the creation of several types of ba (specific context in terms of time, space and relationship), which support the process of knowledge creation.
This approach should consider the tacit, complex, interdependent and contextual nature of knowledge, overcoming the eminently IT‐oriented view defended by the Western perspective of knowledge management. It is intended that the evidence presented encourages debate and a critical attitude concerning the concepts of knowledge creation, cooperation and SFN in the academic community.
This contribution focuses on analyzing the challenges of diversity in Africa, with a focus on the case of Cameroon. This country, generally presented as “Africa in…
This contribution focuses on analyzing the challenges of diversity in Africa, with a focus on the case of Cameroon. This country, generally presented as “Africa in miniature,” reflects Africa's diversity in different fields: economic, ethnic, religious, linguistic, climatic, ecological. The introductory chapter is the analysis of the diversity in the context of economic growth in Africa. It takes an illustrative testimony of a Cameroonian company executive on its vision and diversity management practices. Thereafter, the chapter highlights the different challenges of diversity management in Cameroon in connection with different analysis settings. The international and African context of diversity is presented to better identify the specifics of Cameroon in the management of diversity. The historical context helps to better understand the challenge of legitimizing heuristic research on diversity. The legal context sheds light on the challenges of institutional regulation of diversity. The cultural context highlights the centrality of the issue of ethnicity. The conclusion explores new fields of research on diversity management and identifies some emerging dimensions of Cameroon's diversity.
This chapter examines the relationship between finance capital and the transformation of the state in Rudolf Hilferding’s thought. Hilferding defines finance capital as…
This chapter examines the relationship between finance capital and the transformation of the state in Rudolf Hilferding’s thought. Hilferding defines finance capital as the fusion of banking and industry, a situation that presupposes a high degree of development of capitalist relations. Finance capital prompts a transformation of the state economic functions. This chapter considers the transformation of the state and its consequent ability to deal with crises of finance capital era. It also highlights Hilferding’s pioneering contribution in sketching the bases for the great contemporary theories of State intervention in crises regulation.
This chapter focuses on diversity issues in France. It shows how these issues came historically in the French context and how the main tensions generated, notably the…
This chapter focuses on diversity issues in France. It shows how these issues came historically in the French context and how the main tensions generated, notably the equality-diversity and universality-diversity tensions, are not understandable without a knowledge of the French Republicanism which gives to the foundations of the French social fabric its peculiarities.
Past theorizing and empirical work suggest that long-standing strategic leaders generate harmful attention and information-processing effects in their organizations, which…
Past theorizing and empirical work suggest that long-standing strategic leaders generate harmful attention and information-processing effects in their organizations, which in turn impair organizational learning and performance. In contrast, our argument is that longevity and its attendant inertia foster useful transformational and strategic persistence for organizations pursuing stretch goals. Through attentional vigilance and restricted focus, inertia may create the cognitive profile necessary for effective learning when organizations pursue the seemingly impossible. We empirically examine our ideas in the context of the French royal navy and the naval battles it had with the British in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. More specifically, we focus on two distinct but related stretch periods during which the French royal navy was tasked with building a powerful naval force and using it to gain naval supremacy over Great Britain. Given its exceptionally weak starting position at the beginning of the two studied periods and its desire to displace the established and advantaged navy of the era, the French had a lofty task. Our results are supportive of the stability argument, with leader longevity and inertia being positive for outcomes.
I. The Gendarmerie: Historical Background The Gendarmerie is the senior unit of the French Armed Forces. It is, however, difficult to give a precise date to its creation. What can be asserted is that as early as the Eleventh Century special units existed under the sénéchal (seneschal), an official of the King's household who was entrusted with the administration of military justice and the command of the army. The seneschal's assistants were armed men known as sergents d'armes (sergeants at arms). In time, the office of the seneschal was replaced by that of the connétable (constable) who was originally the head groom of the King's stables, but who became the principal officer of the early French kings before rising to become commander‐in‐chief of the army in 1218. The connétable's second in command was the maréchal (marshal). Eventually, the number of marshals grew and they were empowered to administer justice among the soldiery and the camp followers in wartime, a task which fully absorbed them throughout the Hundred Years War (1337–1453). The corps of marshals was then known as the maréchaussée (marshalcy) and its members as sergeants and provosts. One of the provosts, Le Gallois de Fougières, was killed at Agincourt in 1415; his ashes were transferred to the national memorial to the Gendarmerie, which was erected at Versailles in 1946.
Faisant, en mars 1984, un séjour à Agadir au Maroc et conversant avec de nombreux Marocains, j'ai été surpris d'une chose: la plupart étaient déjà venus en France pour des…
Faisant, en mars 1984, un séjour à Agadir au Maroc et conversant avec de nombreux Marocains, j'ai été surpris d'une chose: la plupart étaient déjà venus en France pour des durées variables, en visiteurs ou pour chercher du travail, logeant chez des amis ou des cousins, travailleur émigrés. Ces personnes parlaient et écrivaient le français, connais‐saient nos journaux, nos auteurs, nos hommes politiques et écoutaient sur une chaine de la radio Royale marocaine des programmes de musique classique ou de chanteurs français.