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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1975

A.K.J. SINGLETON

The Institute of Physics is carrying out a project, funded by the British Library, to review information in physics. The approach concentrates on the gathering of…

Abstract

The Institute of Physics is carrying out a project, funded by the British Library, to review information in physics. The approach concentrates on the gathering of quantitative data, and the article presents a first overview of some aspects of the communication system of physics of relevance to documentation. From an overall annual UK R&D budget of £1,000 million, we estimate that about £150 million is allocable to physics, including some three‐quarters of the SRC's budget. Although definition is difficult, we estimate the manpower in physics to be something over 10,000. We briefly consider the involvement of physicists in the documentary part of information flow. Firstly, as producers, or authors, a small study suggests that most members of the Institute do not write papers. Conferences are a major communication channel, but it is likely that out of more than 300 conferences of relevance to physicists held in 1973 in the UK, only fifty will produce specific proceedings. Lastly, past user studies indicate that many physicists carry out their work with little direct, daily use of libraries and information services, although these are obviously an important factor in such research. More ‘non‐user’, ‘non‐author’ etc studies are desirable. The money spent on these services we estimate at around £3 million annually, or 2% of the research budget. These first findings lead to two main conclusions: (i) the cost of library and information services is a negligible proportion of the overall physics budget, and no substantial economies can be made by cuts in them and (ii) documentation may well not play the major role in the communication system. It is only by examining the system as a whole that we can determine the relative importance of each mode of communication and the present and likely future place of documentation.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Zehra Canan Araci, Ahmed Al-Ashaab and Cesar Garcia Almeida

This paper aims to present a process to generate physics-based trade-off curves (ToCs) to facilitate lean product development processes by enabling two key activities of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a process to generate physics-based trade-off curves (ToCs) to facilitate lean product development processes by enabling two key activities of set-based concurrent engineering (SBCE) process model that are comparing alternative design solutions and narrowing down the design set. The developed process of generating physics-based ToCs has been demonstrated via an industrial case study which is a research project.

Design/methodology/approach

The adapted research approach for this paper consists of three phases: a review of the related literature, developing the process of generating physics-based ToCs in the concept of lean product development, implementing the developed process in an industrial case study for validation through the SBCE process model.

Findings

Findings of this application showed that physics-based ToC is an effective tool to enable SBCE activities, as well as to save time and provide the required knowledge environment for the designers to support their decision-making.

Practical implications

Authors expect that this paper will guide companies, which are implementing SBCE processes throughout their lean product development journey. Physics-based ToCs will facilitate accurate decision-making in comparing and narrowing down the design-set through the provision of the right knowledge environment.

Originality/value

SBCE is a useful approach to develop a new product. It is essential to provide the right knowledge environment in a quick and visual manner which has been addressed by demonstrating physics knowledge in ToCs. Therefore, a systematic process has been developed and presented in this paper. The research found that physics-based ToCs could help to identify different physics characteristics of the product in the form of design parameters and visualise in a single graph for all stakeholders to understand without a need for an extensive engineering background and for designers to make a decision faster.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

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Book part
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Les Kirkup

A review of the first year physics laboratory program in 1991 at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) revealed that student laboratory experiences did not: resemble…

Abstract

A review of the first year physics laboratory program in 1991 at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) revealed that student laboratory experiences did not: resemble the practice of physicists; give a realistic picture of the contribution of physics to everyday life, or; enhance students’ capabilities of broad value, such as their communication skills. Physics academics at UTS committed themselves to reforming students’ laboratory experiences with inquiry-oriented learning as a center-piece of the reform. This chapter explores the drivers that led to the reconceptualization of the role of the laboratory in the undergraduate curriculum and the strategies and processes we adopted over more than 20 years to embed inquiry-oriented activities into first year physics laboratory programs.

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Inquiry-Based Learning for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (Stem) Programs: A Conceptual and Practical Resource for Educators
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-850-2

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Book part
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Richard R. Hake

Arnold Arons, along with Robert Karplus, can fairly be called one of the founding fathers of U.S. Physics Education Research and a pioneer of inquiry methods of education…

Abstract

Arnold Arons, along with Robert Karplus, can fairly be called one of the founding fathers of U.S. Physics Education Research and a pioneer of inquiry methods of education. The instructional methods advocated by Arons were influenced by the work of Socrates, Plato, Montaigne, Rousseau, Dewey, Whitehead, and Piaget, but are primarily derived from Arons’ epic half century effort to improve introductory science teaching by shutting up and listening carefully to students’ responses to probing Socratic questions on physics, science, and ways of thinking. Arons emphasized: (1) conceptual understanding, (2) operative knowledge, (3) interactive engagement, (4) Socratic dialogue, (5) attention to cognitive development, (6) attention to preconceptions of beginning students, (7) operational definitions, (8) reduction of volume and pace of standard introductory courses, (9) idea first, name afterward, (10) importance of a course “story line,” and (11) science as a liberal art. Most of these are attributes of enlightened inquiry-based learning as described in Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning (NRC, 2000).

Details

Inquiry-Based Learning for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (Stem) Programs: A Conceptual and Practical Resource for Educators
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-850-2

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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2021

Paige K. Evans, Donna W. Stokes and Cheryl J. Craig

In order to teach science effectively, teachers need a strong background in science content as well as an understanding of productive methods of teaching. This includes…

Abstract

In order to teach science effectively, teachers need a strong background in science content as well as an understanding of productive methods of teaching. This includes inquiry-based learning that will cultivate conceptual development of science concepts with their students. Furthermore, it is imperative to use student-focused activities in high-needs schools to engage all students, particularly students of color, in the learning process. As a result, faculty from the teachHOUSTON Program and the Department of Physics at the University of Houston produced a Physics by Inquiry course to engage middle school and high school preservice teachers in interactive, inquiry-based teaching pedagogies for physics. This chapter provides an overview of the course. It also highlights the benefits of including such a course in a STEM teacher education program.

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Preparing Teachers to Teach the STEM Disciplines in America’s Urban Schools
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-457-6

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2021

Donna W. Stokes, Paige K. Evans and Cheryl J. Craig

Collaborations between faculty from the teachHOUSTON program and physics department have led to an increase in the number of highly qualified physics teachers produced by…

Abstract

Collaborations between faculty from the teachHOUSTON program and physics department have led to an increase in the number of highly qualified physics teachers produced by the University of Houston. Faculty were able to systematically build the physics teacher preparation program through the following endeavors: streamlined degree plans, a physics inquiry course, an internship program, a scholarship program, and induction activities for the first three years of their teaching degrees. This has resulted in preparing approximately three physics teachers annually. Prior to this collaboration, the University had not produced any physics teacher graduates in the previous decade.

Details

Preparing Teachers to Teach the STEM Disciplines in America’s Urban Schools
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-457-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

Thomas A. Lucas

The physics librarian today faces a complex and fast‐moving discipline and an almost overwhelming array of resources. Beginning selectors in physics are often perplexed…

Abstract

The physics librarian today faces a complex and fast‐moving discipline and an almost overwhelming array of resources. Beginning selectors in physics are often perplexed. How does research in physics proceed? What kinds of information do physicists seek? Where can this information be found and what is the most effective way of providing it? How are increases in costs and volume of publication affecting collecting in physics? What do new technologies and cooperative arrangements have to offer the physics librarian? This essay, directed especially to the novice selector, seeks first to define physics research and the information needs of physics researchers. It then surveys the trends in technology and in the market‐place that are profoundly altering the way we build research collections in physics.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 10 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1981

C. BOGDANSKI

An attempt at unification of different groups of physical phenomena by use of cybernetic methodology in order to avoid a dualism in the formalism of Natural…

Abstract

An attempt at unification of different groups of physical phenomena by use of cybernetic methodology in order to avoid a dualism in the formalism of Natural Self‐Regulating Systems (NRS) in now being carried out simultaneously by physics and cybernetics. A proposal is made of a unitary elaboration within a framework of cybernetic physics, which should concern not only events belonging to micro‐ and macro‐physics, but also those which are placed intermediately on the size scale, especially systems organized by the biogenesis phenomena and subjected to the laws of a “Meso‐physics”. The systems that result from this evolutively lend themselves to treatment within the framework of an organic branch, which would be a physics of systems endowed with a multihierarchized architecture and ultra‐complex structure.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Elena Makarova and Walter Herzog

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender stereotype of science by analysing the semantic attributes of gender in relation to three science subjects …

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender stereotype of science by analysing the semantic attributes of gender in relation to three science subjects – chemistry, mathematics, and physics – among students and their science teachers.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study applied a survey of 3,045 students and 123 teachers in secondary schools. The gendered image of science was assessed using a semantic differential consisting of 25 pairs of adjectives with semantically opposite meanings.

Findings

In summary, the results of the study demonstrate that from the female students’ perspective mathematics and physics are negatively related to female gender, whereas chemistry is neither significantly related to the male nor to the female profile. From the male students’ point of view mathematics is negatively related to the female gender, whereas chemistry and physics are positively related to the male gender. In the science teachers’ perception chemistry and physics combine feminine and masculine attributes, whereas the teachers’ perception of mathematics matches only with the male, but not with the female gender.

Originality/value

In contrast to previous research, the study is the first to analyse the gender stereotype of chemistry as well as to assess the gender image of three science subjects from students’ and teachers’ perspectives.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1976

ALAN SINGLETON

Over several decades many ranking techniques have been proposed as aids to journal selection by libraries. We review those closely related to physics and others with novel…

Abstract

Over several decades many ranking techniques have been proposed as aids to journal selection by libraries. We review those closely related to physics and others with novel features. There are three main methods of ranking: citation analysis, use or user judgement, and size or ‘productivity’. Citations offer an ‘unobtrusive’ quantitative measure, but not only is the absolute value of a citation in question, but also there is no consensus on a ‘correct’ way to choose the citing journals, nor of the ranking parameter. Citations can, however, point out anomalies and show the changing status of journals over the years. Use and user judgement also employ several alternative methods. These are in the main of limited applicability outside the specific user group in question. There is greater ‘parochialism’ in ‘use’ ranking than in ‘judged value’ lists, with citation lists the most international. In some cases, the attempted ‘quantification’ of subjective judgement will be misleading. Size and productivity rankings are normally concerned with one or other formulation of the Bradford distribution. Since the distribution is not universally valid, for library use the librarian must satisfy him/herself that the collection conforms to the distribution, or that his users would be well served by one that did. This may require considerable effort, and statistics gained will then render the Bradford distribution redundant.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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