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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

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The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Carsten Christoph Schermuly, Victoria Büsch and Carolin Graßmann

The desired retirement age (DRA) becomes more important because some countries adapt their strict retirement regulations to it. A process is tested for how psychological…

Abstract

Purpose

The desired retirement age (DRA) becomes more important because some countries adapt their strict retirement regulations to it. A process is tested for how psychological empowerment influences the DRA mediated by psychological and physical strain and how the DRA is connected to the expected retirement age (ERA). The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured interviews with 1,485 German employees (55 years and older) were conducted via telephone.

Findings

Psychological and physical strain mediated both the relationship between psychological empowerment and the DRA. DRA and ERA were positively associated. The control variables – age, net income, and organizational size – also significantly affected the DRA.

Research limitations/implications

The results are only valid for the German job market. All variables were collected at one measurement point.

Practical implications

The strengthening of psychological empowerment can be one measure to motivate older employees to delay their retirement and finally keep them longer in the labor force.

Originality/value

A large sample was collected and interviewed via telephone, which helps to overcome some limitations of questionnaire research. The process model helps to understand how job characteristics are connected with the DRA and the ERA.

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

Hettie A. Richardson, Jixia Yang, Robert J. Vandenberg, David M. DeJoy and Mark G. Wilson

The purpose of this study is to examine when perceived organizational support (POS) may be more likely to play a mediator versus moderator role in stressor and strain

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine when perceived organizational support (POS) may be more likely to play a mediator versus moderator role in stressor and strain relationships by considering POS relative to challenge and hindrance stressors, cognitive/emotional and physical strains.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross‐sectional survey research was conducted in two samples (n=720, 829) of employees working for a large retail organization in the USA. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

As hypothesized, results indicate POS mediates relationships between hindrance stressors and cognitive/emotional strains, but does not mediate relationships between challenge stressors and physical strains. POS does not moderate any of the relationships examined.

Originality/value

This paper is one of few studies to examine challenge and hindrance stressors and to examine POS relative to physical strains.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

Christopher Orpen

Managerial stress exists and has to be coped with. The author describes a study that demonstrates that cue‐controlled relaxation can be applied to groups of managers to…

Abstract

Managerial stress exists and has to be coped with. The author describes a study that demonstrates that cue‐controlled relaxation can be applied to groups of managers to reduce psychological and physical stress. The study involved 36 middle managers with stress problems who were randomly exposed to treatment and non‐treatment, which consisted of a three‐week programme to teach conditioned relaxation responses to self‐administered cues. Three months after both groups completed measures of psychological strain, physical strain and job satisfaction. Results indicated that the treatment reduced psychological and physical strain and improved job satisfaction, but had a negligible impact on performance and physiological strain.

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Journal of Management Development, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Martin Gächter, Davd A. Savage and Benno Torgler

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of social capital with the negative externalities associated with stress, or the psychological and physiological…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of social capital with the negative externalities associated with stress, or the psychological and physiological strains experienced by police officers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data collected in 1999 from a survey of Baltimore Police officers designed to examine questions about the relationship between police stress and domestic violence in police families and using multivariate regression analysis, the paper focuses on five different proxies for stress and strain, and two proxies for social capital and conducting several robustness checks.

Findings

Results show that an increase in social capital is significantly correlated to a decrease in the level of strain, in the psychological, physical, burnout and health areas.

Research limitations/implications

While this study examines the social capital/strain relationship with US officers, more research is needed, as these findings may not extrapolate well into other national settings. It may also be interesting to further explore sub‐cultures within departments. Additionally, the data may be dated and, as major changes and events have occurred since the survey, a newer study of officers would be needed to observe whether these changes have had significant impact.

Practical implications

From a policy perspective, the findings suggest that stress reduction programs should actively engage employees to build stronger social networks.

Originality/value

This study comprehensively examines the ability of social capital at negating the impacts of strains, and significantly reduces the impact of major trauma events. This paper adds to the literature as there are few multivariate analyses of the social capital/strain relationship.

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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Dwayne Devonish

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether person-related bullying, work-related bullying, and physically intimidating bullying predict three forms of job strain

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether person-related bullying, work-related bullying, and physically intimidating bullying predict three forms of job strain: physical exhaustion, work-related depression, and interpersonal counterproductive work behaviour (CWB-P).

Design/methodology/approach

The study surveyed a wide cross-section of employees across a number of private sector organisations in a small developing country in the Caribbean region.

Findings

The prevalence rate of workplace bullying in the current Caribbean sample was 54 per cent. The regression results revealed that person-related bullying and work-related were positively related to work-related depression, whereas physically intimidating bullying and work-related bullying were positively related to CWB-P. None of the three forms of bullying predicted physical exhaustion. When the overall workplace bullying composite was used, all three job strains were significantly predicted.

Research limitations/implications

The study utilised a cross-sectional self-report survey research design which does not permit causal inferences to be made. Common method variance is a possible limitation due to the use of self-report measure but this was ruled out by a Harman’s single factor test. Longitudinal research using a mixture of subjective and objective measures is needed to further investigate these relationships reported here.

Practical implications

First, social and interpersonal skills and emotional intelligence training and development opportunities should be provided to both managers and employees as a means of developing individuals who are socially aware, interpersonally competent, and emotionally intelligent in their interactions with each other at work. Second, a zero-tolerance approach should be communicated throughout the organisation evidenced by clear and explicit organisational policies against these acts. Third, it would be of good practical value to establish health and safety committees to identify, assess and tackle various psychosocial and other hazards at work (e.g. workplace bullying).

Originality/value

The study utilised a three-dimensional model of bullying at work (as well as a composite form of bullying) for predicting three forms of job strains among employees in various Caribbean workplaces.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Aleksandra Luksyte, Christiane Spitzmueller and Carolina Y. Rivera-Minaya

The purpose of this paper is to examine stressor-strain relationships that play a role in foreign-born Hispanic workers’ well-being and family-to-work facilitation (FWF…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine stressor-strain relationships that play a role in foreign-born Hispanic workers’ well-being and family-to-work facilitation (FWF) as a moderator in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a unique sample of foreign-born Hispanic workers employed in blue-labor jobs in Texas (n=163).

Findings

Consistent with the theoretical assertions, the authors found support for the negative relationship between legal status concern and Hispanic workers’ psychological and perceived physical health. Further, FWF attenuated the negative consequences of lack of English language proficiency on psychological well-being.

Research limitations/implications

Both organizations and Hispanic workers can benefit from the results of the study. Hispanic immigrants can enhance their well-being by relying more on their families and seeking more support from their friends and families when dealing with immigration-related stressors. Organizations and policymakers can improve Hispanic workers’ well-being by educating them about immigration-related issues and by offering help with mastering English language.

Originality/value

The authors studied psychological and physical well-being of a population that is generally underrepresented in the literature – foreign-born Hispanic immigrant employees. The paper also examined what employers can do to improve the work experience of these workers.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Michael P. O’Driscoll, Paula Brough and Thomas J. Kalliath

A survey of employed workers was conducted at two time periods to assess relationships between work‐family conflict, well‐being, and job and family satisfaction, along…

Abstract

A survey of employed workers was conducted at two time periods to assess relationships between work‐family conflict, well‐being, and job and family satisfaction, along with the role of social support from work colleagues and family members. Levels of work‐to‐family interference (WFI) were found to be uniformly higher than family‐to‐work interference (FWI). However, at each time period FWI showed more consistent negative relationships with well‐being and satisfaction, indicating that family‐to‐work interference may have a greater bearing on employees’ affective reactions. There were few cross‐time relationships between work‐family conflict and these reactions, which suggests that the association of work‐family conflict with well‐being and satisfaction may be time‐dependent. Although there was some evidence that social support from work colleagues moderated the relationship of WFI with psychological strain and family satisfaction, family support did not display a consistent moderator influence. Instead, both forms of support tended to exhibit direct (rather than moderator) relationships with the outcome variables. Implications of the findings for research and interventions are discussed.

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Equal Opportunities International, vol. 23 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1980

Ben (C.) Fletcher and Roy L. Payne

There is a large literature devoted to the stresses and strains of work and work‐related activities. This research effort shows no sign of abating. The aim of this paper…

Abstract

There is a large literature devoted to the stresses and strains of work and work‐related activities. This research effort shows no sign of abating. The aim of this paper is to highlight and discuss several centrally important questions and assumptions in the nature of this research which, in our view, require more careful consideration in future work.

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Personnel Review, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Jason Kain and Steve Jex

Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model is one of the most widely studied models of occupational stress (de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). The key…

Abstract

Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model is one of the most widely studied models of occupational stress (de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). The key idea behind the job demands-control model is that control buffers the impact of job demands on strain and can help enhance employees’ job satisfaction with the opportunity to engage in challenging tasks and learn new skills (Karasek, 1979). Most research on the job demands-control has been inconsistent (de Lange et al., 2003; Van Der Deof & Maes, 1999), and the main reasons cited for this inconsistency are that different variables have been used to measure demands, control, and strain, not enough longitudinal research has been done, and the model does not take workers’ individual characteristics into account (Van Der Deof & Maes, 1999). To address these concerns, expansions have been made on the model such as integrating resources, self-efficacy, active coping, and social support into the model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001b; Johnson & Hall, 1988; Demerouti, Bakker, de Jonge, Janssen, & Schaufeli, 2001a; Landsbergis, Schnall, Deitz, Friedman, & Pickering, 1992). However, researchers have only been partially successful, and therefore, to continue reducing inconstencies, we recommend using longitudinal designs, both objective and subjective measures, a higher sample size, and a careful consideration of the types of demands and control that best match each other theoretically.

Details

New Developments in Theoretical and Conceptual Approaches to Job Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-713-4

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