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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2022

Deborah Silvis, Victor R. Lee, Jody Clarke-Midura and Jessica F. Shumway

Much remains unknown about how young children orient to computational objects and how we as learning scientists can orient to young children as computational thinkers…

Abstract

Purpose

Much remains unknown about how young children orient to computational objects and how we as learning scientists can orient to young children as computational thinkers. While some research exists on how children learn programming, very little has been written about how they learn the technical skills needed to operate technologies or to fix breakdowns that occur in the code or the machine. The purpose of this study is to explore how children perform technical knowledge in tangible programming environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study examines the organization of young children’s technical knowledge in the context of a design-based study of Kindergarteners learning to code using robot coding toys, where groups of children collaboratively debugged programs. The authors conducted iterative rounds of qualitative coding of video recordings in kindergarten classrooms and interaction analysis of children using coding robots.

Findings

The authors found that as children repaired bugs at the level of the program and at the level of the physical apparatus, they were performing essential technical knowledge; the authors focus on how demonstrating technical knowledge was organized pedagogically and collectively achieved.

Originality/value

Drawing broadly from studies of the social organization of technical work in professional settings, we argue that technical knowledge is easy to overlook but essential for learning to repair programs. The authors suggest how tangible programming environments represent pedagogically important contexts for dis-embedding young children’s essential technical knowledge from the more abstract knowledge of programming.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2015

Ammar Y. Alqahtani and Surendra M. Gupta

Economic incentives, government regulations, and customer perspective on environmental consciousness (EC) are driving more and more companies into product recovery…

Abstract

Economic incentives, government regulations, and customer perspective on environmental consciousness (EC) are driving more and more companies into product recovery business, which forms the basis for a reverse supply chain. A reverse supply chain consists a series of activities that involves retrieving used products from consumers and remanufacturing (closed-loop) or recycling (open-loop) them to recover their leftover market value. Much work has been done in the areas of designing forward and reverse supply chains; however, not many models deal with the transshipment of products in multiperiods. Linear physical programming (LPP) is a newly developed method whose most significant advantage is that it allows a decision-maker to express his/her preferences for values of criteria for decision-making in terms of ranges of different degrees of desirability but not in traditional form of weights as in techniques such as analytic hierarchy process, which is criticized for its unbalanced scale of judgment and failure to precisely handle the inherent uncertainty and vagueness in carrying out pair-wise comparisons. In this chapter, two multiperiod models are proposed for a remanufacturing system, which is an element of a Reverse Supply Chain (RSC), and illustrated with numerical examples. The first model is solved using mixed integer linear programming (MILP), while the second model is solved using linear physical programming. The proposed models deliver the optimal transportation quantities of remanufactured products for N-periods within the reverse supply chain.

Details

Applications of Management Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-211-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Eben B. Witherspoon and Christian D. Schunn

Computational thinking (CT) is widely considered to be an important component of teaching generalizable computer science skills to all students in a range of learning…

Abstract

Purpose

Computational thinking (CT) is widely considered to be an important component of teaching generalizable computer science skills to all students in a range of learning environments, including robotics. However, despite advances in the design of robotics curricula that can teach CT, actual enactment in classrooms may often fail to reach this target. This study aims to understand whether the various instructional goals teachers’ hold when using these curricula may offer one potential explanation for disparities in outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors examine results from N = 206 middle-school students’ pre- and post-tests of CT, attitudinal surveys and surveys of their teacher’s instructional goals to determine if student attitudes and learning gains in CT are related to the instructional goals their teachers endorsed while implementing a shared robotics programming curriculum.

Findings

The findings provide evidence that despite using the same curriculum, students showed differential learning gains on the CT assessment when in classrooms with teachers who rated CT as a more important instructional goal; these effects were particularly strong for women. Students in classroom with teachers who rated CT more highly also showed greater maintenance of positive attitudes toward programming.

Originality/value

While there is a growing body of literature regarding curricular interventions that provide CT learning opportunities, this study provides a critical insight into the role that teachers may play as a potential support or barrier to the success of these curricula. Implications for the design of professional development and teacher educative materials that attend to teachers’ instructional goals are discussed.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 120 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Cristian Roberto Santos, Ana María Contreras, Cesar Faúndez and Gonzalo Francisco Palomo-Vélez

– The purpose of this paper is to create a “physical activity break” (PAB) satisfaction scale, for this, the RATER dimensions of the service quality model SERVQUAL were used.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to create a “physical activity break” (PAB) satisfaction scale, for this, the RATER dimensions of the service quality model SERVQUAL were used.

Design/methodology/approach

The study opted for a correlational study and used a psychometric approach. Totally, 69 administrative workers at a public university of Chile participated in a physical activity programme and completed a satisfaction questionnaire including sections adapted from the SERVQUAL model.

Findings

The study created a PAB satisfaction scale, which shows appropriate psychometric indicators. Furthermore, satisfaction scores were positively correlated with perceived psychological and physical benefits, attendance motivation and intention to participate again in future programmes.

Research limitations/implications

Because measures perceived psychological and physical benefits, attendance motivation and intention to participate again in future programmes are measured by single items, futures studies should evaluate association of the satisfaction scale with more consistent measures, as well as include anthropometric measures (e.g. body mass index and weight).

Practical implications

This study created a PAB satisfaction scale, using appropriate psychometric indicators which enable the evaluation of the quality of these programmes from the participant’s perspective.

Originality/value

Despite the popularity of PAB programmes, to the authors knowledge, up to day there is no way of evaluating these programmes from the participant’s perspective.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Noah Lenstra

Public librarians throughout North America now support physical activity. One sees this function in the emergence and diffusion of new programs and services, such as…

Abstract

Public librarians throughout North America now support physical activity. One sees this function in the emergence and diffusion of new programs and services, such as librarians checking out exercise equipment, as well as in librarians actually sponsoring exercise classes. This chapter focuses on understanding this type of work. The first part looks at five different frameworks – the library as place, community-led librarianship, whole person librarianship, community health, and recreation and leisure – that each in different ways enable one to understand how supporting physical activity could become part of the work of public librarians. Focus then shifts to understanding empirically how public librarians in the US and Canada enact and understand this work. Research shows that this role has become more integral and expected in youth services than in adult services. Library staff themselves are more likely to lead movement-based programs for youth than for adults. The discussion then shifts to the implications of this trend in terms of evidence-based practice and multidisciplinary discussions on how and why to increase physical activity throughout society. The conclusion suggests additional work needed to understand this and other poorly understood functions of public librarians.

Details

Challenging the “Jacks of All Trades but Masters of None” Librarian Syndrome
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-903-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 February 2007

Martine Stead, Ross Gordon, Kathryn Angus and Laura McDermott

The purpose of this paper is to review the effectiveness of social marketing interventions in influencing individual behaviour and bringing about environmental and…

21922

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the effectiveness of social marketing interventions in influencing individual behaviour and bringing about environmental and policy‐level changes in relation to alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs and physical activity. Social marketing is the use of marketing concepts in programmes designed to influence the voluntary behaviour of target audiences in order to improve health and society.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a review of systematic reviews and primary studies using pre‐specified search and inclusion criteria. Social marketing interventions were defined as those which adopted specified social marketing principles in their development and implementation.

Findings

The paper finds that a total of 54 interventions met the inclusion criteria. There was evidence that interventions adopting social marketing principles could be effective across a range of behaviours, with a range of target groups, in different settings, and can influence policy and professional practice as well as individuals.

Research limitations/implications

As this was a systematic paper, the quality of included studies was reasonable and many were RCTs. However, many of the multi‐component studies reported overall results only and research designs did not allow for the efficacy of different components to be compared. When reviewing social marketing effectiveness it is important not to rely solely on the “label” as social marketing is often misrepresented; there is a need for social marketers to clearly define their approach.

Practical implications

The paper shows that social marketing can form an effective framework for behaviour change interventions and can provide a useful “toolkit” for organisations that are trying to change health behaviours.

Originality/value

The research described in this paper represents one of the few systematic examinations of social marketing effectiveness and is based on a clear definition of “social marketing”. It highlights both social marketing's potential to achieve change in different behavioural contexts and its ability to work at individual, environmental and wider policy levels.

Details

Health Education, vol. 107 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Amanda Emerson, Ashlyn Lipnicky, Bernard Schuster and Patricia J. Kelly

The USA outpaces most other countries in the world in the rates at which it incarcerates its citizens. The one million women held in US jails and prisons on any day in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The USA outpaces most other countries in the world in the rates at which it incarcerates its citizens. The one million women held in US jails and prisons on any day in the USA face many physical health challenges, yet interventional work to address physical health in carceral settings is rare. This study’s purpose was to summarize the literature on programs and interventions implemented with women in US carceral settings (jail or prison) that primarily addressed a physical health issue or need.

Design/methodology/approach

A scoping review was conducted. The authors searched databases, reference lists, individual journals and websites for physical health program descriptions/evaluations and research studies, 2000–2020, that included women and were set in the USA.

Findings

The authors identified 19 articles and a range of problem areas, designs, settings and samples, interventions/programs, outcomes and uses of theory. The authors identified two cross-cutting themes: the carceral setting as opportunity and challenges of ethics and logistics.

Research limitations/implications

Much potential remains for researchers to have an impact on health disparities by addressing physical health needs of women during incarceration.

Originality/value

Interventional and programmatic work to address physical health needs of women during incarceration is sparse and diversely focused. This review uniquely summarizes the existing work in a small and overlooked but important area of research and usefully highlights gaps in that literature.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Clive Long, Arleen Rowell, Samantha Rigg, Frank Livesey and Peter McAllister

– The purpose of this paper is to describe healthy lifestyle initiatives in a secure psychiatric facility and the evidence base for these interventions.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe healthy lifestyle initiatives in a secure psychiatric facility and the evidence base for these interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a detailed review of the literature on the physical health of psychiatric inpatients, a trans-diagnostic approach to behaviour change is advocated in selected areas.

Findings

Lifestyle strategy proposals were produced that incorporate the principle of “libertarian paternalism” in making changes to eating and exercise behaviour; a programme of motivational and reinforcement strategies; and facility-specific environmental restructuring to include maximising the therapeutic use of green space.

Practical implications

Instituting described changes needs to be accompanied by a programme of evaluation to assess intervention-specific physical health changes.

Originality/value

This paper provides a synthesis of findings in key areas of behaviour change relevant to improving the physical health of psychiatric patients in secure settings. It is a co-ordinated and interlinked lifestyle strategy that has applicability to similar services.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2014

Tina Maschi, Deborah Viola, Mary T. Harrison, William Harrison, Lindsay Koskinen and Stephanie Bellusa

Older adults in prison present a significant health and human rights challenge for the criminal justice system. To date, there is no known study that provides a…

Abstract

Purpose

Older adults in prison present a significant health and human rights challenge for the criminal justice system. To date, there is no known study that provides a comprehensive examination or portrait of older persons in prison. The purpose of this paper is to understand individual, family, system, and community vulnerabilities that can complicate successful community reintegration for these individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

This study provides a cross-sectional, descriptive analysis of biopsychosocial, spiritual, and prison use characteristics associated with a sample of 677 older prisoners, aged 50+, in a state-wide prison system.

Findings

Results indicate the extent of diversity within this population based on demographic, clinical, social, legal profiles, prison service use patterns, and professional and personal contacts.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the diversity within this population, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to address the complex social and health care needs of an aging prison population and to plan for their reentry.

Practical implications

These findings suggest the need for holistic prevention, assessment, and interventions to interrupt the social-structural disparities that foster and support pathways to incarceration and recidivism.

Originality/value

The human rights implications for the current treatment of older adults in prison include providing in-prison treatment that promotes safety, well-being, reconciliation, and seamless bridges between prison and community for older adults and their families. The True Grit Program is presented as an example of a humanistic and holistic approach of such an approach.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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