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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Hannah Kira Wilson and Alison Cotgrave

The purpose of this paper is to identify personality types between different university disciplines, and to establish whether there are differing requirements in the…

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2173

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify personality types between different university disciplines, and to establish whether there are differing requirements in the design of physical learning environment. Also to identify features of the learning environment that can support a sense of community. This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between student’s personality and preferences of features of the built environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative questionnaires were distributed in three university disciplines based on the variables personality, elements of the physical learning environment and features that could support a sense of community.

Findings

The analysis revealed that there are differences in preferred features within the physical learning environment for the three university disciplines within a large UK-based university. It can also be seen that there are differences in personality profiles between these three university disciplines. Features of the environment that could support a sense of community have been also identified.

Research limitations/implications

Those who are responsible for the design and refurbishment of higher education institutions may find this research useful to improve the facilities for students. To support the development of appropriate physical learning spaces through the understanding of students’ requirements.

Originality/value

This paper presents a new perspective on how the development of higher education facilities can be designed to increase student experience by identifying specific features of the physical learning environment students prefer.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

Ute Walter and Bo Edvardsson

The purpose of this study is to analyze and describe the drivers in the physical environment that help to form customers' service experiences at restaurants, as described…

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4686

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze and describe the drivers in the physical environment that help to form customers' service experiences at restaurants, as described by customers in their own words.

Design/methodology/approach

A critical incident study was conducted through 122 interviews resulting in a total of 195 favourable and unfavourable customer service experiences in restaurants. Data were analysed inductively in accordance with the principles of constant comparison and the results were interpreted by regarding customers as creators of their own meaning.

Findings

The physical environment has both a functional and a social dimension and it is an important driver of customer service experiences in restaurants. Customers interact with these drivers individually and create their own meanings and value expressed as feelings, thoughts, imagination and behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

The results develop the tenets of service‐dominant logic by offering some insight into customers' own logic in value creation and the design of the physical restaurant environment.

Practical implications

Customers actively construct their own individual meanings from the physical environment, throughout the whole service process, indicating that the customer service experience is not controlled solely by restaurant management. As some drivers are only experienced in their absence or when they are noticeably disturbing or pleasing, it is important for managers to understand these dimensions in order to treat them appropriately. Both favourable and unfavourable service experiences need to be considered.

Originality/value

The physical environment can be described as a dynamic driver which includes a social dimension and customers are regarded as active creators of their own experience.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Jiun‐Sheng Chris Lin and Haw‐Yi Liang

Previous research on the relationship between service environments and customer emotions and service outcomes has focused on the physical environment. Among studies…

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14244

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research on the relationship between service environments and customer emotions and service outcomes has focused on the physical environment. Among studies exploring the social environment, the emphasis has been on service employees, ignoring the impact of other customers. Recent research has further called for the need to include displayed emotion within the social environment. Therefore, this study aims to develop and test a more comprehensive model that focuses on the relationship between the social environment (employee displayed emotion and customer climate) and the physical environment (ambient and design factors) and resulting customer emotion and service outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on past research, a theoretical framework was developed to propose the links between social/physical environments and customer emotion/perceptions. Extant research from various academic fields, including environmental psychology, was reviewed, deriving 11 hypotheses. Data collected from fashion apparel retailers, using both observation and customer survey methods, was examined through structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

Results show that both social and physical environments have a positive influence on customer emotion and satisfaction, which in turn affect behavioral intentions. The physical environment exhibited more influence on customer emotion and satisfaction than social environment.

Research limitations/implications

This research explains how both social and physical environments affect customer emotion and perceptions. Future research directions are discussed, with an emphasis on incorporating customer characteristics, industry attributes, and cultural variables to better understand the influence of service environments in different service settings.

Practical implications

Social and physical environments influence customer emotional states within the service delivery context, which in turn affect customer service evaluations. Therefore, both social and physical service environments should be emphasized by service firms.

Originality/value

This research represents an early attempt to develop a more comprehensive model explaining how both social and physical environments affect customer emotion and perceptions. This study also represents the first empirical study of service environment research to include employee displayed emotion as part of the social environment.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Book part
Publication date: 2 November 2009

Sean T. Doherty

Health scientists and urban planners have long been interested in the influence that the built environment has on the physical activities in which we engage, the…

Abstract

Health scientists and urban planners have long been interested in the influence that the built environment has on the physical activities in which we engage, the environmental hazards we face, the kinds of amenities we enjoy, and the resulting impacts on our health. However, it is widely recognized that the extent of this influence, and the specific cause-and-effect relationships that exist, are still relatively unclear. Recent reviews highlight the need for more individual-level data on daily activities (especially physical activity) over long periods of time linked spatially to real-world characteristics of the built environment in diverse settings, along with a wide range of personal mediating variables. While capturing objective data on the built environment has benefited from wide-scale availability of detailed land use and transport network databases, the same cannot be said of human activity. A more diverse history of data collection methods exists for such activity and continues to evolve owing to a variety of quickly emerging wearable sensor technologies. At present, no “gold standard” method has emerged for assessing physical activity type and intensity under the real-world conditions of the built environment; in fact, most methods have barely been tested outside of the laboratory, and those that have tend to experience significant drops in accuracy and reliability. This paper provides a review of these diverse methods and emerging technologies, including biochemical, self-report, direct observation, passive motion detection, and integrated approaches. Based on this review and current needs, an integrated three-tiered methodology is proposed, including: (1) passive location tracking (e.g., using global positioning systems); (2) passive motion/biometric tracking (e.g., using accelerometers); and (3) limited self-reporting (e.g., using prompted recall diaries). Key development issues are highlighted, including the need for proper validation and automated activity-detection algorithms. The paper ends with a look at some of the key lessons learned and new opportunities that have emerged at the crossroads of urban studies and health sciences.

We do have a vision for a world in which people can walk to shops, school, friends' homes, or transit stations; in which they can mingle with their neighbors and admire trees, plants, and waterways; in which the air and water are clean; and in which there are parks and play areas for children, gathering spots for teens and the elderly, and convenient work and recreation places for the rest of us. (Frumkin, Frank, & Jackson, 2004, p. xvii)

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Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84-855844-1

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Book part
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Heather Dillaway and Catherine Lysack

We explore the effects and interplay of physical and social environments on the inaccessibility of gynecological health care for women with spinal cord injury. We also…

Abstract

Purpose

We explore the effects and interplay of physical and social environments on the inaccessibility of gynecological health care for women with spinal cord injury. We also explore women’s responses to the inaccessibility of this care, in hopes of trying to understand better how women navigate their gynecological health and health care when faced with physical and social environmental constraints.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this phenomenological study were gathered using in-depth, qualitative interviews with 20 women living with spinal cord injuries in or around Detroit, Michigan. Each interviewee was questioned about overall health and physical functioning, accessibility of doctor offices, interactions with health care providers, gynecological health-seeking behaviors, and complementary and alternative medicine use. In this paper we report on data on women’s difficulties in securing gynecological health care experiences and related attitudes and practices.

Findings

Findings echo past literature about the inaccessibility of doctor’s offices, including the lack of suitable exam tables and medical equipment. Office staff varied in their willingness to help transfer women from wheelchairs to exam tables as well, often creating what we term an inaccessible social environment. Individual women in our sample found different strategies for navigating the environmental contexts of a doctor’s office and the encounters that they had with providers within medical settings. These strategies had varying impacts on individuals’ abilities to secure gynecological health care.

Originality/value

Our findings point to the possibility of an interplay between and intersection of physical and social environments within medical settings that needs to be explored further and, potentially, the primary importance of the social environment over the physical environment in determining whether an individual’s disability makes health care inaccessible.

Details

Environmental Contexts and Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-262-3

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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Yochai Eisenberg, Erin D. Bouldin, Nancy Gell and Dori Rosenberg

The size of the population classified as people with disabilities or older adults is increasing globally. The World Health Organization estimates that the average…

Abstract

The size of the population classified as people with disabilities or older adults is increasing globally. The World Health Organization estimates that the average prevalence of disability is around 18% among adults age 18 and older. People with disabilities and older adults have lower levels of physical activity and experience significant barriers to walking in local neighbourhoods. A new perspective is needed that views disability in the context of the built environment and across the lifespan. The purpose of this chapter is to examine walking as an activity that is inclusive of any age, ability or assistive device used for mobility. Through a literature review, we illustrate the complex relationship that exists between individuals with disabilities/older adults and the built environment. We describe environmental and social factors, which have been found to be associated with walking among people with disabilities and older adults as well as factors perceived to be barriers to walking. Factors cited in the literature include aspects that fall into the environmental domains of the International Classification of Functioning. We conclude by highlighting key factors needed for planning supportive walking environments for people with disabilities and older adults. Recommendations include the use of walking audits to gain information on detailed aspects of the built environment, developing inclusive walking initiatives, including people with disabilities and older adults in the planning process and planning for maintenance.

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Walking
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-628-0

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Marlon Dalmoro, Giuliana Isabella, Stefânia Ordovás de Almeida and João Pedro dos Santos Fleck

This paper aims to investigate how the physical and sensory environmental triggers interact with subjective consumer evaluations in the production of shopping experiences…

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1212

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how the physical and sensory environmental triggers interact with subjective consumer evaluations in the production of shopping experiences, an under-investigated theme, despite its relevance.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretative multi-method approach was used by combining video observation with camera eyeglasses and in-depth interviews with 30 customers of a department store.

Findings

Results offer a holistic framework with four-dimensional axial combination involving physical comfort, psychological comfort, physical product evaluation and sensorial product evaluation. Based on this framework, results highlight the role of comfort and products in producing shopping experience in ordinary store visits.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute both to consumer experience studies and to the retail marketing literature in shading a light on experience production in ordinary store visits. Specifically, we detail these visits not as a static response to a given environment stimulus, but as a simultaneous objective and subjective combination able to produce experience.

Practical implications

The results encourage managers to understand the experience production not just as an outcome of managerially influenced elements, like décor or odor. It involves considering subjective elements in the design of consumers’ physical and sensorial retail experiences.

Originality/value

Adopting an innovative method of empirical data collection, results generated a framework that integrates the objective shopping environment and subjective consumer responses. This research considers the role of comfort and product features and quality both physically and sensorially to develop experiences in a holistic manner in ordinary shopping visits.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Kim Martin and Anabel Quan-Haase

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changing research practices of historians, and to contrast their experiences of serendipity in physical and digital…

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1222

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changing research practices of historians, and to contrast their experiences of serendipity in physical and digital information environments.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 20 historians in Southwestern Ontario participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed employing grounded theory. The analytical approach included memoing, the constant comparative method, and three phases of coding.

Findings

Four main themes were identified: agency, the importance of the physical library experience, digital information environments, and novel heuristic forms of serendipity. The authors found that scholars frequently used active verbs to describe their experience with serendipity. This suggests that agency is more involved in the experience than previous conceptualizations of serendipity have suggested, and led us to coin the term “incidental serendipity.” Other key findings include the need for digital tools to incorporate the context surrounding primary sources, and also to provide an organizational context much like what is encountered by patrons in library stacks.

Originality/value

The increased emphasis on digital materials should not come at the expense of the physical information environment, where historians often encounter serendipitous finds. A fine balance and a greater integration between digital and physical resources is needed in order to support scholars’ continued ability to make connections between materials. By showing the active role that historians take in their serendipitous encounters, this paper suggests that historical training is critical for eliciting incidental serendipitous encounters. The authors propose a novel approach, one that examines verbs in serendipity accounts.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 72 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Mariam F. Alkazemi, Sara Bayramzadeh, Nouf B. Alkhubaizi and Ayman Alayoub

The purpose of this study is to explore the role of the physical environment in patient satisfaction ratings as communicated in narratives on the social media platform…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the role of the physical environment in patient satisfaction ratings as communicated in narratives on the social media platform such as Facebook.

Design/methodology/approach

Publicly available Facebook reviews (n = 4,502) of a reputable healthcare system in the USA were analyzed. A thematic analysis was conducted to explore architectural elements of the physical environment that play a role in patient satisfaction.

Findings

Facebook reviews were examined for the presence of design-related factors within the physical environment. Of the 627 posts (14 per cent) with relevant content, 56 involved factors related to the physical environment. The factors include: location, parking, cleanliness, privacy, waiting rooms, music and temperature. The results showed that environmental and design-related factors are part of patient satisfaction in hospitals.

Research limitations/implications

Not all Facebook reviews contain narrative information. Nevertheless, the impact of the built environment can manifest in online reviews of healthcare systems. Future patient satisfaction research should examine variables related to the built environment on social media ratings.

Practical implications

Social media feedback about the physical environment can help in understanding factors influencing patient satisfaction, which can have an implication for architectural design.

Social implications

The patient satisfaction is related to the physical environment of healthcare facilities. Some social media narratives reflect it and can be used to improve patient satisfaction.

Originality/value

Although some studies examine social media narratives on patient satisfaction, fewer studies examine these narratives in relation to the built environment. Created by a team of interdisciplinary researchers, this study provides a novel approach to examine social media ratings.

Details

Facilities , vol. 38 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Ahmet Türel and Elmira Ayşe Gür

The relationship between the child and his/her physical environment is an area of interaction that includes social, psychological and cultural factors along with the…

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between the child and his/her physical environment is an area of interaction that includes social, psychological and cultural factors along with the spatial experience, perception and behavior of the child. This study is based on the effects of spatial perception and behavior of the child within the physical environment of primary schools. In this direction, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how spatial and physical characteristics of primary school typologies affect the spatial perception and behavior of the child. Also, the parameters affecting spatial perception and behavior are examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The question to be investigated is how the spatial and physical characteristics of the school’s physical environment affect the child’s spatial perception and behavior in primary schools with different typologies. Within this scope, Istanbul’s Kagithane region is selected as a case study. Schools are chosen for their similar spatial and dimensional features and similar socio-economic environment. The methodology of the study consists of a literature review, an observational study carried out to discover the interaction between the child and his/her school building and the analysis of the student’s cognitive maps. These maps were evaluated according to topological, projective, metric and imaginative parameters.

Findings

The results show spatial organization and physical characteristics of primary school buildings with a structure that allows for change and transformation, and contributes to the physical and cognitive development of children.

Originality/value

This study will provide an opportunity to develop the design of future primary school buildings that can support the spatial perception and spatial experiences of the children.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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