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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1991

Phillip E. Messner, Charles W. Ryan and B. Charles Leonard

Examines the findings of a survey aimed at identifying theeducation needs of leadership personnel in institutions of highereducation within a metropolitan service area…

Abstract

Examines the findings of a survey aimed at identifying the education needs of leadership personnel in institutions of higher education within a metropolitan service area. Respondents, occupying primarily mid‐level administrative positions, cited administrative behaviour, leadership and personnel management as training areas that best matched their professional advancement needs. Concludes that university‐based seminars, workshops and standard credit bearing courses can provide “corporate level” training to assist mid‐level managers in expanding their leadership vision.

Details

International Journal of Career Management, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6214

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1992

Paul R. Lucas, Phillip E. Messner, Charles W. Ryan and Gerald P. Sturm

Leadership approaches, or styles, practised by managers in freesocieties over the last 100 years have shifted from highly directive, orauthoritarian, to more…

Abstract

Leadership approaches, or styles, practised by managers in free societies over the last 100 years have shifted from highly directive, or authoritarian, to more non‐directive, or participative. This study surveyed labour and management of a defence industry computer software company to compare management (n=35) and technical employee (n=143) perceptions of preferred management style as measured by the Leader Behaviour Descriptive Questionnaire (LBDQ) Form XII. Subjects were asked to rate their ideal leader in response to the 100 items on the LBDQ. Causal‐comparative data analysis was used to compute descriptive statistics for each comparison group. Findings from the study suggest there is an extraordinary unity of thinking between managers and employees regarding those elements critical to effective leadership; managers agreed to a significantly greater extent than employees that the surveyed variables are critical to effective leadership; and managers and employees agreed that the favoured leadership style is “selling”, as defined by Hersey and Blanchard.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 13 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Phillip E. Messner and Max L. Ruhl

Describes ongoing monitoring of a US department of educational leadership’s performance indices and reports on the processes that support a management by fact (MBF…

Abstract

Describes ongoing monitoring of a US department of educational leadership’s performance indices and reports on the processes that support a management by fact (MBF) strategy. Elucidates the university’s key quality indicators (KQI) process. KQI statements were introduced into department course syllabi. Graduates from department graduate education programs were surveyed regarding their perceptions about the KQI outcome statements. Each respondent indicated the degree to which the department had “prepared” them in each of the desired outcomes; and also the degree to which the outcome was perceived to be “relevant” for the conduct of their professional duties. The department learned that strategic planning can lead to cumulative improvements and quality of efforts can be moved forward in higher education institutions through a focus on departmental‐level teaching and learning systems.

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International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Phillip E. Messner and Naifa Liu

Investigates a scientific basis for establishing the Test ofEnglish as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) cut‐off scores. Obtains data on348 foreign students from 50 US…

Abstract

Investigates a scientific basis for establishing the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) cut‐off scores. Obtains data on 348 foreign students from 50 US universities. Divides students into three categories according to TOEFL score: below 550; 550‐600; and above 600. Measures academic success by first semester or quarter grade point average (GPA) score. Finds a significant difference in GPA score between international graduate students with TOEFL scores above 550 when compared with those with scores below 550. Results support the national trend towards raising foreign graduate student admission minimum TOEFL scores from 500 to 550.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Max Fridell, Rebecca Newcom Belcher and Phillip E. Messner

This paper seeks to apply discriminate analysis to determine principal's leadership styles differences between genders in USA Midwest public schools. A distinction is to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to apply discriminate analysis to determine principal's leadership styles differences between genders in USA Midwest public schools. A distinction is to be made between “servant” (seen as aligned with emotional intelligence) and “traditional” (or top‐down) leadership. The debate between the traditional (or, top‐down) leadership approach, versus the servant (which is seen as aligned with emotional intelligence) leadership approach is ripe for investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

E‐mail based surveys from 445 responding public school principals comprised of men (n=265) and women (n=180) were quantitatively analyzed. The self‐selected sample for the study was drawn from public schools in three Midwest states in the USA. The inventory contained 40 content items prepared on a five‐point Likert scale and one demographic question. Content and construct validity were evaluated and significant difference tests were performed. The study sought to clarify which cluster of items from the Servant‐leadership Styles Inventory (SSI) best described gender membership and, thereby, proffered possibly gender oriented servant‐leadership styles utilizing discriminant function analysis methods.

Findings

This study has established that SSI items identified with Servant‐leadership dimension are reliable and valid; however items aligned with Traditional leadership dimensions were found to be less reliable and valid. Additionally these results have shown that Servant‐leadership items can be effective in differentiating between men and women principals. It is important to note that both men and women equally reported that they were reluctant to use Traditional leadership styles. No differences between genders in Traditional leadership styles usage were found. However, there were significant differences between men's and women's Servant‐leadership style usage.

Research limitations/implications

Current research shows that men and women operate differently. What has been lacking, however, is an instrument that discriminated between male and female leadership styles. This study is bounded by the following limitations: by location, the study is restricted to USA Midwest practicing public school principals; to the gender based perceptions of principals in Midwest USA, other factors such a training, experience and longevity are unknown; and it is also unknown as to the instrument's cultural biases when applied to other countries and regions in the USA. However, the instrument may open opportunities for cultural and gender based leadership research studies when applied to new populations.

Practical implications

This paper reports the development of a new research instrument, the SSI. The instrument utilizes 20 traditional leadership styles and 20 servant leadership styles to query subjects. The instrument was found to be reliable and valid, especially the servant leadership items.

Originality/value

The paper shows that four Servant‐leadership styles lend understanding to the field, and help begin a discussion of feminine servant‐leadership style. These four newly identified styles are: daily reflection; consensus building; healing relationships; and drive sense of self worth. The feminine leader is more likely to hold and practice these values than male leaders.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2020

Steven J. Jackson and Sarah Gee

Purpose – To explore the contested nature of masculinity through an examination of contemporary promotional culture associated with a predominantly masculine commodity …

Abstract

Purpose – To explore the contested nature of masculinity through an examination of contemporary promotional culture associated with a predominantly masculine commodity – beer. More specifically, the analysis focuses on the representations of masculinity in two New Zealand beer advertisements spanning a 25-year period.

Design/methodology/approach – The chapter is divided into four sections: (1) a brief overview of the contemporary crisis of masculinity; (2) the role of the media and promotional culture in representing and reproducing crises of masculinity; (3) The Holy Trinity: Sport, Beer and Masculinity and (4) analysis of two promotional campaigns for New Zealand beer brand Speight's. Here, the original series ad from 1992 is compared and contrasted with the 2019 instalment using Strate's (1992) framework which conceptualizes beer advertisements as ‘manuals of masculinity’, in order to track potential changes over time.

Findings – The results highlight the enduring value of Strate's (1992) framework of beer advertisements as manuals of masculinity. In addition, the results reveal that while the representation of masculinity in Speight's beer advertising has changed over time, key themes related to exclusive male spaces, physical labour and the core value of ‘mateship’ remain.

Research limitations/implications – Within the context of globalization, promotional culture operating at both the global and local level can cultivate images of masculinity that represent and reproduce the existing gender order, but it can also confront and disrupt it.

Details

Sport, Alcohol and Social Inquiry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-842-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Barrie O. Pettman and Richard Dobbins

This issue is a selected bibliography covering the subject of leadership.

Abstract

This issue is a selected bibliography covering the subject of leadership.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 21 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Gary Jensen

Although typologies of violence have become more common, relatively little attention has been given to Donald Black’s (1983) distinction between moralistic and predatory…

Abstract

Although typologies of violence have become more common, relatively little attention has been given to Donald Black’s (1983) distinction between moralistic and predatory violence. Moralistic violence is rooted in conflict; predatory violence is rooted in exploitation. We elaborate Black’s typology and show how it is similar to, but distinct from, other typologies of violence. We also address the criteria by which typologies of any kind might be judged. Borrowing from the literatures on typologies and on standards of scientific theory, we argue that explanatory typologies should be evaluated according to four criteria: the degree to which they are powerful, theoretical, general, and parsimonious. Applying the criteria to Black’s typology, we argue that the distinction between moralistic and predatory violence is an important contribution to the arsenal of the student of violence.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 22 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Content available
Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2017

Karin Klenke

Abstract

Details

Women in Leadership 2nd Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-064-8

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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2014

Myron T. Strong and Erma Lawson

This paper explores masculinity ideologies which influence family perspectives, and therefore, instigate mental distress among Black and White men between the ages of 18–30.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores masculinity ideologies which influence family perspectives, and therefore, instigate mental distress among Black and White men between the ages of 18–30.

Design

Using a grounded theory approach, 30 in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the social construction of masculinity and investigate the ways in which gender ideologies influence family gender roles.

Findings

Black men’s gender ideology was influenced by racial identity and stressed a communal and collaborative identity which can be seen by the reliance on religion and maintaining family financial stability. White employed a pragmatic, individual perspective that emphasized individual behavior in a changing society. They embraced evolving discourses necessary to cope with changing family structure and refocused attention from family of origin conflict.

Research limitations/implications

Though this is a qualitative study, it does provide a starting point for further research on how the family roles of Black and White men affect their mental health.

Originality/value

Few studies have employed a racial comparison research design to investigate mental distress associated with gender ideologies. The paper suggests that moving forward will require, as Black men suggested, adopting a critical racial sociology of gender that emphasizes processes and social structure. Analyzing manhood acts through the lens of social marginality, identity work to claim membership in the male group, and the identification of characteristics to maintain male privileges vis-à-vis women may prove to be useful. Focusing on process allows an exploration of social forces that influence masculinity, gendered household ideologies, and mental health.

Details

Family and Health: Evolving Needs, Responsibilities, and Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-126-8

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