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Proposes a broader framework for management development whichincludes education, training and planned job assignments. Within thisframework, the major challenges…
Proposes a broader framework for management development which includes education, training and planned job assignments. Within this framework, the major challenges confronting management development in the 1990s are seen as: linking development efforts to the organization′s strategic plan: utilizing job assignments more effectively to build management skills; improving the transferability of training and educational experiences to the job, and developing more collaborative business‐university relationships (e.g. consortia) to meet the development needs of specific industries and organizations better.
“GIVE a dog a bad name and hang him,” is an aphorism which has been accepted for many years. But, like many other household words, it is not always true. Even if it were, the dog to be operated upon would probably prefer a gala day at his Tyburn Tree to being executed in an obscure back yard.
There are two basic theoretical views of how advertising affects competition. One school of thought suggests that advertising decreases competition. Kaldor (1950) argued…
There are two basic theoretical views of how advertising affects competition. One school of thought suggests that advertising decreases competition. Kaldor (1950) argued that through economies of scale in advertising, advertising increases market concentration. Also, Bain (1956) suggested that advertising causes strong product differentiation and brand loyalty, which are barriers to entry and will lead to higher concentration.
THE central question of librarianship now and in the past is that which occupies some of our pages this month. Reading with purpose and with system, Matthew Arnold declared, was the last service to be rendered to education; and in various manner librarians and their committees have been endeavouring to do this for many years; it has indeed been a guiding principle of the best libraries that they presented to the community only good book's. Lately, however, more generous (or lax, according to the standpoint) ideas have been allowed to condition the admission of books; there are not wanting those who object to any exercise of judgment on the part of the librarian; if people want certain books they must be served, as they pay for them. This argument was exploded long ago, but its revival is justified if the librarians are unequal to their pretentions as guides to readers. And to be guides requires ever‐increasing knowledge, not only of all work done in bibliographies and reference books, but, as our writers indicate, of people and their manifold relations and reactions to books. This is enormously difficult in any community but is manifestly so in large cities. As a small illustration we may point to a librarian who, when a branch librarian was appointed to his staff, gave him a month of freedom from library work proper in which he was to walk every street of his branch area, interview the clergy, teachers, leading traders, and the secretaries and committees of local societies. He thus came to his work with at least an elementary notion of the community he had to serve. Such study must have its effect on book‐service; and this is the sort of study that must be pursued in the manner Dr. Waples has advocated and practiced (or some such manner) if we are to arrive at a science of book‐selection applicable to the areas a library serves.
THE re‐organisation of local government in Greater London and the resultant amalgamation of library authorities is viewed by many with considerable misgivings. The upheaval of staff, the loss of status for some senior officers, the general uncertainty for the future—these are very real consequences of the Act and they cannot be ignored. Many chief librarians will see the work of a lifetime, perhaps spent in building up a comprehensive and unified system, made virtually meaningless overnight.
The re‐organisation of local government in Greater London and the resultant amalgamation of library authorities is viewed by many with considerable misgivings. The upheaval of staff, the loss of status for some senior officers, the general uncertainty for the future—these are very real consequences of the Act and they cannot be ignored. Many chief librarians will see the work of a lifetime, perhaps spent in building up a comprehensive and unified system, made virtually meaningless overnight.
SINCE we wrote last the African victories have changed the atmosphere in a remarkable way. Lately pessimism had been absent and a calm confidence existed but now there is a sense of expectation. But we have been warned that the really tough conflict is still before us. However that may be, there is scarcely a library where the externals of the conflict are not reflected in the eyes and words of our readers, even affecting to an extent their reading. It must, of course, be so because it is a commonplace that books are good or bad in our estimation in accord with the mood in which we read.
Fully powered flight controls are common among many aircraft, both military and commercial. Multiple pumps are generally employed to provide these flight controls with a…
Fully powered flight controls are common among many aircraft, both military and commercial. Multiple pumps are generally employed to provide these flight controls with a redundant power source in addition to many other aircraft services. The prime hydraulic source in most cases is the engine‐driven pump. It is driven directly by one of the aircraft's engines and offers the most efficient method of converting engine horsepower to hydraulic horsepower. The secondary hydraulic power source is generally not as efficient. It must derive its power from a source other than that which powers the prime pump. Present transport aircraft have utilised bleed air, ram air, electrical power, or hydraulic power to drive this redundant pump. All have demonstrated poor power‐transfer efficiency when compared to a mechanically coupled pump. This inefficiency generally results in increased cost, weight, and complexity to the aircraft. The inadequate performance of existing hydraulic power transfer units was of particular concern. This paper will address the performance problem as well as the Douglas approach to improve it.
The process of innovation is inherently risky and unpredictable. There is, therefore, good reason to plan strategically for the implementation of the innovative process within the enterprise. Such strategic planning may help to minimise risk, ensure that a return on investment in innovation can be made, and enhance corporate chances of long‐term survival. This is the first of two linked articles on strategies for innovation and their implementation. The purpose of this article is to examine the strategic process of planning implementing innovation within the enterprise. It does this by analysing some of the major sources of innovative opportunity open to the enterprise, and considering some of their practical implications; examining three practical innovation strategies which are to be found in both large and small enterprises; and by outlining some basic prerequisites to successful innovation strategies.
Most of the thousands of studies of leadership as well as strategic leadership in organizations choose as the unit of analysis the individual leader. This choice runs…
Most of the thousands of studies of leadership as well as strategic leadership in organizations choose as the unit of analysis the individual leader. This choice runs contrary to the often-observed fact that organizations have numerous leaders at all levels of the organization – in other words, a network of leaders, which permeates the formal organizational structure. The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize strategic leadership by advancing understanding of: the effects of variations in internal complexity and external turbulence and the effects of choices by the strategic leadership based on those variations.
The paper advocates a network approach to strategic leadership where there is a set of highly dynamic role changes, based on both human and social capital. The typology and propositions in the paper emerged over a period of many years of observation of organizations (direct and indirect) as well as reflection of theories on how strategic leadership actually occurs in medium to large-size profit-oriented organizations.
The paper proposes a model of strategic leadership based upon four modes of single actor and shared leadership (stars, clans, teams, and leadership networks). The paper sets forth propositions for the situational appropriateness of each of these four forms and identifies avenues for future research to advance the theory.
The paper cross-fertilizes extant research streams in leadership and strategic management to create a contingency theory of strategic leadership that is closer to what executives actually experience in the workplace.