Building principals, as well as most educators, are typically satisfied with their overall jobs. However, some specific aspects of work are not rated as favorably as others. This study investigated the relationship of factors, such as gender, size of enrollment, and years of experience, to principalship job satisfaction. A survey sample of American midwestern elementary, middle, and senior high school principals responded to the Principals Job Satisfaction Survey (PJSS). The PJSS was based on Herzberg’s Motivation‐Hygiene Theory. Eight components of job satisfaction were compared with four principalship descriptive variables. PJSS was mailed to 500 principals and 226 survey forms were returned and useable, which resulted in a 45.2 percent return rate. Chi‐square analyses revealed the relationships and differences between the independent and dependent variables. It was found that American midwestern principals were generally satisfied with their current job, colleagues/co‐workers and level of responsibility. However, they were less satisfied with their pay, opportunities for advancement, and fringe benefits.
Leadership approaches, or styles, practised by managers in freesocieties over the last 100 years have shifted from highly directive, orauthoritarian, to more…
Leadership approaches, or styles, practised by managers in free societies over the last 100 years have shifted from highly directive, or authoritarian, to more non‐directive, or participative. This study surveyed labour and management of a defence industry computer software company to compare management (n=35) and technical employee (n=143) perceptions of preferred management style as measured by the Leader Behaviour Descriptive Questionnaire (LBDQ) Form XII. Subjects were asked to rate their ideal leader in response to the 100 items on the LBDQ. Causal‐comparative data analysis was used to compute descriptive statistics for each comparison group. Findings from the study suggest there is an extraordinary unity of thinking between managers and employees regarding those elements critical to effective leadership; managers agreed to a significantly greater extent than employees that the surveyed variables are critical to effective leadership; and managers and employees agreed that the favoured leadership style is “selling”, as defined by Hersey and Blanchard.
Concerns itself with the way in which company images are formed and disseminated and discusses work carried out among the employees, suppliers and purchasers of a heavy goods manufacturing company. Argues that company employees should be made the focus of attention, since these are potential salesmen in the widest sense of the world. Suggests a company's experience, particularly in the industrial and service sectors will rely heavily on personal contact with employees, e.g. employees will portray an image of the company as it effects them. Proposes that all people external to the company but coming into contact with it receive the same image. Pinpoints a questionnaire involving a company image profile of engineering where employees are slightly pessimistic – includes these in question and answer format. Concludes that a company's good image among its employees and subsequently among those outside it, rests in the hands of top management. – and how can this be ignored?
The paper provides an overview of research published in the innovation and operations management (IOM) literature on 15 methods for cost management in new product…
The paper provides an overview of research published in the innovation and operations management (IOM) literature on 15 methods for cost management in new product development, and it provides a comparison to an earlier review of the management accounting (MA) literature (Wouters & Morales, 2014).
This structured literature search covers papers published in 23 journals in IOM in the period 1990–2014.
The search yielded a sample of 208 unique papers with 275 results (one paper could refer to multiple cost management methods). The top 3 methods are modular design, component commonality, and product platforms, with 115 results (42%) together. In the MA literature, these three methods accounted for 29%, but target costing was the most researched cost management method by far (26%). Simulation is the most frequently used research method in the IOM literature, whereas this was averagely used in the MA literature; qualitative studies were the most frequently used research method in the MA literature, whereas this was averagely used in the IOM literature. We found a lot of papers presenting practical approaches or decision models as a further development of a particular cost management method, which is a clear difference from the MA literature.
This review focused on the same cost management methods, and future research could also consider other cost management methods which are likely to be more important in the IOM literature compared to the MA literature. Future research could also investigate innovative cost management practices in more detail through longitudinal case studies.
This review of research on methods for cost management published outside the MA literature provides an overview for MA researchers. It highlights key differences between both literatures in their research of the same cost management methods.
Although typologies of violence have become more common, relatively little attention has been given to Donald Black’s (1983) distinction between moralistic and predatory violence. Moralistic violence is rooted in conflict; predatory violence is rooted in exploitation. We elaborate Black’s typology and show how it is similar to, but distinct from, other typologies of violence. We also address the criteria by which typologies of any kind might be judged. Borrowing from the literatures on typologies and on standards of scientific theory, we argue that explanatory typologies should be evaluated according to four criteria: the degree to which they are powerful, theoretical, general, and parsimonious. Applying the criteria to Black’s typology, we argue that the distinction between moralistic and predatory violence is an important contribution to the arsenal of the student of violence.
This paper aims to examine the common situation where the sponsor of an event is replaced and the impact of this situation on consumers’ behavioral intentions toward the…
This paper aims to examine the common situation where the sponsor of an event is replaced and the impact of this situation on consumers’ behavioral intentions toward the new sponsor.
An original conceptual framework was developed to account for consumers’ reactions toward a new sponsor in the context of a sponsorship change, depending on whether the former and new sponsors are competitors, the duration of the relationship between the former sponsor and the event (tenure length), and the level of congruence between the new and the former sponsor and the event. This framework, based on consumer motive attributions, was tested by means of three completely randomized experiments.
The results of the first experiment show that if the former and new sponsors are competitors, consumers’ behavioral intentions toward the new sponsor are more positive if the former sponsor’s tenure duration was short. When the former and the new sponsors are not competitors, the former sponsor’s tenure duration does not impact behavioral intentions. The second experiment demonstrates that consumers’ altruistic motive attributions are the underlying mechanism that explains these effects. Finally, the third experiment identifies a boundary condition, that is, these effects occur only if the new and the former sponsor are congruent with the sponsored property.
This research has not considered the situation where the former and new sponsors have different levels of congruence with the event (e.g. when the former sponsor is congruent but the new sponsor is incongruent with the event) and has examined only sponsorship tenure durations of one versus 15 years.
Sponsorship managers learn that replacing a sponsor that was supporting the event for a short rather than a long period of time is more beneficial, but only if replacing a competitor that is congruent with the sponsored property. The reason is that such a replacement triggers more altruistic motive attributions compared with contexts where the former sponsor is not a competitor or incongruent with the sponsored property. Suggestions of sponsorship activation strategies known to increase perceptions of altruism are provided to enhance sponsorship effectiveness for new sponsors.
This study is the first to look at how consumer responses to a new sponsor vary depending on the former sponsor’s tenure length, competitor status and event congruency.
Physical education, like most areas of education, is changing and taking on a new look for the 1980s. Physical educators, school administrators, and others making…
Physical education, like most areas of education, is changing and taking on a new look for the 1980s. Physical educators, school administrators, and others making decisions about programs for children and young people are examining both current practices and forecasts for the future in this field. What they decide will profoundly affect the resources that should be a part of library collections for children and youth. Too often librarians and school media specialists have found it difficult to think about the kinds of materials appropriate for such collections because they do not have the knowledge necessary for sound selection. A major reason for this difficulty is that the area of physical education is usually separated from other subject areas in schools. Along with the industrial arts, domestic science, and the fine arts, physical education is categorized as a performative subject area. Classified as such, it is usually not thought of as something you ask young people to think about, talk about, or even read about; but rather, something you ask them to “do.” Yet, upon closer examination, there exists a small wealth of library materials for children.
In class action antitrust litigation, the standards for acceptable economic analysis at class certification have continued to evolve. The most recent event in this…
In class action antitrust litigation, the standards for acceptable economic analysis at class certification have continued to evolve. The most recent event in this evolution is the United States Supreme Court’s decision in Comcast Corp. v. Behrend, 133 S. Ct. 1435 (2013). The evolution of pre-Comcast law on this topic is presented, the Comcast decision is thoroughly assessed, as are the standards for developing reliable economic analysis. This article explains how economic evidence of both antitrust liability and damages ought to be developed in light of the teachings of Comcast, and how liability evidence can be used by economists to support a finding of common impact for certification purposes. In addition, the article addresses how statistical techniques such as averaging, price-dispersion analysis, and multiple regressions have and should be employed to establish common proof of damages.
Multilayer boards development. The American Tinkertoy and Micromodule programmes had shown that layers of etched circuits could be built up to provide a complete unit, and high densities could be achieved. The Hazeltine Corporation in America perfected a technique in which three or more layers with coincident holes were bonded together with insulating sheets and the layers connected through by using the existing plated‐through hole technique. Their ‘Multiplanar’ process was disclosed in 1961, and is the only accepted method of making multilayer boards today, and the one on which all existing specifications are based.