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Article
Publication date: 10 March 2021

Lisa Barao, Anthony A. Braga, Brandon Turchan and Philip J. Cook

Clearance rates for nonfatal shootings, especially cases involving gang- and drug-related violence, are disturbingly low in many US cities. Using data from a previously…

Abstract

Purpose

Clearance rates for nonfatal shootings, especially cases involving gang- and drug-related violence, are disturbingly low in many US cities. Using data from a previously completed project in Boston, we explore the prospects for improving gang/drug nonfatal shooting cases by investing the same investigative effort found in similar gang/drug gun murder cases.

Design/methodology/approach

Our analyses primarily focus on a sample of 231 nonfatal shootings that occurred in Boston from 2010 to 2014. Logistic regressions are first used to analyze differences in the likelihood of case clearance for gang/drug nonfatal shooting cases relative to other nonfatal shooting cases. Independent samples t-tests are then used to compare the investigative characteristics of these two different kinds of nonfatal shootings. Next, independent samples t-tests are used to compare the investigation of gang/drug gun assaults relative to the investigation of very similar gang/drug gun homicides.

Findings

Results demonstrate that the odds of clearing gang/drug nonfatal shootings are 77.2% less likely relative to the odds of clearing nonfatal shootings resulting from other circumstances. This stark difference in clearance rates is not driven by diminished investigative effort, but investigative effort does matter. Relative to gang/drug gun assaults, gang/drug gun homicides have much higher clearance rates that are the result of greater investigative resources and effort that produces significantly more witnesses and evidence, and generate more forensic tests and follow-up investigative actions.

Originality/value

Gang- and drug-related violence generates a bulk of urban nonfatal shootings. Low clearance rates for nonfatal shootings undermine police efforts to hold offenders accountable, disrupt cycles of gun violence, and provide justice to victims. Police should make investments to improve investigative effort such as handling these cases with the same vigor as homicide cases.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2021

Philip J. Cook and Anthony Berglund

The purpose of this study is to describe the creation, implementation, activities and rationale for the Area Technology Centers (ATCs), an innovation adopted by the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to describe the creation, implementation, activities and rationale for the Area Technology Centers (ATCs), an innovation adopted by the Chicago Police Department’s (CPD’s) Bureau of Detectives (BoD) in 2019 for the purpose of supporting investigations of crimes of serious violence by deploying specialized teams of officers to gather and process video and digital evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study utilizes historical information and descriptive data generated by a record-keeping system adopted by the ATCs.

Findings

The ATCs were developed as a collaboration between the CPD and the University of Chicago Crime Lab (a research center). The start-up was funded by a gift from the Griffin Foundation. Detectives have made extensive use of the services provided by the ATCs from the beginning, with the result that homicide and shooting investigations now have access to more video and digital evidence that has been processed by state-of-the-art equipment. The CPD has assumed budget responsibility for the ATCs, which is an indication of their success. The ATC teams have been assembled by voluntary transfers by sworn officers, together with an embedded analyst from the University of Chicago.

Practical implications

The ATC model could be adopted by other large police departments. The study finds that ATCs can be effectively staffed by redeploying and training existing staff and that their operation does not require a budget increase.

Social implications

By arguably making police investigations of shooting cases more efficient, the ATCs have the potential to increase the clearance rate and thereby prevent future gun violence.

Originality/value

The ATCs are a novel response to the challenges of securing and making good use of video and digital evidence in police investigations.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Katie Wright

Historical studies of the expert management of childhood in Australia often make passing reference to the establishment of child guidance clinics. Yet beyond…

Abstract

Purpose

Historical studies of the expert management of childhood in Australia often make passing reference to the establishment of child guidance clinics. Yet beyond acknowledgement of their founding during the interwar years, there has been little explication of the dynamics of their institutional development. The purpose of this article is to examine the introduction of child guidance in Australia against the backdrop of the international influences that shaped local developments.

Design/methodology/approach

The article investigates the establishment of child guidance clinics in Melbourne and Sydney in the 1930s. In doing so, it explores the influence of American philanthropy, the promise of prevention that inspired the mental hygiene movement, and some of the difficulties faced in putting its child guidance ideals into practice in Australia.

Findings

American philanthropy played an important role in the transnational carriage of ideas about mental hygiene and child guidance into Australia. However, it was state support of child guidance activities that proved critical to its establishment. In addition to institutional developments, what also emerges as important in the 1930s is the traction gained in the broader realm of ideas about “adjustment” and mental health, particularly in relation to the efficacy of early intervention and multidisciplinary approaches to treating problems of childhood.

Originality/value

In tracing its early development, the article argues for the importance of understanding child guidance not only in terms of its administrative successes and failures, but also more broadly in terms of how early intervention as an influential mode of thought and practice took root internationally.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Ronald Venn and Nicola Berg

The paper seeks to offer a novel perspective on “deep benefit management” in inclusive business ventures at the Base‐of‐the‐Pyramid (BoP). Furthermore, it explores…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to offer a novel perspective on “deep benefit management” in inclusive business ventures at the Base‐of‐the‐Pyramid (BoP). Furthermore, it explores tensions between social impact creation and financial objectives in multinational corporations (MNCs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opts for an exploratory research design using empirical data, including an expert interview survey and expert discussions. Data is supplemented by documentary analysis, including corporate publications as well as case and impact studies. The paper applies a nested cross‐case comparison of three sustainability driven initiatives of PHILIPS Electronics.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights on value creation for customers and partners. Findings indicate the need for “external benefit management”. In addition, MNCs can gain financial as well as non‐financial benefits by venturing at the BoP. “Internal benefit management” should consider employee engagement, reputation, and partnering capabilities. Nevertheless, results indicate conflicts between social and financial objectives to which employees respond with “social intrapreneurship”.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the research methodology, results may not be generalized. Future research is encouraged to corroborate findings.

Practical implications

The paper develops deep benefit management as a powerful tool to plan, manage, and assess value creation in inclusive BoP ventures. Further, the paper proposes to establish protective space in MNCs to capitalize on social intrapreneurship.

Originality/value

This study provides an enhanced understanding of benefits of and barriers for inclusive business. Novel insights on social intrapreneurship are provided additionally.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

Keywords

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Jeff Fettig

Discusses the example of the Whirlpool Corporation and itspenetration of the European market in recent years. Examines the stagesin the performance loop used to develop…

Abstract

Discusses the example of the Whirlpool Corporation and its penetration of the European market in recent years. Examines the stages in the performance loop used to develop and sell products in any given market. Summarizes the approaches formulated from the planning stages above, such as acquisition, together with the introduction and positioning of new and existing brand names in the correct marketsegment. Concludes that marketing globally requires a flexible approach in order to meet the differing competitive scenarios.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2007

Philip J. Cook and Rebecca Hutchinson

Smoking initiation by adolescents has been analyzed by economists as a choice reflecting prices, tastes, and subjective evaluation of the long-term risks of addiction and…

Abstract

Smoking initiation by adolescents has been analyzed by economists as a choice reflecting prices, tastes, and subjective evaluation of the long-term risks of addiction and disease. What is missing from this account is the fact that smoking is a social activity and is subject to peer influence. Peers may serve as a source of information about why and how to smoke, and how to obtain cigarettes. Peers also serve as an audience, observing and evaluating others’ behavior. This evaluation is mediated by the long association in popular culture between smoking and a variety of attributes prized by adolescents. Like choice of fashion in hair and clothing, body piercing, comportment, and so forth, smoking by adolescents connotes information about identity. Knowing this, the decision of whether to smoke is partly a decision of what identity to project.

Details

The Evolution of Consumption: Theories and Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1452-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Philip Cook and Wendy Gallagher

Abstract

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Philip Cook and Wendy Gallagher

Abstract

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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