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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Philip Birch and Doug Braun-Harvey

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between sexual health principles and the procurement of sexual services. Most that has been written about sex work…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between sexual health principles and the procurement of sexual services. Most that has been written about sex work has been done so from the perspective of deviancy; in contrast, recent work examining the practice of sex work has explored and evidenced how emotional and intimacy needs are met through procurement. Recognising the conventional aspects of procuring sexual services, this paper seeks to examine and understand this social practice through applying Braun-Harvey and Vigorito’s (2015) six principles of sexual health.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a mixed method approach, this paper presents findings from a survey consisting of a sample of 309 men who procure sexual services and 20 interviews from a sub-sample of the men who were surveyed and female sex workers who provide such services.

Findings

The findings illustrate the reasons for men’s procurement of sexual services, which corroborate with the accounts of women who sell the services and reflect how the procurement of sexual services align with principles of sexual health, which, in turn, challenge the stigma of buying sex.

Practical implications

The practical implications of this study are: provision of examining and understanding sex work through the principles of sexual health; provision of a framework to examine and understand sex work in a less stigmatising way; support for the growth of sexual health and criminal justice research; and provision of a platform for further research examining sexual health, sex work and decriminalisation.

Originality/value

This study is unique as it brings together principles of sexual health as a tool for examining the procurement of sexual services, a practice that is demonised in many parts of the globe. A consequence of this study is its presentation of a novel understanding for the social practice of procurement that aides in both challenging the stigmatisation and criminalisation of sex work.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Philip Birch and Nick Crofts

203

Abstract

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2022

Louise A. Sicard and Philip Birch

This study aims to investigate the perspectives and experiences of treatment facilitators regarding the effectiveness of treatment they delivered for high-risk offenders…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the perspectives and experiences of treatment facilitators regarding the effectiveness of treatment they delivered for high-risk offenders with complex needs. Within this study, the term complex needs refers to an individual who is managing several issues, such as physical illness, mental health issues and addiction disorders.

Design/methodology/approach

There was a total of 18 semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with treatment facilitators from Australia and the UK. This study presents two key themes that emerged from the thematic analysis: “the importance of responsivity and active/creative activities in practice” and “the practitioner’s core concerns: issues with high-risk offenders treatment accessibility”.

Findings

The findings revealed that treatment facilitators considered treatment responsivity as core to treatment for high-risk offenders with complex needs and that active/creative activities were beneficial in achieving this. Additionally, treatment facilitators expressed concerns around the inaccessibility of treatment, including the barriers of talk therapy and the inability for offenders to receive the level of support necessary. Considering these findings, this study offers a discussion on the potential value of music therapy as a component of treatment for such offending populations.

Social implications

The empirical data yielded from the interviewed treatment facilitators highlight that music therapy can play a role in supporting the beneficial components of treatment programs. Further implications centre on addressing the limitations of treatment that were identified through the interviews.

Originality/value

This study focusses on exploring the role of music therapy with high-risk offenders and who have complex needs when engaging in treatment programs. This paper recognises that the application and use of music therapy with this cohort has been neglected in the academic literature and research until recently.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Sören Henrich and Philip Birch

152

Abstract

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2022

Alex McCord, Philip Birch and Lewis A. Bizo

Global evidence suggests a potential displacement of youth offending from the physical to the digital landscape, requiring revision of existing detection and intervention…

Abstract

Purpose

Global evidence suggests a potential displacement of youth offending from the physical to the digital landscape, requiring revision of existing detection and intervention methods. This study aims to explore pathways from harmful to illegal online activity perpetrated by young people, legislation and police perspectives, current detection methods and interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

This perspective paper examines issues observed within a larger systematic literature review on digital youth offending.

Findings

A trajectory from acceptable to harmful and subsequently illegal behaviour was identified, with a particular pathway from unethical video game activity to digitally dependent offending. Legislation and police perspectives vary by jurisdiction, with a common theme that increased officer education is key to the level of preparedness to investigate cases. Machine learning and automatic prevention show promise as detection and disruption processes, with education recommended for young people as a deterrent and redirection of skills to positive outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Recommendations for further research include a broad survey of school students to include all identified areas of digital offending, which could drive the development of targeted education by law enforcement and partner agencies for young people.

Practical implications

The shift in youth offending requires the justice and educational systems to adjust how they respond to youth crime. Policy and practise shifts can include further exploration of investigative hacking, education for law enforcement and educational prevention and redirection programmes aimed at youth.

Originality/value

The digital displacement of youth offending is a progressively emerging concept. This paper examines the current state of response from educational and law enforcement agencies and discusses the next steps based on what is currently known.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2022

Alex McCord, Philip Birch and Lewis A. Bizo

Global evidence suggests that youth offending has reduced; however, this study aims to suggest a more complex picture, with youth crime potentially being displaced to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Global evidence suggests that youth offending has reduced; however, this study aims to suggest a more complex picture, with youth crime potentially being displaced to the digital space. Historically, young people and crime have been synonymous with public spaces and being visible. A shift or expansion to online offending requires revision of how the justice and educational systems respond to youth offending.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review explored keywords related to age, digital offence or harm and criminal or harmful nature, using a search, appraisal, synthesis and analysis framework.

Findings

Three emergent areas of digital youth crime are discussed: digitally assisted crime, digitally dependent crime and digital harm.

Practical implications

The shift in youth offending requires response adjustment from prevention to detection. Opportunities may exist to disrupt or redirect youth before they offend. Further data specific to digital offending is needed. These findings seek to provide a possible direction for future research.

Originality/value

The concept of digital displacement of youth offending is progressively emerging. This paper examines types of offending categorised into three areas of interest.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Philip Birch, Rebecca Ozanne and Jane Ireland

The role of the media in supporting an understanding of the social world is well documented. The representation of homosexuals in the media can therefore impact on…

Abstract

Purpose

The role of the media in supporting an understanding of the social world is well documented. The representation of homosexuals in the media can therefore impact on homophobia within society. The purpose of this paper is to examine how homosexuals are portrayed in the media generally, before examining and comparing newspaper reports of homosexual aggression with heterosexual aggression.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilising a new and innovative research methodology, an integrated grounded behavioural linguistic inquiry (IGBLI) approach, four daily newspapers in circulation within the USA, Canada, the UK and Australia are examined.

Findings

While there are similarities in the way print media report on these aggressive incidents, the differences which emerge from the findings are of interest which require further, more in-depth study.

Practical implications

To extend the methodology of IGBLI to other forms of media content in order to further validate the approach. To reduce the differences between LGBTI news reports and heterosexual news reports. To hold the media to account for the ways in which they express their content. To encourage users of the media, in particular print media, to be critical of what they read.

Originality/value

Typically, analysis of media utilises the research method of content analysis. This paper adopts a new and innovative research method, an IGBLI approach, which incorporates a behavioural assessment in the form of a SORC.

Article
Publication date: 27 December 2021

Charles Gaherity and Philip Birch

The purpose of this study is to examine looting behaviour during natural disaster incidents. As a consequence, this study considers looting in the context of two case…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine looting behaviour during natural disaster incidents. As a consequence, this study considers looting in the context of two case studies: a Tsunami and a Bushfire. The study offers an exploration into the types of and motivations for looting, as well as reflecting on prevention measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological approach of a rapid evidence assessment (REA) is used to examine looting behaviour within the context of two natural disaster incidents, drawing on a thematic analysis, as outlined by Braun and Clarke (2006) to support the presentation of findings.

Findings

The findings of the REA yield three themes. The first theme, Theme 1, focuses on the types of offenders – looters, while Theme 2 focuses on the motivations for offending behaviour – looting. The final theme, Theme 3, presents crime prevention responses: looters and looting. Each theme is further illustrated through a number of sub-themes, and while the two case studies centre on two distinct natural disaster incidents, there are similarities that exist between them offering insights for why looting occurs and consequently how to respond to looting.

Research limitations/implications

Previous research has recognised how incidents such as bushfires enable and create opportunity for looting behaviour. Yet, arguably, little has been achieved in successfully preventing such behaviour. This study offers evidence for why looting occurs during natural disaster incidents and considers the prevention measures that can lead to a reduction in this offending into the future. The need for more detailed and primary research into looting during natural disaster incidents is a research implication engendered by the current study.

Practical implications

This study considers crime prevention approaches in the form of situational crime prevention and social development crime prevention that have direct relevance on crime prevention policy and practice. The practical implications are worthy of attention from law enforcement agencies and other first/emergency responders.

Social implications

This study seeks to offer evidence for policy and practice initiatives that can increase public safety and reduce further threats to community safety during natural disaster incidents.

Originality/value

After the terrorist attacks of 9/11, a concerted effort for swifter and more effective responses to emergency management incidents has occurred. However, the focus of such responses has typically overlooked looting during natural disaster incidents. This study goes some way in addressing that gap in the literature and connects the current scientific knowledge to prevention strategies, informing future policy and practice responses to addressing looting during such incidents. This study provides a stimuli for further research into looters, looting and natural disaster incidents.

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Michael Lewis, Jane Ireland, Carol Ireland, Gail Derefaka, Kimberley McNeill and Philip Birch

This paper aims to assess whether the factor structure of the Psychopathic Processing and Personality Assessment (PAPA) could be confirmed in a large community sample (n

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess whether the factor structure of the Psychopathic Processing and Personality Assessment (PAPA) could be confirmed in a large community sample (n = 1,850), comprising three subsamples of adult men (n = 189, 248 and 198) and women (n = 499, 469 and 247). It was predicted that the four-factor solution originally proposed in earlier studies (i.e. dissocial tendencies, emotional detachment, disregard for others, lack of sensitivity to emotion) would be replicated and produce a multi-dimensional structure consistent across sex.

Design/methodology/approach

This study explored the structure of the newly developed PAPA among a non-forensic sample.

Findings

Although exploratory analysis indicated a four-factor solution, the structure was different with “lack of sensitivity to emotion” being replaced by “responsiveness to perceived aggression.” Confirmatory analyses supported this structure among women, yet a three-factor structure was preferred for men that excluded emotional detachment.

Research limitations/implications

This study highlights the importance of attending to sex differences when assessing for psychopathy.

Originality/value

This is the first confirmatory factor analysis completed on the PAPA, with the findings conveying its value when assessing for psychopathic traits among a community sample.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Thomas Nally, Jane L. Ireland, Leah Greenwood, Carol A. Ireland and Philip Birch

This study aims to explore the impact of inclusion of victim empathy-based content in offender treatment.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the impact of inclusion of victim empathy-based content in offender treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

This study first presents a systematic review of 20 papers before proceeding to consider qualitative interviews with therapists (n = 7) and forensic patients (n = 5), who had completed a long-term violence therapy (Life Minus Violence – Enhanced, LMV-E©). The research explored perceptions of forensic patients and treatment facilitators when completing victim empathy work and explored any negative effects this may have.

Findings

Findings from the systematic review indicated five themes: interventions incorporating victim empathy can be effective; there are positive risk-understanding consequences from completing victim empathy work; offenders perceive victim empathy positively; the emotional impact of victim empathy work on offenders’ is poorly explored; and completing victim empathy in treatment groups receives mixed evaluations from offenders. The systematic review was used to inform the interview themes for the resulting qualitative study with facilitators and forensic patients. This study indicated six themes: victim empathy content facilitates change; victim empathy content can be difficult for patients; victim empathy content can lead to an emotional response; victim empathy content can be beneficial, with the process important; victim empathy content can help understand risk, and patients’ experience of treatment begins before attending sessions.

Practical implications

The potential impact of victim empathy content needs to be evaluated before sessions are completed, accounting for client expectations and treatment readiness. This should include ensuring that appropriate support is in place. Any support provided to patients should be regularly reviewed.

Originality/value

The study represents the first to apply detailed analysis to this topic area and with a complex group.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

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