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Article

Joseph H.K. Lai, Francis W.H. Yik and Phil Jones

A clear definition of the responsibilities of the contracting parties is crucial to any contract. However, many building services maintenance contracts contain vague terms…

Abstract

A clear definition of the responsibilities of the contracting parties is crucial to any contract. However, many building services maintenance contracts contain vague terms that are often causes of disputes, suspension of work, unsatisfactory performance and financial losses. Common vague contract terms include those that require the contractor to be responsible for any replacement and restoration work arising from “fair wear and tear” and “vandalism”. Reports the findings of a survey of maintenance practitioners’ interpretations of these terms, and their experience with the use of such terms in building services maintenance contracts in Hong Kong.

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Facilities, vol. 22 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Abstract

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Grassroots Leadership and the Arts for Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-687-1

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Article

Coral R. Bayley‐Jones

The author explains research work about urban areas as tourist sources in the framework of research approach to urban recreation. Pressing need for indepth urban…

Abstract

The author explains research work about urban areas as tourist sources in the framework of research approach to urban recreation. Pressing need for indepth urban recreation research exists in consideration of the dynamic “process” of tourism.

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The Tourist Review, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article

Coral R. Bayley‐Jones

Campbell postulates that: first, the city as source area should be the focus of study in urban recreation research rather than the destination, which is more often…

Abstract

Campbell postulates that: first, the city as source area should be the focus of study in urban recreation research rather than the destination, which is more often selected by researchers; and that, second, concern should also focus on the spatial interaction of the city with the recreational area (Campbell, 1966, 87). He proposes a model to represent these concerns and in this he suggests that the type of movement pursued is related to the recreational experience desired and that the spatial distribution of the tourist industry is similarly associated.

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The Tourist Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article

Fabian Davis, Sue Alder and Phil Jones

This article explores some service development practices that help to promote social inclusion through day services modernisation (DSM). It is based on the experiences of…

Abstract

This article explores some service development practices that help to promote social inclusion through day services modernisation (DSM). It is based on the experiences of one NHS trust that successfully negotiated the transition from segregated, buildings‐based in‐house day care services operating during working hours to ones that are individualised, person‐focused and operate at times and in places used also by the general public, providing individual, person‐to‐person support to enable recovery and quality of life in the wider community. Key to success is the concept of the modern, inclusive day service as a community bridge builder operating across a number of life domains and spanning the mental health/community boundary while retaining strong connections with the rest of the mental health system.

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A Life in the Day, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-6282

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Article

Phil Edwards

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the settings, mechanisms and beneficiaries of restorative justice, querying whether a single procedure can have the wide-ranging…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the settings, mechanisms and beneficiaries of restorative justice, querying whether a single procedure can have the wide-ranging benefits – to victims, offenders and the broader community – which have been attributed to restorative justice.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper assesses the claims made for restorative justice in the light of contemporary British experience, taking evidence from the published evaluations of three Home Office-funded restorative justice schemes (Shapland et al., 2004, 2006a, 2007, 2008).

Findings

It is found that ideas of community have played little part in restorative justice practice in Britain, but that restorative justice may benefit both victims and offenders. Given the differing needs of the two groups, it is suggested that this may be conditional on the prior articulation of relationships of interdependency – which in turn may strengthen informal communities.

Originality/value

This paper clarifies the distinct benefits offered by restorative justice to victims and offenders, and reconceptualises the relationship between successful restorative justice practice and informal community relationships.

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Safer Communities, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article

Viorela Dan and Øyvind Ihlen

This article seeks to analyse the skills and knowledge that have a positive impact on the reproduction of the core frames of social actors in the mass media.

Abstract

Purpose

This article seeks to analyse the skills and knowledge that have a positive impact on the reproduction of the core frames of social actors in the mass media.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical discussion is accompanied by a cross‐cultural case study of the debate surrounding the leaked e‐mail correspondence between climate researchers at the University of East Anglia (UEA) in 2009. First, the authors analysed the framing work of the three main actors with their respective views, namely UEA and the blogs “Real climate”, “Climate audit” and “The air vent”. Second, they conducted an analysis of the media coverage of the issue in the UK, the USA, Germany and Norway, focusing on the importance of cultural factors, psychological biases and conformity to journalistic needs.

Findings

The literature review came to the conclusion that public relations practitioners stand good chances to succeed with their framing when they are able to conceive a message in a way that: is resonant with the underlying culture; appeals to psychological biases; and conforms to journalistic needs. The authors use “framing expertise” as an umbrella term for the knowledge and the skills related to these aspects when designing and promoting frames. In the case study, these theoretical assumptions were tested. While three different frames dominated the discourse, no clear winner of the framing contest was observed. Though qualitative differences in their framing expertise were noted, the frames of all of the strategic actors were accepted in the media, perhaps due to the norms of journalistic balance.

Research limitations

As this study is based on a single case, more research is needed to back up the findings and elaborate on the knowledge and skills needed when framing an issue.

Originality/value

The article pulls together, discusses and elaborates on a body of literature that thus far has been scattered, and makes contributions towards a better understanding of what it is that public relations practitioners actually do.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article

Joseph Lai, Francis Yik and Phil Jones

The recession in the late 1990s in Hong Kong has triggered many commercial building owners to cut operation and maintenance (O&M) cost via outsourcing. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The recession in the late 1990s in Hong Kong has triggered many commercial building owners to cut operation and maintenance (O&M) cost via outsourcing. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dominant expenditure on O&M service and examine the relation between extent of outsourcing and rental income of the buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

Experienced O&M practitioners were interviewed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data of the commercial buildings they looked after. The in‐house and outsourced O&M costs, air‐conditioning energy costs, rental incomes, and management and air‐conditioning fees for the buildings were analysed.

Findings

The total air‐conditioning O&M cost is the principal cost item, with the energy cost being the dominant element. The analysis reveals that the extent of outsourcing bore little correlation with the air‐conditioning O&M cost and the rental income.

Research limitations/implications

Further work may take a similar approach to identify the extent and effect of outsourcing other kinds of services that underpin the core business of an organisation.

Practical implications

Varying the extent of outsourcing O&M service was found to be unpromising for enhancing rental performance or cutting O&M expenditure. This is an important point that the building managers should address when considering whether to go for outsourcing.

Originality/value

The findings imply that in the building O&M service industry, it would be more economical to outsource or undertake in‐house the vast majority of O&M work. The focus for cost minimization should be to improve building energy performance rather than reducing labour resources through outsourcing.

Details

Facilities, vol. 26 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article

Joseph H.K. Lai, Francis W.H. Yik and Phil Jones

Building operation and maintenance (O&M) service, which embraces a wide range of specialist trades, has been increasingly outsourced through discrete contracts. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Building operation and maintenance (O&M) service, which embraces a wide range of specialist trades, has been increasingly outsourced through discrete contracts. This paper aims to study the issues critical to outsourced O&M contracts for commercial buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes a transaction cost approach to analyse the findings from face‐to‐face interviews with 22 O&M practitioners in Hong Kong.

Findings

The analysis revealed that they practitioners generally had limited understanding about the concepts of contract. Lacking a standard form for O&M contracts, some contracts were formed rather loosely and irregularities in contract conditions are common. Disputes frequently arise from the scope of work although the practitioners considered well defined work scope is paramount to a successful contract.

Research limitations/implications

Besides the need to study how to improve practitioners' knowledge about O&M service contracts, further studies are required to investigate which or which combination of the contract concepts would be suitable for particular types of O&M contracts where their scale and complexity are dependent on the trade of work required to serve the building.

Originality/value

This paper uncovers a number of contractual issues that are critical to the performance of outsourced O&M service for commercial buildings.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article

Reijo Savolainen

The major aim of this study is to specify the ways in which rhetorical strategies are employed in Q&A (question and answer) discussion, and how information sources are…

Abstract

Purpose

The major aim of this study is to specify the ways in which rhetorical strategies are employed in Q&A (question and answer) discussion, and how information sources are used to support such strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on the analysis of 944 answers provided to the questions about global warming in Yahoo! Answers. The answers were analysed by means of descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis.

Findings

Twelve rhetorical strategies serving the ends of classic rhetorical appeals, i.e. ethos, pathos and logos, were identified. The answerers drew most frequently on strategies related to logos (for example, appeal to reason) and ethos (for example, appeal to authority), while the strategies serving the ends of pathos (for example, argument ad hominem) were less popular. To support the rhetorical strategies, the answerers mainly used scientific sources such as websites of research organizations and persuasive material like Youtube videos.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are based on the analysis of a Q&A site focusing on a controversial issue providing fertile ground for the use of rhetorical arguments.

Practical implications

The findings can be used in information literacy instruction. It would be easier for the users to evaluate the relevance and credibility of information if they become aware of the specific ways in which askers and answerers on Q&A sites make use of persuasive communication.

Originality/value

The study is unique in that it elaborates the ways in which rhetorical strategies are employed as ways of persuasive communication in Q&A discussion.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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