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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Tao Xue, Xiaobing Zhang and K.K. Tamma

A consistent implementation of the general computational framework of unified second-order time accurate integrators via the well-known GSSSS framework in conjunction with…

Abstract

Purpose

A consistent implementation of the general computational framework of unified second-order time accurate integrators via the well-known GSSSS framework in conjunction with the traditional Finite Difference Method is presented to improve the numerical simulations of reactive two-phase flows.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present paper, the phase interaction evaluation in the present implementation of the reactive two-phase flows has been derived and implemented to preserve the consistency of the correct time level evaluation during the time integration process for solving the two phase flow dynamics with reactions.

Findings

Numerical examples, including the classical Sod shock tube problem and a reactive two-phase flow problem, are exploited to validate the proposed time integration framework and families of algorithms consistently to second order in time accuracy; this is in contrast to the traditional practices which only seem to obtain first-order time accuracy because of the inconsistent time level implementation with respect to the interaction of two phases. The comparisons with the traditional implementation and the advantages of the proposed implementation are given in terms of the improved numerical accuracy in time. The proposed approaches provide a correct numerical simulation implementation to the reactive two-phase flows and can obtain better numerical stability and computational features.

Originality/value

The new algorithmic framework and the consistent time level evaluation extended with the GS4 family encompasses a multitude of past and new schemes and offers a general purpose and unified implementation for fluid dynamics.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Eric Daniel and Jean‐Claude Loraud

A numerical simulation of a two‐phase dilute flow (droplet‐gas mixture) is carried out by using a finite volume method based on Riemann solvers. The computational domain…

Abstract

A numerical simulation of a two‐phase dilute flow (droplet‐gas mixture) is carried out by using a finite volume method based on Riemann solvers. The computational domain represents a one‐ended pipe with holes at its upper wall which lead into an enclosure. The aim of this study is to determine the parameters of such a flow. More specially, an analytical solution is compared with numerical results to assess the mass flow rates through the vents in the pipe. Inertia effects dominate the dynamic behaviour of droplets, which causes a non‐homogeneous flow in the cavity. The unsteady effects are also important, which makes isentropical calculation irrelevant and shows the necessity of the use of CFD tools to predict such flows. No relation can be extracted from the numerical results between the gas and the dispersed mass flow rates across the holes. But a linear variation law for the droplet mass flow versus the position of the holes is pointed out, which is independent of the incoming flow when the evaporating effects are quite low.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Manmatha K. Roul and Sukanta K. Dash

The purpose of this paper is to compute the pressure drop through sudden expansions and contractions for two‐phase flow of oil/water emulsions.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compute the pressure drop through sudden expansions and contractions for two‐phase flow of oil/water emulsions.

Design/methodology/approach

Two‐phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations, using Eulerian–Eulerian model, are employed to calculate the velocity profiles and pressure drops across sudden expansions and contractions. The pressure losses are determined by extrapolating the computed pressure profiles upstream and downstream of the expansion/contraction. The oil concentration is varied over a wide range of 0‐97.3 percent by volume. The flow field is assumed to be axisymmetric and solved in two dimensions. The two‐dimensional equations of mass, momentum, volume fraction and turbulent quantities along with the boundary conditions have been integrated over a control volume and the subsequent equations have been discretized over the control volume using a finite volume technique to yield algebraic equations which are solved in an iterative manner for each time step. The realizable per phase k‐ ε turbulent model is considered to update the fluid viscosity with iterations and capture the individual turbulence in both the phases.

Findings

The contraction and expansion loss coefficients are obtained from the pressure loss and velocity data for different concentrations of oil–water emulsions. The loss coefficients for the emulsions are found to be independent of the concentration and type of emulsions. The numerical results are validated against experimental data from the literature and are found to be in good agreement.

Research limitations/implications

The present computation could not use the surface tension forces and the energy equation due to huge computing time requirement.

Practical implications

The present computation could compute realistically the two‐phase pressure drop through sudden expansions and contractions by using a two‐phase Eulerian model and hence this model can be effectively used for industrial applications where two‐phase flow comes into picture.

Originality/value

The original contribution of the paper is in the use of the state‐of‐the‐art Eulerian two‐phase flow model to predict the velocity profile and pressure drop through industrial piping systems.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Jingfa Li, Tao Zhang, Shuyu Sun and Bo Yu

This paper aims to present an efficient IMPES algorithm based on a global model order reduction method, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), to achieve the fast solution…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an efficient IMPES algorithm based on a global model order reduction method, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), to achieve the fast solution and prediction of two-phase flows in porous media.

Design/methodology/approach

The key point of the proposed algorithm is to establish an accurate POD reduced-order model (ROM) for two-phase porous flows. To this end, two projection methods including projecting the original governing equations (Method I) and projecting the discrete form of original governing equations (Method II) are respectively applied to construct the POD-ROM, and their distinctions are compared and analyzed in detail. It is found the POD-ROM established by Method I is inapplicable to multiphase porous flows due to its failed introduction of fluid saturation and permeability that locate on the edge of grid cell, which would lead to unphysical results.

Findings

By using Method II, an efficient IMPES algorithm that can substantially speed up the simulation of two-phase porous flows is developed based on the POD-ROM. The computational efficiency and numerical accuracy of the proposed algorithm are validated through three numerical examples, and simulation results illustrate that the proposed algorithm displays satisfactory computational speed-up (one to two orders of magnitude) without sacrificing numerical accuracy obviously when comparing to the standard IMPES algorithm that without any acceleration technique. In addition, the determination of POD modes number, the relative errors of wetting phase pressure and saturation, and the influence of POD modes number on the overall performances of the proposed algorithm, are investigated.

Originality/value

1. Two projection methods are applied to establish the POD-ROM for two-phase porous flows and their distinctions are analyzed. The reason why POD-ROM is difficult to be applied to multiphase porous flows is clarified firstly in this study. 2. A highly efficient IMPES algorithm based on the POD-ROM is proposed to accelerate the simulation of two-phase porous flows. 3. Satisfactory computational speed-up (one to two orders of magnitude) and prediction accuracy of the proposed algorithm are observed under different conditions.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Pradeep Hegde, K.N. Seetharamu, G.A. Quadir, P.A. Aswathanarayana, M.Z. Abdullah and Z.A. Zainal

To analyze two‐phase flow in micro‐channel heat exchangers used for high flux micro‐electronics cooling and to obtain performance parameters such as thermal resistance…

Abstract

Purpose

To analyze two‐phase flow in micro‐channel heat exchangers used for high flux micro‐electronics cooling and to obtain performance parameters such as thermal resistance, pressure drop, etc. Both uniform and non‐uniform micro‐channel base heat fluxes are considered.

Design/methodology/approach

Energy balance equations are developed for two‐phase flow in micro‐channels and are solved using the finite element method (FEM). A unique ten noded element is used for the channel descritization. The formulation also automatically takes care of single‐phase flow in the micro‐channel.

Findings

Micro‐channel wall temperature distribution, thermal resistance and the pressure drop for various uniform micro‐channel base heat fluxes are obtained, both for single‐ and two‐phase flows in the micro‐channel. Results are compared against data available in the literature. The wall temperature distribution for a particular case of non‐uniform base heat flux is also obtained.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis is done for a single micro‐channel and the effects of multiple or stacked channels are not considered. The analysis needs to be carried out for higher heat fluxes and the validity of the correlation needs to be ascertained through experimentation. Effects of flow mal‐distribution in multiple channels, etc. need to be considered.

Practical implications

The role of two‐phase flow in micro‐channels for high flux micro‐electronics cooling in reducing the thermal resistance is demonstrated. The formulation is very useful for the thermal design and management of microchannels with both single‐ and two‐phase flows for either uniform or non‐uniform base heat flux.

Originality/value

A simple approach to accurately determine the thermal resistance in micro‐channels with two‐phase flow, for both uniform and non‐uniform base heat fluxes is the originality of the paper.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

P. Anil Kishan and Sukanta K. Dash

The purpose of the present investigation is to compute the circulation flow of a liquid in a closed chamber when the liquid is fired by a gas jet through number of nozzles.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present investigation is to compute the circulation flow of a liquid in a closed chamber when the liquid is fired by a gas jet through number of nozzles.

Design/methodology/approach

The conservation equations for mass and momentum have been solved in a closed container along with the conservation of volume fraction of the secondary phase in order to take into account the gas phase present in the liquid. The drag force created by the gas on the liquid has been incorporated in the momentum equation as a source term and the resulting equations have been solved numerically using a finite volume technique in an unstructured grid employing a phase coupled pressure linked velocity solver for the pressure correction equation, which is usually known as the Eulerian Scheme for two phase flow solution. An eddy viscosity based kε turbulence model for the mixture was considered to update the fluid viscosity with iterations and capture the turbulence in the overall mixture rather than computing the individual turbulence in both the phases, which was found to be extremely time‐consuming and computationally unstable to some extent.

Findings

The model thus developed was tried to predict the circulation flow rate in an experimental setup where air was injected to drive the water in a long U tube setup. The computed circulation flow rate was found to be within 15 percent deviation from the experimentally observed values. The circulation flow rate of water was found to be increasing with the injected airflow rate. After this model validation, circulation flow rate of steel in an industrial size Ruhrstal‐Haraeus (RH)‐degasser was computed by injecting argon into the liquid steel through the up‐leg of the RH vessel. It was found that the circulation flow rate of steel in the RH degasser was increasing when the argon flow was being varied from 800 to 1,600 NL/min, which confirms the industrial findings.

Research limitations/implications

The present computation could not use the energy equation to compute the swelling of the gas bubbles inside the chamber due to huge computing time requirement.

Practical implications

The present computation could compute realistically the circulation flow rate of water in a U tube when fired by a gas jet by using a two‐phase Eulerian model and hence this model can be effectively used for industrial applications where two‐phase flow comes into picture.

Originality/value

The original contribution of the paper is in the use of the state‐of the‐art Eulerian two‐phase flow model to predict circulation flow in an industrial size RH degasser.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 16 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

E. Daniel, R. Saurel, M. Larini and J.C. Loraud

This paper investigates the multi‐phase behaviour of dropletsinjected into a nozzle at two separate wall locations. The physical featuresof the droplets (rate of mass…

Abstract

This paper investigates the multi‐phase behaviour of droplets injected into a nozzle at two separate wall locations. The physical features of the droplets (rate of mass, density and radius) at each injector location are identical. This system can be described by a two‐phase Eulerian—Eulerian approach that yields classical systems of equations: three for the gaseous phase and three for the dispersed droplet phase. An underlying assumption in the two phase model is that no interaction occurs between droplets. The numerical solution of the model (using the MacCormack scheme) indicates however that the opposite jets do interact to form one jet. This inconsistency is overcome in the current paper by associating the droplets from a given injection location with a separate phase and subsequently solving equations describing a multiphase system (here, three‐phase system). Comparison of numerical predications between the two‐phase and the multiphase model shows significantly different results. In particular the multiphase model shows no jet interaction.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Cheng Gao, Rui-Na Xu and Pei-Xue Jiang

Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to explore friction factor of single-phase fluid flow through porous media and the effects of local porous structure including…

Abstract

Purpose

Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to explore friction factor of single-phase fluid flow through porous media and the effects of local porous structure including geometry of grains in porous media and specific surface of porous media on two-phase flow dynamic behavior, phase distribution and relative permeability. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The 3D single-phase LBM model and the 2D multi-component multi-phase Shan-Chen LBM model (S-C model) are developed for fluid flow through porous media. For the solid site, the bounce back scheme is used with non-slip boundary condition.

Findings

The predicted friction factor for single-phase fluid flow agrees well with experimental data and the well-known correlation. Compared with porous media with square grains, the two-phase fluids in porous media with circle grains are more connected and continuous, and consequently the relative permeability is higher. As for the factor of specific porous media surface, the relative permeability of wetting fluids varies a little in two systems with different specific surface areas. In addition, the relative permeability of non-wetting fluid decreases with the increasing of specific surface of porous media due to the large flow resistance.

Originality/value

Fluid-fluid interaction and fluid-solid interaction in the SC LBM model are presented, and schemes to obtain immiscible two-phase flow and different contact angles are discussed. Two-off mechanisms acting on the wetting fluids is proposed to illustrate the relative permeability of wetting fluids varies a little in two systems with different specific surface.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Sajjad Haider, Nouman Ijaz, A. Zeeshan and Yun-Zhang Li

Numerous researchers have probed the peristaltic flows because of their immense usage in industrial engineering, biomedical engineering and biological sciences. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Numerous researchers have probed the peristaltic flows because of their immense usage in industrial engineering, biomedical engineering and biological sciences. However, the investigation of peristaltic flow in two-phase fluid of a rotating frame in the presence of a magnetic field has not been yet discussed. Therefore, to fulfill this gap in the existing literature, this paper will explicate the peristaltic flow of two-phase fluid across a rotating channel with the effect of wall properties in the presence of a magnetic field. The purpose of this study is to investigate the two-phase velocity distribution and rotation parameter when magneto-hydrodynamics is applied.

Design/methodology/approach

The constituent equations are solved under the condition of low Reynolds number and long wavelength. The exact method is used to attain the subsequent equations and a comprehensive graphical study for fluid phase, particulate phase velocity and flow rates are furnished. The impacts of pertinent parameters, magnetic field and rotation are discussed in detail.

Findings

It is witnessed that the velocity profile of particulate phase gets higher values for the same parameters as compared to the fluid phase velocity. Moreover, the axial velocity increases with different values of particle volume fraction, but in case of magnetic field and rotation parameter, it shows the opposite behavior.

Practical implications

The outcomes of study have viable industrial implementations in systems comprising solid-liquid based flows of fluids involving peristaltic movement.

Originality/value

The investigation of peristaltic flow in two-phase fluid of a rotating frame in the presence of a magnetic field has not been yet discussed. Therefore, to fulfill this gap, the present study will explicate the peristaltic flow of two-phase fluid across a rotating channel with the effect of wall properties in the presence of magnetic field.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

B. Markicevic and H.K. Navaz

The purpose of this paper is to develop a general numerical solution for the wetting fluid spread into porous media that can be used in solving of droplet spread into…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a general numerical solution for the wetting fluid spread into porous media that can be used in solving of droplet spread into soils, printing applications, fuel cells, composite processing.

Design/methodology/approach

A discrete capillary network model based on micro‐force balance is numerically implemented and the flow for an arbitrary capillary number can be solved. At the fluid interface, the boundary condition that accounts for the capillary pressure jump is used.

Findings

The wetting fluid spread into porous medium starts as a single‐phase flow, and after some particular number of the porous medium characteristic length scales, the multi‐phase flow pattern occurs. Hence, in the principal flow direction, the phase content (saturation) decreases, and in the lower limit for the capillary number sufficiently small, the saturation should become constant. This qualitative saturation behavior is observed irrespective of the flow dimensionality, whereas the quantitative results vary for different flow systems.

Research limitations/implications

The numerical solution has to be expanded to solve the spread of the fluid in the porous medium after there is no free fluid left at the porous medium surface.

Practical implications

It is shown that the multi‐phase flow can develop even on a small domain due to the porous medium heterogeneity. Neglecting the medium heterogeneity and flow type can lead to a large error as shown for the droplet spread time in the porous medium.

Originality/value

This is believe to be the only paper relating to solving the droplet spread into porous medium as a multi‐phase flow problem.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 19 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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