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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2021

John York, Kaley Lugo, Lukasz Jarosz and Michael Toscani

The purpose of this study is to understand how Amazon’s threat may impact the Pharmacy Industry as a whole and whether traditional drugstore chains such as consumer value…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand how Amazon’s threat may impact the Pharmacy Industry as a whole and whether traditional drugstore chains such as consumer value stores (CVS) Pharmacy will need to re-think their business strategy, especially in the digital space, to account for potential disruption.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a hypothetical case study used as a teaching exercise to guide the learner through a decision-making process. The case starts by presenting a disruption in the retail pharmacy business that the main character must navigate by using real-world data and insights, provided in the case, to formulate a recommendation.

Findings

In an extremely competitive and consolidated pharmacy market, Amazon has the potential to change the business entirely. CVS Health will potentially face strong headwinds from Amazon’s PillPack and a downward trend in prescription sales. Regardless of the new competition, CVS Health continues to be innovative in the space. Instead of being a one-trick pony, CVS has encompassed the mentality of becoming a one-stop-shop by expanding into areas such as specialty pharmacy, health clinics, pharmacy benefits management and innovative digital capabilities.

Originality/value

This paper provides the reader with existing and known information about the evolving retail pharmacy business and allows the reader to interpret the new information to make their own decision on how a digital business strategy team can account for potential disruption.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Trudi Aspden, Munyaradzi Marowa, Rhys Ponton and Shane Scahill

The New Zealand Pharmacy Action Plan 2016–20 acknowledges the young, highly qualified pharmacist workforce, and seeks to address pharmacist underutilisation in the wider…

Abstract

Purpose

The New Zealand Pharmacy Action Plan 2016–20 acknowledges the young, highly qualified pharmacist workforce, and seeks to address pharmacist underutilisation in the wider health setting. Anecdotal evidence suggests many recently qualified pharmacists are dissatisfied with the profession. Therefore, those completing BPharm programs after 2002, who had left or were seriously considering leaving the New Zealand pharmacy profession, were invited to comment on future-focused pharmacy documents, and the current direction of pharmacy in New Zealand.

Design/methodology/approach

An online questionnaire was open December 2018 to February 2019. Recruitment occurred via e-mail lists of universities and professional organisations, print and social media, and word-of-mouth. Free-text responses were thematically analysed using a general inductive approach.

Findings

From the 328 analysable surveys received, 172 respondents commented on the documents and/or direction of the pharmacy profession. Views were mixed. Overarching document-related themes were positive direction, but concern over achievability, the lack of funding details, lack of implementation, their benefits for pharmacists and the public, and ability to bring about change and secure a future for the profession. Overall pharmacy was considered an unattractive profession needing to change.

Originality/value

This study highlights dissatisfied recent BPharm graduates agree with the vision in the documents but do not see progress towards achieving the vision occurring, leading to frustration and exit in some cases. Policymakers should be aware of these views as considerable resource goes into their development.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Yaifa Trakulsunti and Lamphai Trakoonsanti

The aims of this paper are to illustrate the use of Lean tools to reduce inpatient waiting time and to evaluate critical success factors of Lean implementation in an…

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this paper are to illustrate the use of Lean tools to reduce inpatient waiting time and to evaluate critical success factors of Lean implementation in an inpatient pharmacy in a Thai public hospital.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was carried out through action research methodology by following four key phases: identification of problems; planning action; taking action; and evaluation. In the “taking action” phase, Lean tools, including value stream mapping and 5S were implemented to improve dispensing process in an inpatient pharmacy. In the “evaluation phase”, the critical success factors of Lean implementation in an inpatient pharmacy were evaluated by the participants.

Findings

Lean methodology was successfully implemented to reduce the waiting time associated with a three days dose distribution system. As a result of Lean application, the average process time reduced from 8.81 to 7.2 min and the standard deviation reduced from 5.49 to 4.45 min. Moreover, the support of middle management and the leadership were the key success factors of Lean implementation in an inpatient pharmacy.

Practical implications

Hospitals can improve the dispensing process by using Lean tools which are easy to apply and use. This study is appropriate for hospital managers looking for changes in pharmacy services or other departments.

Originality/value

This is the first study that has applied Lean tools to improve the dispensing process in an inpatient pharmacy in Thai hospitals. This study offers important insights into the critical success factors of Lean employment in the inpatient pharmacy.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Dana Barghouth, Ghaith M. Al-Abdallah and Ayman Bahjat Abdallah

This study aims to examine the effects of pharmacy service factors (namely, medication teaching, service promptness, pharmacist attitudes, medication supply and pharmacy

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of pharmacy service factors (namely, medication teaching, service promptness, pharmacist attitudes, medication supply and pharmacy location) on patient satisfaction with community pharmacies in Jordan and to explore the effect of patient satisfaction on pharmacy performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Descriptive analytical methodology, with a quantitative approach using survey strategy was applied. The study population represented the whole population of Jordan (2.033 million households). Data were collected using an online questionnaire. A convenient quota sample of 1,000 respondents was targeted; 502 valid questionnaires were returned, representing an effective response rate of 50.2%. The study hypotheses were tested using path analysis.

Findings

The results showed that the service factors contributing most significantly to patient satisfaction in Jordan are medication supply, pharmacist attitudes, medication teaching and service promptness, in descending order of influence. Meanwhile, the effect of pharmacy location on patient satisfaction proved to be insignificant. In addition, patient satisfaction proved to have a highly positive impact on pharmacy performance.

Originality/value

This study addresses a debatable issue in the literature regarding the influence that pharmacy service factors can have on patient satisfaction. In addition, to the best of the researchers’ knowledge, this is the first study to explore the proposed effects in Jordan. It is also one of the first to investigate the effect of patient satisfaction on community pharmacy performance.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2009

Michael W. Stebbins, Judy L. Valenzuela and Jean-Francois Coget

Since 1973, the pharmacy operations division of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program (KPMCP) has used long-term action research programs as the principal method for…

Abstract

Since 1973, the pharmacy operations division of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program (KPMCP) has used long-term action research programs as the principal method for orchestrating change. This chapter covers the evolution of action research theory within large, complex organizations, with particular attention to health care organizations. Four case examples from KPMCP are discussed in depth and mapped to the recently advanced Roth model of insider action research. This model considers external and internal business context, the perceived need to create new organizational capabilities, as well as insider action research theory and learning mechanisms used in change programs. Issues posed by the Roth model are explored, and new theory is advanced regarding the need for a long-term perspective, the advantages and difficulties posed when managers act as insider action researchers, and the quality of data gathering that takes place during insider action research change programs.

Details

Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-547-1

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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2015

Michael W. Stebbins and Judy L. Valenzuela

This chapter describes two change efforts involving participatory action research within the pharmacy operations division of Kaiser Permanente. Focus is on a parallel…

Abstract

This chapter describes two change efforts involving participatory action research within the pharmacy operations division of Kaiser Permanente. Focus is on a parallel learning mechanism that has been used to support communications and change during two large-scale information technology interventions. It begins with basic background information on participatory action research in organizations. Since the case setting is Kaiser Permanente, the chapter provides some information on the U.S. healthcare industry context and then shifts to Kaiser’s communication forum, a learning mechanism that has been in place for 35 years. Cognitive, structural, and procedural aspects of the learning mechanism are explored, and the chapter features interviews with some of the key forum players. Both in the forum’s infancy and in its current more institutionalized state, the pharmacy organization has been in crisis. Implications for the use of parallel learning structures on a long-term basis to support long-term participatory action research are explored along with contributions to theory on insider/outsider action research.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2010

Yang Xie, John M. Brooks, Julie M. Urmie and William R. Doucette

Objective – To examine whether local area pharmacy market structure influences contract terms between prescription drug plans (PDPs) and pharmacies under Part D.Data …

Abstract

Objective – To examine whether local area pharmacy market structure influences contract terms between prescription drug plans (PDPs) and pharmacies under Part D.

Data – Data were collected and compiled from four sources: a national mail survey to independent pharmacies, National Council for Prescription Drug Programs (NCPDP) Pharmacy database, 2000 U.S. Census data, and 2006 Economic Census data.

Results – Reimbursements varied substantially across pharmacies. Reimbursement for 20mg Lipitor (30 tablets) ranged from $62.40 to $154.80, and for 10mg Lisinopril (30 tablets), it ranged from $1.05 to $18. For brand-name drug Lipitor, local area pharmacy ownership concentration had a consistent positive effect on pharmacy bargaining power across model specifications (estimates between 0.084 and 0.097), while local area per capita income had a consistent negative effect on pharmacy bargaining power across specifications(−0.149 to −0.153). Few statistically significant relationships were found for generic drug Lisinopril.

Conclusion – Significant variation exists in PDP reimbursement and pharmacy bargaining power with PDPs. Pharmacy bargaining power is negatively related to the competition level and the income level in the area. These relationships are stronger for brand name than for generics. As contract offers tend to be non-negotiable, variation in reimbursements and pharmacy bargaining power reflect differences in initial insurer contract offerings. Such observations fit Rubinstein's subgame perfect equilibrium model.

Implication – Our results suggest pharmacies at the most risk of closing due to low reimbursements are in areas with many competing pharmacies. This implies that closures related to Part D changes will have limited effect on Medicare beneficiaries’ access to pharmacies.

Details

Pharmaceutical Markets and Insurance Worldwide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-716-5

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 6 May 2019

Denise Alexander, Uttara Kurup, Arjun Menon, Michael Mahgerefteh, Austin Warters, Michael Rigby and Mitch Blair

There is more to primary care than solely medical and nursing services. Models of Child Health Appraised (MOCHA) explored the role of the professions of pharmacy, dental…

Abstract

There is more to primary care than solely medical and nursing services. Models of Child Health Appraised (MOCHA) explored the role of the professions of pharmacy, dental health and social care as examples of affiliate contributors to primary care in providing health advice and treatment to children and young people. Pharmacies are much used, but their value as a resource for children seems to be insufficiently recognised in most European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries. Advice from a pharmacist is invaluable, particularly because many medicines for children are only available off-label, or not available in the correct dose, access to a pharmacist for simple queries around certain health issues is often easier and quicker than access to a primary care physician or nursing service. Preventive dentistry is available throughout the EU and EEA, but there are few targeted incentives to ensure all children receive the service, and accessibility to dental treatment is variable, particularly for disabled children or those with specific health needs. Social care services are an essential part of health care for many extremely vulnerable children, for example those with complex care needs. Mapping social care services and the interaction with health services is challenging due to their fragmented provision and the variability of access across the EU and EEA. A lack of coherent structure of the health and social care interface requires parents or other family members to navigate complex systems with little assistance. The needs of pharmacy, dentistry and social care are varied and interwoven with needs from each other and from the healthcare system. Yet, because this inter-connectivity is not sufficiently recognised in the EU and EEA countries, there is a need for improvement of coordination and with the need for these services to focus more fully on children and young people.

Details

Issues and Opportunities in Primary Health Care for Children in Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-354-9

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2010

Ian McCarthy

With expenditures totaling $227 billion in 2007, prescription drug purchases are a growing portion of the total medical expenditure, and as this industry continues to…

Abstract

With expenditures totaling $227 billion in 2007, prescription drug purchases are a growing portion of the total medical expenditure, and as this industry continues to grow, prescription drugs will continue to be a critical part of the larger health care industry. This chapter presents a survey on the economics of the US pharmaceutical industry, with a focus on the role of R&D and marketing, the determinants (and complications) of prescription drug pricing, and various aspects of consumer behavior specific to this industry, such as prescription drug regulation, the patient's interaction with the physician, and insurance coverage. This chapter also provides background in areas not often considered in the economics literature, such as the role of pharmacy benefit managers in prescription drug prices and the differentiation between alternative measures of prescription drug prices.

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Md. Mahiuddin Sabbir, Mazharul Islam and Samir Das

This study aims to understand the determinants of online pharmacy or epharmacy adoption among young consumers in Bangladesh using an extended unified theory of acceptance…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the determinants of online pharmacy or epharmacy adoption among young consumers in Bangladesh using an extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured Google Docs questionnaire was sent out to 420 respondents using messenger service; 285 useable responses were finally extracted. Data were empirically validated using the two-staged structural equation model (SEM)-neural network analysis approach.

Findings

The robustness of the classical UTAUT model remains intact in the context of online pharmacy adoption. Among the integrated variables, while perceived trust and health literacy were found significant, perceived risk and personal innovativeness were found insignificant in determining consumers’ intention to adopt online pharmacy. The neural network analysis provided further verification of these findings derived from the SEM.

Practical implications

The findings of this study would facilitate in devising better strategies for entering or expanding online pharmacy business in developing countries such as Bangladesh.

Originality/value

The originality of the current study relates to the two-fold contributions of this study. First, while this study extended the classical UTAUT model by incorporating perceived risk, perceived trust, personal innovativeness and health literacy, the inclusion of the following two variables is fresh within the extant online pharmacy literature. Second, by using a two-staged SEM-neural network analysis approach, this study advances the past studies on e-commerce adoption in pharmaceutical settings and provides a general understanding of the customers of developing countries.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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