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1 – 10 of over 3000
Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Shahab Alam Malik and Rashid Ahmad Khan

This paper aims to offer a schema for carrying out a comprehensive training needs assessment (TNA) of medical representatives. The schema answers commonly posed questions…

2899

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer a schema for carrying out a comprehensive training needs assessment (TNA) of medical representatives. The schema answers commonly posed questions, the journalistic six.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 292 medical representatives (trainees) and 60 training/sales managers (trainers) from 32 pharmaceutical organizations of Pakistan was surveyed. The study attempted to answer the why, what, when, and where aspects of TNA by using correlation and two independent samples t‐test. Who‐ and how‐related aspects were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Findings

The results reveal that the perspectives of trainers and trainees are fully and partially consistent with each other on competency‐based TNA (why), and TNA inputs and TNA products/outcomes (what) respectively. However, a significant difference is found befallen TNA time‐line (when) and TNA situate (where). The results related to TNA decision makers (who), and TNA mechanisms (how) reveal a range of options.

Research limitations/implications

Reliance on data elicited with one shot can border the issue of generalization. Therefore, to compensate this, the study design is explained in fair detail.

Practical implications

The study identifies the gap between the existing literature on the journalistic six on TNA and the perceptions of the study participants on prevailing practices. To fill this gap, the study offers a framework to the pharmaceutical organizations for conducting a comprehensive TNA of their medical representatives.

Originality/value

The proposed schema reveals a set of six coherent areas to be considered for conducting a comprehensive TNA.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Fadi M. Alkhateeb, Patricia Baidoo, Marija Mikulskis Cavana, Danielle Gill, Amanda Howell, Babak Mehraeen and Carrie Weidner

Pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) have been shown to influence the prescribing patterns of physicians. Some of the blame has been shifted from physicians to PSRs…

1096

Abstract

Purpose

Pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) have been shown to influence the prescribing patterns of physicians. Some of the blame has been shifted from physicians to PSRs due to perceived inadequacies in PSRs' education and certification. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding the current certification requirements for PSRs, motivation for nationally standardized certification and the controversy surrounding pharmaceutical detailing impact on physicians' prescribing behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Articles related to certification for PSRs were identified via searches of PubMed and IPA from inception to March 2011. Search terms included PSRs, PSRs certification, PSRs registration, PSRs education, and PSRs requirements. Articles describing the roles and responsibilities of PSRs, physician and public perception of PSRs, certification processes, and the future of PSRs' roles were included. An internet search was also performed to identify articles in the lay press related to this topic.

Findings

This paper shows that the certification for PSRs may become necessary, or even required, to help ensure that the prescribing patterns of physicians are not negatively affected due to false information coming from the PSRs. Therefore, ensuring that PSRs are well certified can lead to better health outcomes for patients. Although pharmaceutical companies do not require certification to gain employment as a sales representative, the certification provides a good knowledge base and insight into the industry.

Originality/value

The paper shows that appropriate training and certification of PSRs may be on the rise for this career path.

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2008

Annette Ryerson

To date, a general self‐efficacy concept has been the standard model for prediction of sales performance, and there has yet to be a published study that combines the three…

1781

Abstract

Purpose

To date, a general self‐efficacy concept has been the standard model for prediction of sales performance, and there has yet to be a published study that combines the three variables: sales performance, self‐efficacy, and sales communication behaviors. It is proposed that a model which takes into account the behaviors of getting, giving, using, and planning, and the self‐efficacy of these behaviors, will be a better predictor of sales performance in sales representatives.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a sampling of 110 pharmaceutical sales representatives to measure general self‐efficacy, specific self‐efficacy, behaviors, and sales performance. With the data, the research tested nine hypotheses.

Findings

The self‐efficacy of behaviors such as getting, giving, using, and planning are positively correlated with performance of these behaviors. Increased self‐efficacy of behaviors actually proved to decrease performance of those behaviors, yet the increase in behaviors resulted in increased sales performance.

Originality/value

The differentiation of specific self‐efficacy, with regard to the behaviors of getting, giving, using, and planning, proved to be a superior indicator of sales performance as opposed to general self‐efficacy. Although the findings of this study were not what was originally intended, the inverse nature of the results prove that a model of this nature will assist management in predicting and managing levels of productivity within their sales force.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

John F. Riggs, Scott Widmier and Richard E. Plank

The purpose of this research is to develop a taxonomy of the impact of sales process regulations, guidance statements and laws (henceforth, referred to as “regulations”…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to develop a taxonomy of the impact of sales process regulations, guidance statements and laws (henceforth, referred to as “regulations”) on sales behaviours within the pharmaceutical industry, particularly as it relates to those within the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the large number of regulations, guidance statements and laws and sales behaviours that comprise the domain of this study, this research uses a “multicenter, parallel-arm clinical trial data gathering method”. This approach aggregated or “stacked” the responses from three individual questionnaires; 7,493 total observations generated by 381 respondents were analyzed.

Findings

The analysis produced a six-cluster solution of regulations, guidance statements and laws indicating distinct taxonomic structures of items that affect selling activities.

Research limitations/implications

The research was conducted with a single firm in the USA. Therefore, results may not be applicable to other geographical areas, firms and industries.

Practical Implications

The knowledge of which behaviours are perceived by the salespeople to be impacted by what regulations, guidance statements and laws provides managers with a useful tool to sort their own companies’ regulations on the basis of the classification scheme.

Originality/value

This paper provides a novel taxonomic approach to organize sales activities affected by regulations, guidance statements and laws which provides a look at the unintended consequences of the item not compliance. Additionally, it uses a research methodology relatively unknown to social science inquiry.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2000

Robert L. Engle and Michael L. Barnes

A 42‐question survey on usage and beliefs regarding sales force automation (SFA) was collected, along with actual sales performance data, on 1,641 sales representatives of…

3684

Abstract

A 42‐question survey on usage and beliefs regarding sales force automation (SFA) was collected, along with actual sales performance data, on 1,641 sales representatives of a large international pharmaceutical company in Germany, England, and the United States. The relationships between beliefs and usage and individual sales performance were examined both within and across countries and a cost‐benefit analysis completed. Factor analysis identified five usage groupings including: Planning and territory management; Administration and external information exchange; Within company communication; Active sales tool; and Passive sales tool. Significant usage, belief, and performance differences between countries were found, with the use of SFA explaining 16.4 per cent of the variance in sales performance across countries. General findings indicated that management and representatives believed SFA to be useful. US$22.2 million in sales increases were found to be attributable to SFA usage. At the same time, non‐discounted cash flow payback periods were found to range from 6.2 to 7.4 years. Potential contributing factors and implications are discussed.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Genevieve Elizabeth O’Connor

This paper aims to review the progression of the pharmaceutical industry through the lens of government legislation in the USA. The goal of this paper is to provide a…

1516

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the progression of the pharmaceutical industry through the lens of government legislation in the USA. The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of pharmaceutical marketing practices while providing direction for emerging pricing and promotional approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper offers a comprehensive review of pharmaceutical marketing practices through an exhaustive review of the literature. Further, suggestions are made based on emerging marketing techniques found in the literature.

Findings

Changes in government legislation will continue to play a significant role in promotional activities of the pharmaceutical industry. This study identifies specific pricing and promotional tools the pharmaceutical industry can use in response to these emerging changes. Specific actions such as enhancing public image, reconfiguring sales forces, outsourcing and optimizing the pricing mix are suggested.

Practical implications

This paper presents clear guidelines for managers by affording applicable practical tools to offset changes posed by government legislation.

Originality/value

This paper seeks to fill a gap in research surrounding pricing and promotion in the pharmaceutical industry. Further, this paper offers concrete pricing and promotional approaches for pharmaceutical management.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2010

Charles E. Pettijohn, Elizabeth J. Rozell and Andrew Newman

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between salesperson emotional intelligence, dispositional affectivity, and customer‐orientation levels in…

2666

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between salesperson emotional intelligence, dispositional affectivity, and customer‐orientation levels in pharmaceutical marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 71 pharmaceutical salespeople working in the UK provided responses to scales designed to assess emotional intelligence, dispositional affectivity (positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) and customer orientation). The emotional intelligence and dispositional affectivity scores provided by the salespeople were then analyzed to determine the degree to which they related to customer‐orientation levels.

Findings

The findings indicate that salesperson emotional intelligence levels are positively correlated with their customer‐orientation scores. Positive dispositional affectivity levels are also significantly correlated with salesperson customer‐orientation levels. This result suggests that UK pharmaceutical salespeople who possessed more PA tended to also be more positively oriented to the customer. However, NA levels are not significantly correlated with salesperson customer‐orientation levels.

Research limitations/implications

From a theoretical perspective, these findings provide a venue for future research in professional sales which could focus on the relationships existing between salesperson behaviors/characteristics that relate to salesperson customer‐orientation, skills, social desirability, and performance.

Practical implications

From a practical basis, the findings suggest that pharmaceutical firms in the UK who are focused on increasing the customer‐orientation levels of their sales force would be well advised to assess the emotional intelligence and dispositional affectivity levels of both their potential and current salespeople and use this information in their selection and training activities.

Originality/value

The research reported provides an initial assessment of the relationship between these variables in a pharmaceutical sales situation in the UK.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Minna Matikainen, Leena Olkkonen, Nina Katajavuori, Petri Parvinen and Anne Juppo

This study aims to examine the attitudes of physicians towards the pharmaceutical industry and investigates how these are reflected when a new drug is introduced.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the attitudes of physicians towards the pharmaceutical industry and investigates how these are reflected when a new drug is introduced.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative theme-interview study adopts the innovation diffusion perspective and is conducted with 22 general practitioners and specialists.

Findings

Physicians’ positive relationship orientation and active interaction can result in early adoption of new drugs with product advantage. In comparison, negatively oriented and passively interacting physicians will adopt a new drug later based on research evidence- and experience-based reasoning and opinions of their colleagues.

Research limitations/implications

The objective was to obtain a deeper understanding of the research themes. Further qualitative studies in different countries and health care environments with a larger sample size would improve generalizability of results.

Practical implications

It’s necessary to find an optimal win – win situation that fulfils both parties’ needs, while decreasing unnecessary and time-consuming marketing activities and avoiding waste of limited resources and allowing physicians to participate in activities that better serve their primary needs. Managers in pharmaceutical companies should ensure their sales representatives act in appropriate and professional ways, interact openly and reciprocally and provide accurate and objective information.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates that the physician–pharmaceutical industry relationship has developed from being ethically precarious and having non-professional related personal benefits, towards becoming a more sustainable collaboration. The mutually beneficial collaboration supports physicians’ professional development, enabling better patient care and relieving strain on limited resources.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Harindranath R.M. and Jayanth Jacob

In pharmaceutical marketing, salespeople require promotional instruments to satisfy and retain their customers (physicians), but companies ignore the need because of the…

Abstract

Purpose

In pharmaceutical marketing, salespeople require promotional instruments to satisfy and retain their customers (physicians), but companies ignore the need because of the costs involved. It appears that the importance of promotional support is understood differently by managers and sales representatives. This study aims at developing a new construct called “promotional support”, as a resource support provided to salespeople to help them satisfy customer needs and achieve sales goals.

Design/methodology/approach

A detailed review of literature is followed by in-depth interviews to create items for the construct “promotional support”. Substantive validity is performed for identification of items measuring the construct. To initially validate the measures, a vignette study is performed. Formative index development procedure is followed. Data from a sample of 124 pharmaceutical sales representatives are collected and analyzed.

Findings

A formative construct is developed which possesses convergent (redundancy analysis) and nomological validity. The results of post hoc validation tests like confirmatory tetrad analysis and inter-item correlation are satisfactory and confirm the authors’ conceptualization.

Research limitations/implications

The scale requires external validation by testing it with different samples such as managers of pharmaceutical firms.

Practical implications

This study will help managers of pharmaceutical firms gain insights into the role and importance of promotional inputs given to their sales representatives.

Originality/value

This study uses the formative scale development procedure to develop promotional support. This construct can be used to understand the effect of promotional support given to pharmaceutical sales representatives on other constructs, which in turn helps in theory-building.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Yam B. Limbu, C. Jayachandran, Barry J. Babin and Robin T. Peterson

Previous studies that examined the role of empathy and nonverbal immediacy on business-to-business (B2B) salesperson performance is limited in scope and yielded…

2807

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies that examined the role of empathy and nonverbal immediacy on business-to-business (B2B) salesperson performance is limited in scope and yielded inconclusive evidence. Grounded in Plank and Greene’s (1996) framework of salesperson effectiveness, this paper aims to empirically investigate the mediating role of adaptive selling behavior through which empathy and nonverbal immediacy influence sales force performance and the form of empathy (cognitive or affective) that has the most beneficial role in improving relationship (versus outcome) salesperson performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using cross-sectional data that were collected from 422 pharmaceutical sales representatives, this study used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

Adaptive selling behavior mediates the effect of perspective taking empathy and empathic concern on relationship performance. However, the impact of empathy on outcome performance is not significant through adaptive selling behavior, but perspective taking empathy has a direct influence on outcome performance. Contrary to expectations, nonverbal immediacy is not mediated by adaptive selling behavior but has a direct and positive impact on relationship performance.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study have several implications for recruitment, training and assessment of salespeople in a B2B context. Based on the empirical evidence, it is highlighted that firms may use different forms of empathy and nonverbal cues to promote adaptive selling behavior that impact sales force performance (i.e. outcome or relationship).

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study which simultaneously examines the mediating role of adaptive selling behavior in the relationship between three antecedent variables that relate to sales force empathy and nonverbal communication (i.e. perspective taking empathy, empathic concern and nonverbal immediacy) and two aspects of B2B sales performance (relationship and outcome).

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000