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Article

Tomi Oinas, Petri Ruuskanen, Mari Hakala and Timo Anttila

In this study, the authors examine whether social capital embedded in individuals' social networks is connected to employees' long-term income development in Finland.

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the authors examine whether social capital embedded in individuals' social networks is connected to employees' long-term income development in Finland.

Design/methodology/approach

Analyses are based on 25–35-year-old employees from the Finnish Living Conditions Survey of 1994 combined with register data on earned incomes from 1995 to 2016. The authors used questions addressing the frequency of meeting parents or siblings, spending free time with co-workers and participation in associational, civic or other societal activities as measures of the extent of network capital. Ordered logistic model was used to examine whether the size and composition of social networks differ by gender and socio-economic status. Linear growth curve models were employed to estimate the effect of social capital on long-term income development.

Findings

Results indicate minor differences in network composition according to gender, but large differences between socio-economic groups. The authors found that income development was faster for those who participated in civic activities occasionally or who met their relatives or co-workers on a monthly basis, that is, for the “middle group”.

Research limitations/implications

Results are generalizable only to Finnish or Nordic welfare state context. The authors’ measures of social capital come from cross-sectional survey. Thus, the authors are not able to address the stability or accumulation of social capital during life course. This restriction will probably cause the authors’ analysis to underestimate the true effect of social capital on earned incomes.

Practical implications

Moderate-level investments to network capital seem to be the most beneficial with regard to the long-term income development.

Social implications

The study results give support to the idea that social capital can be transformed into economic capital. The results also imply that in economic terms it is important to balance diverse forms of social capital. At the policy level, a special emphasis should be directed to employees with low-socio-economic position. These people are especially vulnerable as their low level of income is combined with network composition that hinders their further income development.

Originality/value

The combined survey and register data give unique insight on how the social capital embedded in individuals' social networks is connected with long-term income development.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article

Petri Ruuskanen, Kirsikka Selander and Timo Anttila

The purpose of this paper is to study the perceived job quality and job satisfaction among third-sector employees and compare job quality in the third, public and private…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the perceived job quality and job satisfaction among third-sector employees and compare job quality in the third, public and private sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on the quality of work life (QWL) survey data gathered by Statistics Finland. The QWL data are complemented with data set collected among third-sector employees. In the sector comparisons percentage shares were used to compare different dimensions of job quality between the sectors. Regression analysis was used to control the structural labour market differences between the sectors.

Findings

The results show that job quality in the third sector differs substantially from that in both the public and private sectors. Employees in the third sector are less satisfied with their jobs than others. They perceive their work more autonomous than others. Compared to private-sector employees, third-sector employees perceive their jobs as less insecure. They also report more intensity and qualitative insecurity than employees in other sectors.

Research limitations/implications

The sample consist only trade union members. The generalisability of results to non-unionized employees may be limited.

Originality/value

Previously it has been stated that third-sector employees enjoy greater job satisfaction due to intrinsic work benefits related to non-profit work. There is, however, small number of empirical studies trying to compare systematically job quality between the sectors. The present analysis contradicts the previous findings of higher job satisfaction in the third sector.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Article

T. Sridevi Dhanarani, C. Shankar, P. Prakash, T. K. Poornima Priyadharshani and K. Thamaraiselvi

The purpose of this paper is to minimize environmental problems related to raw poultry manure application by stabilizing its nutrient and organic matter (OM) content. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to minimize environmental problems related to raw poultry manure application by stabilizing its nutrient and organic matter (OM) content. This can be achieved by prior digestion before its application to agricultural soils.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study, changes in physicochemical and microbial properties of poultry litter were studied in order to evaluate the suitability of using the digested (stabilized) product for soil amendment. The poultry litter was digested in autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestor (ATAD) where organic solids were degraded and the heat released during the microbial degradation was used to maintain the thermophilic temperatures ( < 50ºC) at a hydraulic retention time of about 3 d.

Findings

Results of this study showed that the poultry litter undergoes physicochemical and microbial changes similar to other digestion systems; these changes include self-heating, relative increase in Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, P, K and NO3-N and decrease in microbial population numbers, C, OM and NH4-N contents.

Originality/value

ATAD is an effective method for the conversion of poultry litter into organic fertilizer, which can be readily applied to the agriculture land. ATAD is an eco-friendly, cost effective method which also reduces the length of stabilization.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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