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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2004

Linda C. Ueltschy, Robert F. Krampf and Peter Yannopoulos

Perceived consumer risk is explored in relation to online (Internet) purchasing using a cross‐national sample (N=562) from the United States, Canada and U.K. Objectives of…

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1180

Abstract

Perceived consumer risk is explored in relation to online (Internet) purchasing using a cross‐national sample (N=562) from the United States, Canada and U.K. Objectives of the study are to determine if experience in online purchasing reduces perceived risk, if perceived risk varies across product/service categories and if certain types of risk are more important in purchasing certain products/services. Lastly, does national culture affect perceptions of risk? Results are discussed and suggestions are offered to managers on how to reduce perceived risk, thus increasing online purchasing in the three countries examined.

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Multinational Business Review, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Fahri Karakaya, Peter Yannopoulos and Margarita Kefalaki

– As an exploratory study, the purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying motivations for attending soccer games.

Abstract

Purpose

As an exploratory study, the purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying motivations for attending soccer games.

Design/methodology/approach

Attendees at two soccer games in Athens, Greece were surveyed about their frequency of attendance at soccer games and their attitudes toward soccer. In total, 252 people from five randomly selected sections of the stadiums participated in the survey.

Findings

The results indicate that there are three major motivations – emotional excitement, socialization, and soccer atmospherics – and two identity salience factors – ardent soccer fans and rational soccer fans – for attending soccer games. The most important factor for attendance is being an ardent soccer fan closely followed by the emotional excitement factor. Among the demographic factors considered, only gender significantly affects soccer game attendance.

Originality/value

In contrast to previous studies that are somewhat descriptive, this research explicitly introduces factors related to social identity theory and attempts to predict soccer game attendance on the basis of a scale of factors that focus on the major motivations for attendance of soccer games, identity salience reasons, and demographic factors. The inclusion of social identity theory as a factor in the attendance of soccer games is a major contribution of this study. Contrary to most of the earlier studies, this study showed that the socialization factor is not related to attendance at soccer games.

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2010

Fahri Karakaya and Peter Yannopoulos

The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for defensive strategy by integrating market entry modes and the typology of firms suggested by Day and…

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3906

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for defensive strategy by integrating market entry modes and the typology of firms suggested by Day and Nedungandi, and to attempt to propose how local incumbent firms utilize their mental models in order to react against market entry of new competition in global markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical perspective adopted in the study is how mental models used by incumbent firms influence their reaction to market entry of new competition in developing defensive strategies to defend their markets.

Findings

Mental models of incumbent firms, categorized as self‐centered, competitor‐centered, customer‐oriented, and market‐driven firms, impact their reaction and the development of defensive marketing strategies against market entrants using a variety of market entry modes in global markets.

Originality/value

The paper presents an extensive review of the defensive marketing and mental models literature and shows how the way in which incumbent firms react to market entry of new competition contributes to understanding of incumbent reaction to market entry of new competition in global markets. Research directions for future research and managerial implications are also provided.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Cleopatra Veloutsou and Francisco Guzman

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134

Abstract

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Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

Mike Peters and Klaus Weiermair

The article deals with factors that act as an incentive to internationalisation of the hotels in the small‐to‐medium‐sized enterprises (SME) category in the traditional…

Abstract

The article deals with factors that act as an incentive to internationalisation of the hotels in the small‐to‐medium‐sized enterprises (SME) category in the traditional tourism countries, and also discusses the obstacles to internationalisation. The “OLI” approach according to Dunning (ownership advantages, location‐specific advantages, advantages of internalisation) is tested against the results of a survey of hotelkeepers in the Alpine countries, particularly Austria. It is not just the size of the enterprise that acts as a limit on the extent of internationalisation of SMEs. Other factors that determine the attitude taken towards internationalisation include market intelligence, financing problems, the degree of entrepreneurial spirit, and the specific nature of tourism services.

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The Tourist Review, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2001

George E. Nakos, Keith Brouthers and Robert Moussetis

The international economic trade environment has been transformed in recent years by the rise of several regional trade blocks. The most important of these regional trade…

Abstract

The international economic trade environment has been transformed in recent years by the rise of several regional trade blocks. The most important of these regional trade associations has been the European Union. Many Eastern European countries are currently applying to join this regional group, hoping that it will help their future economic growth. This paper examines the trade impact of EU membership on Portugal, a country that joined the EU in 1986. Portugal experienced significant positive and negative changes in its trade flows in the years following its EU entry. The analysis of the trade data for the first seven years following Portugal's accession shows a deterioration of the Portuguese trade deficit and a vary rapid re‐direction of Portuguese trade towards EU countries.

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Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Antonio Batocchio, Antonio Ghezzi and Andrea Rangone

The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the reasons why business models fail, while also identifying the features necessary to develop a method that enables…

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2998

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the reasons why business models fail, while also identifying the features necessary to develop a method that enables the evaluation of the implementation process of the business model, and is able to help in its development.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method (roadmap for implementation of business models – RIBM) is composed of nine steps, and seven initials conditions (limitations). Such conditions reduce its complexity (e.g. performance management system is defined in the company).

Findings

Some reasons why business models fail (alignment between value proposition and customer segment (value proposition); business model financial viability (costs and revenue); environmental constraints not fully integrated with the design of the business model (environment); business model execution (management), etc.) and made some considerations about the implementation of business models.

Research limitations/implications

This work was developed in a small business (with a small team and the external member). The business complexity level and number of processes involved are much smaller when compared with a mid-size or large company. Another factor that contributed to mitigating the problem is that the enterprise had a well-structured report once the owners had made annual analysis and discussed how to improve and expand the business.

Practical implications

In this application, RIBM showed a potential tool to minimize flaws in implementation processes of business models.

Originality/value

The business model concept is relatively new in the literature. And because of its strategic importance has been the target of all major schools in the area. This work, in particular, deals with the question-related failures that occur in the process of implementing business models.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Lesedi Tomana Nduna and Cine van Zyl

The purpose of this study is to investigate benefits tourist seek when visiting a nature-based tourism destination to develop a benefit segmentation framework.

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1278

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate benefits tourist seek when visiting a nature-based tourism destination to develop a benefit segmentation framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used quantitative research methods, with 400 self-administered survey administered to a sample of 400 tourists visiting the Kruger, Panorama, and Lowveld areas in Mpumalanga.

Findings

Cluster analysis produced two benefit segments. Binary logistic regression benefits that emerged from the cluster analysis were statistically significant predictors of the attractions tourists visited and the activities in which they participated during their stays in Mpumalanga. Factor-cluster analysis and binary logistic regression results were used to develop a benefit segmentation framework as a marketing planning tool.

Research limitations/implications

The study was only based on Mpumalanga Province and therefore, the results cannot be generalised. The study was conducted over one season, the Easter period

Practical implications

The proposed benefit segmentation framework provides a tool that destination management organisations can use to plan effectively for marketing.

Social implications

Effective marketing may lead to increased tourism growth which can have a multiplier effect on the destination.

Originality/value

This article is based on a master’s study conducted in Mpumalanga and results are presented on this paper.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Justin Beneke, Anne Greene, Inge Lok and Kate Mallett

The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceived risks that consumers associate with premium grocery private label brands in South Africa, and to understand which…

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5088

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceived risks that consumers associate with premium grocery private label brands in South Africa, and to understand which of these risks significantly affect their purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

A self‐administered survey consisting of 325 respondents was utilised. Item total reliability and confirmatory factor analysis were used to test the reliability and validity of the constructs. Furthermore, path modelling in the form of partial least squares analysis was employed to analyse the relationship between consumers' perceived risks and their purchase intention.

Findings

This study revealed that functional and time risk both have a significant negative influence on consumers' purchase intention of premium grocery private label brands (at the 5 per cent significance level), while financial, physical, psychological and social risks do not significantly influence their purchase intention.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited in that respondents are consumers of a specific geographic region and demographic grouping. Findings may therefore not be generalisable, particularly with respect to developed markets.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies investigating consumers' perceived risks of premium grocery private label brands sold within emerging markets. As retailers continue to grow profits through the deployment of such brands, this study may provide direction on how best to entice consumers to trial and adopt these brands in a largely commodity‐driven environment.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Ramulu Bhukya and Sapna Singh

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dimensions of perceived risk, which influence consumers’ purchase intention toward the retailers’ private labels. Based upon…

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4790

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dimensions of perceived risk, which influence consumers’ purchase intention toward the retailers’ private labels. Based upon the previous literature, majorly four dimensions of the perceived risk have been considered for the study. These include – perceived functional risk, perceived financial risk, perceived physical risk and perceived psychological risk.

Design/methodology/approach

Data have been collected by proceeding with mall intercept method and approached shoppers with the questionnaire at the outlets of large Indian retailers – Reliance retail, Aditya Birla’s More, Big Bazaar and Spencer’s. A total of 352 valid questionnaires were obtained, wherein responses were recorded on Likert-type scale anchoring five-points where 1 indicates strongly disagree and 5 indicates strongly agree. Then, the analysis was carried out by using Exploratory Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis.

Findings

Findings of this study revealed that perceived functional risk, perceived financial risk, perceived physical risk and perceived psychological risk have the direct negative and significant effects on consumers’ intention to purchase retailers’ private labels. Thus, all the hypotheses were accepted and all the findings of this study were in line with previous studies.

Research limitations/implications

A limited set of product categories and brands were analyzed.

Practical implications

This study is of great interest for large retailers who wish to increase their private labels’ value proposition, with an in-depth understanding of these risks it could alter their value proposition accordingly and create more successful private labels in the market place.

Originality/value

This study is one among the very few studies which addressed the research on purchase intention toward private labels in Indian context.

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