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Article

Peter Wilke and Thomas Bräunl

For intelligent robots in a multi‐agent system communication is essential for cooperative behavior. Here we describe the explicit communication between individual robots…

Abstract

For intelligent robots in a multi‐agent system communication is essential for cooperative behavior. Here we describe the explicit communication between individual robots acting as team members of a RoboCup team playing soccer. The robots are based on the EyeBot platform. An overview of communication systems being published and a discussion of their advantages and drawbacks is followed by an introduction into multi‐agent systems and the problems we faced applying them to the task of playing soccer. Then we describe the wireless communication network in detail including the EyeBot platform, message structures, self‐configuration and error recovery. The communication allows transmission of messages between individuals, broadcasts and communication with a remote computer workstation. The communication system is a layer beneath the multi‐robot console, which is the user interface, and above the EyeBot hardware.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Disarmament, Peace and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-854-5

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Russell Cropanzano, Marion Fortin and Jessica F. Kirk

Justice rules are standards that serve as criteria for formulating fairness judgments. Though justice rules play a role in the organizational justice literature, they have…

Abstract

Justice rules are standards that serve as criteria for formulating fairness judgments. Though justice rules play a role in the organizational justice literature, they have seldom been the subject of analysis in their own right. To address this limitation, we first consider three meta-theoretical dualities that are highlighted by justice rules – the distinction between justice versus fairness, indirect versus direct measurement, and normative versus descriptive paradigms. Second, we review existing justice rules and organize them into four types of justice: distributive (e.g., equity, equality), procedural (e.g., voice, consistent treatment), interpersonal (e.g., politeness, respectfulness), and informational (e.g., candor, timeliness). We also emphasize emergent rules that have not received sufficient research attention. Third, we consider various computation models purporting to explain how justice rules are assessed and aggregated to form fairness judgments. Fourth and last, we conclude by reviewing research that enriches our understanding of justice rules by showing how they are cognitively processed. We observe that there are a number of influences on fairness judgments, and situations exist in which individuals do not systematically consider justice rules.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-016-6

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Article

William Ross and Jessica LaCroix

The present paper reviews the research literature on trust in bargaining and mediation. Several models of trust within the bargaining process are also described. It is…

Abstract

The present paper reviews the research literature on trust in bargaining and mediation. Several models of trust within the bargaining process are also described. It is concluded that trust means different things, depending upon the relationship under investigation. Trust among negotiators can refer to a personality trail (how trusting a negotiator is of others) or to a temporary state. Within the state perspective, trust often refers to one of three orientations: (1) cooperative motivational orientation (MO), (2) patterns of predictable behavior, (3) a problem‐solving orientation. Trust between a negotiator and constituents usually refers to a cooperative MO (i.e., shared loyalty) between these two groups. The addition of a mediator can impact both the opposing negotiators' relationship and each negotiator‐constituent relationship; the mediator also has direct and indirect relationships with the parties and their constituents. Future directions for research on trust are identified.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

Alba Gonzalez Alvarez, Peter Ll. Evans, Lawrence Dovgalski and Ira Goldsmith

Chest wall reconstruction of large oncological defects following resection is challenging. Traditional management involves the use of different materials that surgeons…

Abstract

Purpose

Chest wall reconstruction of large oncological defects following resection is challenging. Traditional management involves the use of different materials that surgeons creatively shape intraoperatively to restore the excised anatomy. This is time-consuming, difficult to mould into shape and causes some complications such as dislocation or paradoxical movement. This study aims to present the development and clinical implantation of a novel custom-made three-dimensional (3D) laser melting titanium alloy implant that reconstructs a large chest wall resection and maintains the integrity of the thoracic cage.

Design/methodology/approach

The whole development process of the novel implant is described: design specifications, computed tomography (CT) scan manipulation, 3D computer-assisted design (CAD), rapid prototyping, final manufacture and clinical implantation. A multidisciplinary collaboration in between engineers and surgeons guided the iterative design process.

Findings

The implant provided excellent aesthetical and functional results. The virtual planning and production of the implant prior to surgery reduced surgery time and uncertainty. It also improved safety and accuracy. The implant sited nicely on the patient anatomy after resection following the virtual plan. At six months following implantation, there were no implant-related complications of pain, infection, dislocation or paradoxical movement. This technique offered a fast lead-time for implant production, which is crucial for oncological treatment.

Research limitations/implications

More cases and a long-term follow-up are needed to confirm and quantify the benefits of this procedure; further research is also required to design a solution that better mimics the chest wall biomechanics while preventing implant complications.

Originality/value

The authors present a novel custom thoracic implant that provided a satisfactory reconstruction of a large chest wall defect, developed and implanted within three weeks to address a fast-growing chondrosarcoma. Furthermore, the authors describe its development process in detail as a design guideline, discussing potential improvements and critical design considerations so that this study can be replicated for future cases.

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Article

Marcel Paulssen, Raphael Roulet and Sina Wilke

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the role of perceived risk as a moderator of the key relational mediators of satisfaction and trust, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the role of perceived risk as a moderator of the key relational mediators of satisfaction and trust, and second, to test the influence of perceived product value and social bonding as antecedents of brand satisfaction and brand trust to understand their effectiveness under different risk conditions. Palmatier et al. (2006) call for the study of moderators of relational mediators, such as trust and satisfaction, which may determine the effectiveness of different relationship marketing strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates business-to-consumer relationships between a car brand and its customers, applying structural equation modeling.

Findings

Results show that perceived risk moderates the mediating role of both brand trust and brand satisfaction on relationship outcomes. When perceived risk is low, brand satisfaction alone determines brand loyalty, whereas when perceived risk is high, brand trust exclusively determines brand loyalty. Thus, the effectiveness of social bonding tactics as a prime determinant of trust is contingent on consumers’ risk perceptions.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the present research is its focus on one product category. Further investigations should be conducted to expand the findings’ generalizability.

Practical implications

The often-recommended social bonding between boundary spanner and customers is only an effective relationship marketing strategy in situations of high perceived risk.

Originality/value

This study clarifies the role of perceived risk in marketing relationships by testing alternative models.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Gwyneth L. Moody and Peter G. Hartel

Few US universities choose an environmental literacy requirement (ELR) as a method to increase student environmental literacy. Even fewer universities have evaluated their…

Abstract

Purpose

Few US universities choose an environmental literacy requirement (ELR) as a method to increase student environmental literacy. Even fewer universities have evaluated their ELRs. The paper aims to assess the ELR at the University of Georgia (UGA) in Fall 2005 and Spring 2006 semesters.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 7,268 of the 13,740 students (53 percent) currently taking an ELR course and the 86 of 100 faculty teaching ELR courses were surveyed with a voluntary questionnaire on their awareness, support, and satisfaction for the requirement. The assessment involved 58 courses with 120 sections.

Findings

Although a majority of faculty (87 percent) was aware of the ELR, a majority of students (68 percent) was not. In spite of their awareness, most faculty (81 percent) did not know the specifics of the two ELR criteria. Both a majority of faculty (89 percent) and students (84 percent) supported the idea of an ELR. The ELR increased student knowledge (76 percent) and concern (65 percent) about environmental issues and changed some students’ behavior (26 percent). A majority of students (86 percent) and faculty (74 percent) were also satisfied with the ELR criteria and that the course they were taking (66 percent) or teaching (82 percent) satisfied the ELR. Most students (74 percent) thought that they were environmentally literate before taking an ELR course, although almost a majority of faculty (49 percent) thought students were environmentally illiterate.

Research limitations/implications

The evaluation showed widespread support and satisfaction with the requirement, but strong leadership, publicity, and continuous evaluation is needed to improve the requirement.

Originality/value

The UGA's ELR could serve as a model for other institutions.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Book part

Alyssa Mullins

Explanations for voluntary or intentional childlessness range from macro-level forces, such as feminism and access to contraceptives, to micro-level or individual…

Abstract

Explanations for voluntary or intentional childlessness range from macro-level forces, such as feminism and access to contraceptives, to micro-level or individual preferences, such as the prioritisation of leisure time over childrearing. However, some researchers contend that the decision (not) to have children is likely impacted by overlapping factors rather than a dichotomised characterisation of internal or external factors. This debate similarly reflects Pierre Bourdieu’s ‘third way’ theoretical and methodological orientation. Bourdieu argued against a false dichotomy between the influence of structure over an individual and the ability for individuals to make active, free choices. He instead claimed that the social world consists of a complex interplay of both individual and structural factors, which he conceptualised as habitus, capital and fields. This chapter initiates the link between current understandings of childbearing preferences with Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus (our taken-for-granted, internalised ideologies or identities), capital (economic, social, cultural and symbolic resources) and fields (the external social structures or institutions in which we interact) and proposes quantitative measures of childbearing habitus and capital.

This chapter consists of an exploratory comparison of characteristics of non-parents in relation to childbearing preferences, suggesting measures to identify deeply rooted childbearing habitus and the relationship between access to various forms of capital and the habitus. This study utilises survey responses from a sample of 972 childless men and women between 25 and 40 years of age, assessing measures of social support, cultural norms and economic resources in relation to participants’ preference to have or not to have children in the future. A multivariate nested logistic regression was conducted to explore the odds of identifying as voluntarily childless (VC) (not wanting or probably not wanting, to have children in the future) based on socio-demographic factors, as well as various measures of social, economic, cultural and symbolic capital. Findings indicate several variations in significant factors contributing to a preference to remain childfree. Measures of cultural capital, including gender ideologies and pronatalist ideologies, appeared to be the greatest predictors of childbearing habitus. These findings support research suggesting that VC adults are more egalitarian and less traditional in gender relations as well as pronatalist assumptions.

Details

Voluntary and Involuntary Childlessness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-362-1

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Environmental State Under Pressure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-854-5

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