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Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Miguel A. León-Ledesma, Peter McAdam and Alpo Willman

We examine the two-level nested constant elasticity of substitution production function where both capital and labor are disaggregated in two classes. We propose a…

Abstract

We examine the two-level nested constant elasticity of substitution production function where both capital and labor are disaggregated in two classes. We propose a normalized system estimation method to retrieve estimates of the inter- and intra-class elasticities of substitution and factor-augmenting technical progress coefficients. The system is estimated for US data for the 1963–2006 period. Our findings reveal that skilled and unskilled labor classes are gross substitutes, capital structures and equipment are gross complements, and aggregate capital and aggregate labor are gross complements with an elasticity of substitution close to 0.5. We discuss the implications of our findings and methodology for the analysis of the causes of the increase in the skill premium and, by implication, inequality in a growing economy.

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Economic Growth and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-397-2

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Angel Meseguer-Martinez, Simona Popa and Pedro Soto-Acosta

Research on Science parks (SPs) has attracted a growing interest in the last decades. This widespread innovation policy initiative pursues technology-based industrial and…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on Science parks (SPs) has attracted a growing interest in the last decades. This widespread innovation policy initiative pursues technology-based industrial and entrepreneurial growth through business development and technology transfer across new and mature firms. Despite the common agreement on SPs' potential benefits, literature have showed mixed results regarding the performance of SPs. To explain this findings, current research pointed out at the lack of a common guiding framework. To cover this knowledge gap, this manuscript proposes an integrative definition and research model together with a multidimensional measurement instrument suitable to encompass the diverse reality of this global phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a systematic literature review of 281 indexed journal articles published between 1990 and 2018, the paper provides an integrative framework of enabling factors of SPs' performance.

Findings

The results illustrate an integrative conceptual framework of SPs that allows further comparison and generalization of research. At the same time, this manuscript provides valuable insights for managers and entrepreneurs as it conveys a standardized view of SPs' internal context useful for benchmarking.

Originality/value

Grounded in the resource-based view (RBV), the paper conducts a thorough literature review to develop an integrative research model featuring three value streams: physical infrastructures, formal links and support services. In addition, a multidimensional measurement tool to operationalize these three dimensions is proposed.

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Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2001

Jérôme Henry and Peter McAdam

Mean breaks in the Franco-German interest rate differential prior to European Monetary Union can have an economic interpretation, namely gains or losses in credibility of…

Abstract

Mean breaks in the Franco-German interest rate differential prior to European Monetary Union can have an economic interpretation, namely gains or losses in credibility of the corresponding ERM central exchange rate. A variety of tests are used to detect such breaks, on daily data covering the 1990s. The analysis paints a broadly consistent picture of these breaks and how expectations evolved before EMU. Results suggest that credibility was characterised by gains as well as setbacks; however an effective convergence is found from 1996 onwards, suggesting a major increase of the credibility of the French participation to EMU around that date.

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European Monetary Union and Capital Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-128-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Peter McAdam and Ole Rummel

This paper considers the distributional dynamics of a well‐known corruption index. Specifically, we are interested in evaluating whether corruption is best characterized…

Abstract

This paper considers the distributional dynamics of a well‐known corruption index. Specifically, we are interested in evaluating whether corruption is best characterized as multimodal (i.e. pointing to clusters of countries with persistently different levels of corruption) and whether there have been significant changes (i.e. convergence or divergence) in the distribution of the perception of corruption across countries and over time. Using non‐parametric kernel density methods, our findings lend support to concerns expressed in the theoretical literature – namely, that corruption can be highly persistent, and characterized by multiple equilibria. This highlights and corroborates the conclusion that anti‐corruption campaigns must be sustained to be effective.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2001

Abstract

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European Monetary Union and Capital Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-128-6

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Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Abstract

Details

Economic Growth and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-397-2

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Ali J. Ahmad and Sarah Ingle

The purpose of this paper is to study the nature of the incubator manager (IM)‐client, client‐client and client‐IM‐client relationships that facilitate incubation activity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the nature of the incubator manager (IM)‐client, client‐client and client‐IM‐client relationships that facilitate incubation activity.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study methodology was adopted for undertaking the empirical work. The case organization was an Irish Dublin‐based university campus incubator. During the course of the research, which lasted six months, data were collected from high‐technology client firms and the incubator management using semi‐structured interviews, non‐participant observation and corporate documents.

Findings

Incubation is very much dependent on the quality of human relationships and occurs via a process of co‐production in dyads and triads. Without the voluntary and active participation of client firms, the mechanisms that facilitate co‐production break down. There is no one master incubation process, it is comprised of small micro‐processes each with its own norms, dynamic and stages depending on relational quality.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is based on a single case study using a qualitative, inductive and interpretive approach; the aim was analytic rather than statistical generalization, therefore, contributions are made to incubation theory.

Originality/value

The research makes a number of contributions; first, the amount of interaction among the incubation parties has the potential to both positively and negatively impact the overall quality of client experiences; second, levels of interaction and relational quality among a certain category of clients in the same incubator may be higher than others based on industrial affiliation; and third, brokerage behaviour by the IM that facilitates the connection of clients in consortia or links clients individually or in groups to unrelated outside agencies, improves the overall quality of the incubation environment.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Abstract

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Essays on Teaching Education and the Inner Drama of Teaching
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-732-4

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Michele O'Dwyer, Lisa O'Malley, Stephen Murphy and Regina C. McNally

This paper aims to recount the genesis of a successful innovation cluster among Irish-based divisions of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and Irish universities in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to recount the genesis of a successful innovation cluster among Irish-based divisions of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and Irish universities in the pharmaceutical industry. This cluster was actively “narrativized” through the language of obligation, desire, competence and know-how. As such, it is typical of the “hero’s quest” literary genre in which challenges are faced, obstacles are overcome and victory is ultimately won. Importantly, in this story, the cluster was morally and pragmatically charged with dealing with significant challenges faced by the Irish pharmaceutical industry. Broader societal discourses operated as a resource for actors to use in proposing collaboration and innovation as the appropriate response to such challenges. Specifically, through narrative and discourse, actors created the necessary conditions conducive for a cluster to develop. These created a discursively constituted shared purpose which ultimately ensured successful innovation collaboration. Essentially, through narrative and discourse, the key actors identified the collaboration a protagonist in pursuit of a quest. By linking theoretical and empirical insights, the paper offers a conceptual framework that can be used in future studies to understand the emergence of clusters.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting Wengraf’s (2001) structured approach to narrative interviewing, 18 key actors shared their understanding of how the cluster came into being. Each interview began with a single question intended to induce narrative, in this case “tell me the story of the cluster as you see it.” This allowed participants to be in control of their own story (Wengraf, 2001). Each interview was transcribed in full and appended to notes taken at the time of the interview. Each narrative offered a “purposeful account” (Jovchelovitch and Bauer, 2000) of how and why the cluster was formed and the centrality of the participants’ roles. In line with recognised protocols, in the authors analysis of data, they paid specific attention to how stories were told, the roles assigned to key protagonists, as well as how events and actors were linked in stories (see Czarniawska, 1997).

Findings

This paper further demonstrates how language, metaphor and narrative and discourse (Hatch, 1997) becomes a strategic resource on which actors can draw to create desired realities (Hardy et al., 2000) particularly in terms of collaboration and innovation. Further, this case highlights how dialogue was encouraged throughout the process of establishing the cluster and has continued to be an important element. Rather than imposing some grand design, the SSPC cluster is and always will be emergent. In this sense, in the early stages of collaboration, detecting and supporting existing and emergent communities is essential to success, and shared identity which is the outcome of members’ discursive practices appears to be a powerful driver of collaboration.

Research limitations/implications

There are important insights for cluster and innovation theory development that can be extrapolated from this study. First, context-specific narrative accounts provided in this study further extend the authors’ understanding of the process through which fundamental changes (innovation) in organisational activities are enacted (Ettlie and Subramaniam, 2004). Second, the authors’ understanding of how new ventures are attributed organisational legitimacy through language and story is augmented (Gollant and Sillince, 2007; Pentland, 1999). Third, the authors have articulated how different discourses are mobilised by actors at different stages of development and for different audiences to create desired innovation outcomes, illustrating that innovations can result from advances in knowledge (McAdam et al., 1998). Finally, the authors see how discourse and practice are dynamic as participants articulate their intention to exert further influence on innovation discourse through their lobbying activities.

Practical implications

By focusing on the specific problem of crystallisation, and using the discourse of collaboration, particularised ties emerged around SSPC and this inspired synergistic action. When seeking approval from host organisations, they spoke in terms of return on investment and the potential to add value, part of the discourse of organisational effectiveness. Consequently, the authors stress the benefits of understanding audiences and adjusting discursive approaches on this basis. As such, this study provides evidence that tailored discursive approaches can be used as a resource for managers and practitioners that are seeking to inspire innovation through collaboration.

Social implications

The discourse of collaboration also became a resource upon which actors could draw to articulate how they might respond to the context and realise the vision. Because this discourse is promoted in government reports and embodied in government strategy, the protagonists were able to borrow from the discourse to secure the necessary resources (in this case funding) that would enhance the possibilities of more effective collaboration. This is because different stakeholders engage with discourse in ways that help to create the outcomes they desire. It was noticeable that the leaders within the Solid State Pharmaceutical Cluster recognised the importance of discourse to innovation collaboration, and on this basis, they successfully adjusted the use of terminology in relation to the exchange partners they were addressing. When addressing potential partners within industry and academia, they utilised both the “burning platform” and “Ireland Inc.” metaphors to create generalised membership ties around the need for innovation and action.

Originality/value

First, context-specific narrative accounts provided in this study further extend the authors’ understanding of the process through which fundamental changes (innovation) in organisational activities are enacted (Ettlie and Subramaniam, 2004). Second, the authors have articulated how different discourses are mobilised by actors at different stages of development and for different audiences to create desired innovation outcomes, illustrating that innovations can result from advances in knowledge (McAdam et al., 1998). Finally, the authors see how discourse and practice are dynamic as participants articulate their intention to exert further influence on innovation discourse through their lobbying activities.

Details

Competitiveness Review, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Nadzeya Kuryan, Mohammad Saud Khan and Veronika Gustafsson

This paper aims to analyze born globals and business incubators from an empirical standpoint. Particularly, the role of business incubators in the emergence and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze born globals and business incubators from an empirical standpoint. Particularly, the role of business incubators in the emergence and development of born global firms is focused, thereby outlining the significance of incubator influence on rapid internationalization.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on extant literature on born globals, business incubators and their interrelationship that nurtures internationalization, a theoretical model is developed and empirically tested to analyze potential born globals residing in business incubators.

Findings

Due to services provided, such as infrastructure, business support and networking, business incubators create a favorable environment for rapid internationalization of their tenants. However, the initiative to go international comes from the incubatees, and the motivating role of business incubators in this process is fairly insignificant.

Originality/value

The incubator-incubation phenomenon is notably under-researched, with most of the literature focusing on “incubator topics.” This relationship is extremely important to understand to choose appropriate political measures and orchestrate effective management of business incubators.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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