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Article

Markus Vanharanta, Alan J.P. Gilchrist, Andrew D. Pressey and Peter Lenney

This study aims to address how and why do formal key account management (KAM) programmes hinder effective KAM management, and how can the problems of formalization in KAM…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address how and why do formal key account management (KAM) programmes hinder effective KAM management, and how can the problems of formalization in KAM be overcome. Recent empirical studies have reported an unexpected negative relationship between KAM formalization and performance.

Design/methodology/approach

An 18-month (340 days) ethnographic investigation was undertaken in the UK-based subsidiary of a major US sports goods manufacturer. This ethnographic evidence was triangulated with 113 in-depth interviews.

Findings

This study identifies how and why managerial reflexivity allows a more effectively combining of formal and post-bureaucratic KAM practices. While formal KAM programmes provide a means to initiate, implement and control KAM, they have an unintended consequence of increasing organizational bureaucracy, which may in the long-run hinder the KAM effectiveness. Heightened reflexivity, including “wayfinding”, is identified as a means to overcome many of these challenges, allowing for reflexively combining formal with post-bureaucratic KAM practices.

Research limitations/implications

The thesis of this paper starts a new line of reflexive KAM research, which draws theoretical influences from the post-bureaucratic turn in management studies.

Practical implications

This study seeks to increase KAM implementation success rates and long-term effectiveness of KAM by conceptualizing the new possibilities offered by reflexive KAM. This study demonstrates how reflexive skills (conceptualized as “KAM wayfinding”) can be deployed during KAM implementation and for its continual improvement. Further, the study identifies how KAM programmes can be used to train organizational learning regarding KAM. Furthermore, this study identifies how and why post-bureaucratic KAM can offer additional benefits after an organization has learned key KAM capabilities.

Originality/value

A new line of enquiry is identified: the reflexive-turn in KAM. This theoretical position allows us to identify existing weakness in the extant KAM literature, and to show a practical means to improve the effectiveness of KAM. This concerns, in particular, the importance of managerial reflexivity and KAM wayfinding as a means to balance the strengths and weaknesses of formal and post-bureaucratic KAM.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Content available
Article

Janet L. Nixdorff and Theodore H. Rosen

As of 2007, there were an estimated 10.4 million businesses in the United States that were owned and operated by women. The number of women-owned firms has continued to…

Abstract

As of 2007, there were an estimated 10.4 million businesses in the United States that were owned and operated by women. The number of women-owned firms has continued to grow at around twice the rate of all firms for the past two decades (Center for Women℉s Business Research, 2008). On the other hand, women comprise only 15.4 percent of corporate officers in Fortune 500 companies (Catalyst, 2007b) and, in 2003, held only 14.8 percent of board seats in the Fortune 500 (Catalyst, 2007a).To better understand the glass ceiling faced by both female entrepreneurs and women leaders, the research on women℉s issues is examined from a number of different vantage points. Women℉s entrepreneurship and women℉s leadership research on leadership, decision-making, and gender differences was examined to discover commonalities. Then female single-sex education literature was reviewed for insights on developmental issues that might influence future women entrepreneurs and leaders. In this exploration of research, it was found that both women entrepreneurs and women leaders in the corporate environment tend toward the same leadership styles and ways of interacting with others; they also experience a lack of role models and possible lack of self-efficacy.The literature on single-sex education provides observations that young women may thrive in environments in which there are fewer male competitors, hold less stereotyped views on gender, hold higher aspirations, may have greater opportunities for training of leadership skills, and may have increased self-confidence that may be the result of exposure to successful women role models. Implications for future research are explored and suggestions are provided to meet the needs of developing women entrepreneurs.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

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Article

Peter T. Coleman, Jennifer S. Goldman and Katharina Kugler

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how people's gender‐role identities (self‐identified masculinity and femininity) affect their perceptions of the emotional role…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how people's gender‐role identities (self‐identified masculinity and femininity) affect their perceptions of the emotional role of the humiliated victim in conflicts (and the norms surrounding the role), and how these perceptions affect the negativity and aggressiveness of their responses and the degree to which they ruminate over conflict and remain hostile over time.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper builds on literature on humiliation, aggression, gender, and rumination and presents a correlational scenario study with 96 male graduate students from a large Northeastern University.

Findings

Males with high‐masculine gender‐role identities are more likely to perceive the social norms surrounding a humiliating conflictual encounter as privileging aggression, and to report intentions to act accordingly, than males with high‐feminine gender‐role identities. Furthermore, participants are more likely to ruminate about the conflict, and therefore maintain their anger and aggressive intentions a week later, when they perceive the situation to privilege aggression.

Research limitations/implications

This paper sheds light on how aspects of peoples' identities can affect their perceptions of social norms (i.e. whether or not aggression is condoned), and degrees of dysphoric rumination and aggression in conflict. Subsequent research should investigate the social conditions influencing these processes.

Originality/value

Research on the psychology of humiliation has identified it as a central factor in many intractable conflicts. However, this is the first study to begin to specify the nature of this relationship and to investigate it in a laboratory setting.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article

Sarah Mei Yi Chua and Duncan William Murray

The purpose of this paper is to study gender-based differences in information-processing impact on message perception, leading to women viewing the behavior of potentially…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study gender-based differences in information-processing impact on message perception, leading to women viewing the behavior of potentially toxic leaders more negatively than they are viewed by men.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 381 participants completed a series of measures of cue recognition items, collusion and conformity pertaining to a hypothetical toxic leadership scenario.

Findings

Results indicated that women perceived the toxic leader more negatively than men, elaborating more on negative message connotations, while men emphasized positives. Likewise, men recorded higher scores on their tendency to collude with the toxic leader compared to women. Evidence was also found that participants were more attuned to negative messages and behavior from a leader of the same gender.

Research limitations/implications

The Anglo-Celtic dominance of the sample is identified as a potential limitation. Further research exploring how not only gender, but age and cultural differences impact on how leaders are perceived is also proposed.

Practical implications

From a management standpoint understanding that men and women process information differently has worth in assisting in organizations more effectively structuring their intra-organizational communications. Gender-specific communications may help to offset perceptions of negativity toward leaders.

Originality/value

This study is the first to consider how gender-based information-processing differences may influence whether a leader is perceived as toxic by male and female followers. It also suggests that gender interaction effects may be critical when considering how leaders, particularly toxic leaders, are viewed by employees.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article

Linda D. Peters, Suvi Nenonen, Francesco Polese, Pennie Frow and Adrian Payne

This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework based on the identification and examination of the mechanisms (termed “viability mechanisms”) under which market-shaping…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework based on the identification and examination of the mechanisms (termed “viability mechanisms”) under which market-shaping activities yield the emergence of a viable market: one able to adapt to the changing environment over time while remaining stable enough for actors to benefit from it.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses extant literature to build a conceptual framework identifying viability mechanisms for market shaping and a case illustration examining how a viable market for Finnish timber high-rise buildings was created. The case exemplifies how the identified viability mechanisms are practically manifested through proactive market shaping.

Findings

The proposed conceptual framework incorporates four viability mechanisms identified in the extant literature: presence of dissipative structures, consonance among system elements, resonance among system elements and reinforcing and balancing feedback loops. It illustrates how these mechanisms are manifested in a contemporary case setting resulting in a viable market.

Practical implications

First, firms and other market-shaping organizations should look for, or themselves foster, viability mechanisms within their market-shaping strategies. Second, as failure rates in innovation are extremely high, managers should seek to identify or influence viability mechanisms to avoid premature commercialization of innovations.

Originality/value

This study identifies how these viability mechanisms permit markets to emerge and survive over time. Further, it illuminates the workings of the non-linear relationship between actor-level market-shaping actions and system-level market changes. As such, it provides a “missing link” to the scholarly and managerial discourse on market-shaping strategies. Unlike much extant market-shaping literature, this study draws substantively on the systems literature.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article

Linda D Peters and Andrew D Pressey

– This paper aims to explore the necessary mechanisms for coordination in complex industrial networks which are temporary in nature, known as temporary organisations (TOs).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the necessary mechanisms for coordination in complex industrial networks which are temporary in nature, known as temporary organisations (TOs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on two in-depth case studies conducted in the UK construction industry.

Findings

The paper outlines the necessary mechanisms for coordination in TOs – referred to as “scaffolding practices” – which ensure consistency (stability in terms of thinking and action), consensus (agreement) and co-constitutiveness (personal pledges and commitments).

Research limitations/implications

The study provides practical implications for situations where actors create temporary organisational specific logics. This “logic” helps explain how actors are able to undertake tasks of finite duration where members lack familiarity and have competing loyalties.

Originality/value

The paper is novel in that it represents the first extant attempt to examine “temporary industrial organizations” where individuals from different (often competing) organisations collaborate on a task for a defined period and suggests how coordination may be achieved.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Content available
Article

Prajowal Manandhar, Prashanth Reddy Marpu and Zeyar Aung

We make use of the Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) data to extract the total extent of the roads using remote sensing images. VGI data is often provided only as…

Abstract

We make use of the Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) data to extract the total extent of the roads using remote sensing images. VGI data is often provided only as vector data represented by lines and not as full extent. Also, high geolocation accuracy is not guaranteed and it is common to observe misalignment with the target road segments by several pixels on the images. In this work, we use the prior information provided by the VGI and extract the full road extent even if there is significant mis-registration between the VGI and the image. The method consists of image segmentation and traversal of multiple agents along available VGI information. First, we perform image segmentation, and then we traverse through the fragmented road segments using autonomous agents to obtain a complete road map in a semi-automatic way once the seed-points are defined. The road center-line in the VGI guides the process and allows us to discover and extract the full extent of the road network based on the image data. The results demonstrate the validity and good performance of the proposed method for road extraction that reflects the actual road width despite the presence of disturbances such as shadows, cars and trees which shows the efficiency of the fusion of the VGI and satellite images.

Details

Applied Computing and Informatics, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-1964

Keywords

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Article

Rob Elkington, Noel James Pearse, Jennifer Moss, Madeleine Van der Steege and Suzanne Martin

The purpose of this paper is to develop a clear answer to the question “how is leadership developed?” This research utilized the knowledge of leadership development…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a clear answer to the question “how is leadership developed?” This research utilized the knowledge of leadership development experts and their collective expertise to identify the critical elements required for a high-quality leadership development program.

Design/methodology/approach

The Lockean Inquiring System approach to the Delphi technique was used to solicit the views of experts in leadership and leadership development from around the world. Experts for Round 1 of the Delphi were drawn from a random sampling of 100 people, comprising leadership researchers, coaches, and organizational leaders, not personally known to the lead researcher of this project, but in his LinkedIn network. A response rate of 13 percent (n=13) yielded a rich range of qualitative data. Responses from the first round of the Delphi were analyzed using open coding and categorized into four themes, representing four sets of competencies required of leaders.

Findings

The four themes were labeled as contextual, human capital, social capital, and structural capital, all of which were seen by participants as being central to the development of collective leadership. Based on these themes, this paper identifies a useful list of key leadership development tactics from which those wishing to develop a leadership program can work.

Research limitations/implications

As the first round of a Delphi study, the authors are limited to presenting only the key elementary empirical judgments. Subsequent study with an expanded sample size and a refined set of questions rooted in the current data will contribute further to the development of factual propositions related to leadership development for the twenty-first century. The Delphi survey is a “snapshot” approach and presents a holographic-type image of the complex whole. The authors plan to triangulate the data by significantly expanding the pool of Delphi experts and conducting the Round 1 survey a second time with a larger international group of respondents that fit the criteria of expert.

Practical implications

This paper presents four dimensions of an effective leadership development strategy.

Originality/value

Core elements of the best methods for leadership development have been identified by leadership development experts, which serve as a basis for developing leadership as a collective, and for further research.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article

Joona Keränen and Daniel D. Prior

This paper highlights the suitability, application and fruitful opportunities for ethnographic methodologies in contemporary B2B service research.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper highlights the suitability, application and fruitful opportunities for ethnographic methodologies in contemporary B2B service research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a literature review and conceptual analysis of ethnographic research methodology and B2B service literatures.

Findings

This paper discusses the central features of ethnographic research methodologies, their key differences to other qualitative methodologies, key trends in contemporary B2B service research and opportunities for ethnographic research methodologies in selected priority areas.

Research limitations/implications

This paper highlights the opportunities, unique strengths and specific advantages of ethnographic research methodologies to advance B2B service research and theory development.

Practical implications

This paper encourages B2B firms to undertake ethnographic field projects to better understand customers’ roles, experiences and usage processes that relate to B2B services.

Originality/value

Ethnographic research approaches have been largely overlooked or neglected in B2B service research. This paper highlights their potential, suggests areas for application and encourages B2B service researchers to adopt ethnographic approaches to delve deeper into the social and cultural aspects of B2B services

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Article

Zhenzhen Zhao and Jiandi Feng

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of spatio-temporal dynamics and the evolution of land use change is essential for understanding and assessing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of spatio-temporal dynamics and the evolution of land use change is essential for understanding and assessing the status and transition of ecosystems. Such analysis, when applied to Horqin sandy land, can also provide basic information for appropriate decision-making.

Design/methodology/approach

By integrating long time series Landsat imageries and geographic information system (GIS) technology, this paper explored the spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution-induced land use change of the largest sandy land in China from 1983 to 2016. Accurate and consistent land use information and land use change information was first extracted by using the maximum likelihood classifier and the post-classification change detection method, respectively. The spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution were then analyzed using three kinds of index models: the dynamic degree model to analyze the change of regional land resources, the dynamic change transfer matrix and flow direction rate to analyze the change direction, and the barycenter transfer model to analyze the spatial pattern of land use change.

Findings

The results indicated that land use in Horqin sandy land during the study period changed dramatically. Vegetation and sandy land showed fluctuating changes, cropland and construction land steadily increased, water body decreased continuously, and the spatial distribution patterns of land use were generally unbalanced. Vegetation, sandy land and cropland were transferred frequently. The amount of vegetation loss was the largest. Water body loss was 473.6 km2, which accounted for 41.7 per cent of the total water body. The loss amount of construction land was only 1.0 km2. Considerable differences were noted in the rate of gravity center migration among the land use types in different periods, and the overall rate of construction land migration was the smallest. Moreover, the gravity center migration rates of the water body and sandy land were relatively high and were related to the fragile ecological environment of Horqin sandy land.

Originality/value

The results not only confirmed the applicability and effectiveness of the combined method of remote sensing and GIS technology but also revealed notable spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution-induced land use change throughout the different time periods (1983-1990, 1990-2000, 2000-2010, 2010-2014, 2014-2016 and 1983-2016).

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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